This article defines the characteristics of Korean vegetarianism by tracing the changes in the core motives revealed in the historical development of the vegetarian movement that started in the West. We further explore and compare the limitations of the vegetarian movement conceived in the West with the essential values, ‘How can Korean vegetarian culture gain the upper hand?’. Our results indicate that the sequential changes of the motives inherent to the flow of the modern vegetarian movement were , , and . This settled the transition from ‘vegetarianism as an ideological form’ to ‘vegetarianism as a lifestyle’, making it a more becoming way of life. However, along with the spread of ‘vegetarian lifestyle as a form of life’, commercial vegetarianism, which overshadows the essential value of vegetarianism, continued to flourish due to the modern capitalist industrial system. To curb commercialization, the necessity arose to establish a new vegetarian diet with a propensity towards an ‘ecological-environmental point of view’. Thus, in order to establish the term and concept of a vegetarian diet for Korean vegetarian characteristics, we propose the formation of a vegetarian term and concept suitable for the Korean vegetarian culture.
This study investigated the potential role of dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. The scoping review method was used to evaluate the studies that utilized the secondary data sets comprising the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Articles published between 2012 and 2022 were identified using RISS, KISS, DBpia, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases. In all, there were 32 published articles on obesity and 119 on MetS. Obesity research included eight articles on nutrients, 12 on food items/food groups, two on dietary patterns, nine on dietary behavior/eating habits, and one on the dietary index. MetS studies comprised 34 articles on nutrients, 43 on food items/food groups, seven on dietary patterns, 25 on dietary behavior/eating habits, and 10 on the dietary index. Carbohydrates, alcohol, and coffee consumption were the most frequently studied dietary factors for obesity and MetS. The primary areas of study were largely focused on nutrients and food items/food groups. Thus, to overcome the paucity of information on the relationship of dietary patterns and dietary indexes with obesity and MetS, there is a need for further research using the KNHANES and KoGES data sets.
This study aimed to investigate the need for dietary education and programs for young Koreans belonging to singleperson households in the metropolitan area. A total of 500 young adults aged 19-34 participated in the study through an online survey. Participants responded to questions on general characteristics, dietary problems, and the need for dietary education and programs. The subjects were divided into three groups as follows: Undergraduate students, employed workers, and others. Among the subjects from single-person households, 20.2, 67, and 12.8% were undergraduate students, employed workers, and others, respectively. When asked for their estimation of an appropriate self-pay when participating in a cooking class, 39.8% of total subjects responded ‘5,000-10,000 won’. The most preferred program for young adults in single-person households was the ‘support food package’. For the preferred method of dietary education, undergraduate students showed a greater preference for classes ‘at campuses’. However, employed workers and others had a higher preference for ‘non-face-to-face online classes’. Undergraduate students tended to generally have a higher preference for dietary education and support programs compared to employed workers and others. This study provides data that will be useful for establishing healthy dietary policies and education programs for young single-person households in Korea.
Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive precursor which forms advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs and methylglyoxal are known to induce various diseases such as diabetes, vascular disorders, Diabetes Mellitus (DM), and neuronal disorders. Juglans regia L is an important food commonly used worldwide, having nutritious components, including phenolic compounds. Since ancient times, Juglans regia L have been differently applied by various countries for health and in diverse diseases, including arthritis, asthma, skin disorders, cancer, and diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of diabetes-induced renal damage against AGEs remains unclear. This study evaluates the anti-glycation and renal protective effects of ethanol extract of Juglans regia L against methylglyoxal-induced renal tubular epithelial cell death. Exposure to methylglyoxal resulted in reduced cell viability in NRK-52E cells, but co-treatment with Juglans regia L extracts significantly increased the cell viability. In addition, we examined the anti-glycation effect of Juglans regia L extracts. Compared to the positive control aminoguanidine and Alagebrium, treatment with Juglans regia L extracts significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs, collagen cross-linking, and breaking collagen cross-linking. Taken together, our results indicate that Juglans regia L is a potential therapeutic agent for regulating diabetic complications by exerting anti-glycation and renal protective activities.
This study compares the quality characteristics of Jeung-pyun prepared by supplementing with rice mash of various cultivars. Results showed high contents of crude protein and crude ash in Saeilmi. The highest and lowest amylose contents were obtained in Goami4 and Baekjinju, respectively. Saeilmi had the highest water absorption index (WAI) of rice flour, whereas the highest water-soluble index (WSI) was obtained in Baekokchal. Maximum viscosity, minimum viscosity, and breakdown were high in Baekjinju, and high cooling viscosity and setback levels were determined in Goami4. The sugar content, total free sugar, and pH of the rice mash were highest in Baekjinju. The highest volume of Jeung-pyun was obtained with Saeilmi supplementation, whereas the specific volume was highest in Baekokchal. Evaluation of L, a, and b color values of Jeung-pyun revealed the maximum L value in Saeilmi, a value in Goami4, and b value in Baekjinju. The physical properties of Jeung-pyun were lower in all supplemented groups compared to the control group for hardness, adhesiveness, and chewiness. The lowest chewiness was obtained in Baekokchal-supplemented Jeung-pyun. We conclude that supplementation with different varieties of rice affects the quality characteristics of Jeung-pyun, which are important factors for manufacturing processed foods.
The Cheonggukjang used in this study was made with four soybean cultivars grown and harvested at the National Agrobiodiversity Center of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences: C1 (KLS87248), C2 (Nongrim 51), C3 (GNU- 2007-14613), and C4 (Daewon). The soybeans were inoculated with Bacillus subtilis AFY-2 and fermented for 0, 12, 21, 36, 45, and 60 h in a culture room at 35°C. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly increased upon fermentation for 12 hours in all samples and maintained or decreased after 21 hour The inhibition of NO production was significantly increased compared to the LPS-treated group, and the C2 sample showed inhibition of NO production at 12 hours of fermentation, and the C3 sample showed inhibition at 21 hours of fermentation. PCA analysis revealed that the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and NO production inhibitory activity reached peak levels around 12 h fermentation time for all samples. Our results indicate that the optimal fermentation time of the Cheonggukjang sample is 12 hours, confirming the high correlation of all experiments.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of madeleines prepared using varying amounts of roasted black soybean flour (RBF). The RBF was used to substitute 0% (control group), 20% (RBF-20 group), 40% (RBF-40 group) and 60% (RBF-60 group) of weak flour (WF) in the manufacture of madeleine. The substitution of WF with RBF showed decreased the pH but increased the sugar concentration of the batter (p<0.01). Low lightness (L) and low yellowness (b) were observed in the experimental groups at high ratios of RBF substitution (p<0.05). The experimental groups of madeleines showed higher hardness and chewiness than the control group (p<0.001). The principal component analysis of the RBF- 60 experimental group, which had the highest proportion of RBF, showed that it had relatively strong characteristics with respect to “darkness”, “soybean odor”, “sesame odor”, “grains odor”, “savory flavor”, “sweetness”, “black soybean taste”, and “moistness”. The acceptance test results, showed that the RBF-20 experimental group was similar to the control group with respect to “odor acceptance”, “taste acceptance”, and “texture acceptance”. Thus, this study confirmed the possibility of using RBF for the preparation of madeleines.
This study aimed to determine the changes in the vitamin B5 content of raw and cooked vegetables. The nineteen vegetables were subjected to different cooking methods, viz. blanching, boiling, pan-broiling, and steaming. Vitamin B5 was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using photodiode-array (PDA) detection (200 nm). The standard reference materials (SRM) were used to validate the accuracy of vitamin B5 measurement method used in this study. The cooking yields ranged from 82.63 to 107.62% and decreased in most of the vegetables except bitter melon, curled mallow, and eggplant. The raw kabocha squash, Danhobak, had the highest vitamin B5 content (0.671 mg/ 100 g) among the samples. All cooked vegetables showed lower vitamin B5 content compared to the raw samples. The true retention ranged from 0% (crown daisy, blanching) to 84.49% (kabocha squash, steaming). These results indicate that vitamin B5 is degraded after cooking. Pan-broiling and steaming are better cooking methods than the others for retaining vitamin B5. The true retention of vitamin B5 in the samples markedly depends on the cooking method and food matrix. These results can be used as important basic data for nutritional evaluation of meals.
This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of cereal bars containing various concentrations (0, 10, 20, or 30%) of apple pomace (AP). Highest vitamin B1 and C contents were observed in 30% AP-containing bars, but vitamin B2 and B3 contents were highest in the control (0.347 and 3.566 mg/100 g, respectively). Cutting strength decreased significantly in an AP concentration-dependent manner. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in 10% AP bars were 2.949±0.157 mg of GAE/g and 1.001±0.009 mg of CE/g, respectively. Antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring free radical scavenging activities, and 10% AP bars had the highest activities, as determined by ABTS (2,2'azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (α-α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assays (0.412±0.008 and 0.492±0.021 mg GAE/g, respectively). These results suggested that apple pomace should be regarded a potential nutritional and antioxidant source.
The purpose of this study was to confirm the quality characteristics of distilled soju with different rice pretreatment processes. The non-steamed fermentation method is a technology that uses starch to produce saccharification and alcohol without going through the steaming of raw materials. It has advantages such as reduction of manpower and cost, prevention of nutrient loss, and minimization of waste water. In this study, rice used were non-steamed and pulverized 'Baromi2', nonsteamed and steamed ‘Samgwang’, and puffed rice. As the fermenting agent, koji, modified nuruk, N9 yeast, and purified enzyme were used, and lactic acid was added to prevent contamination during fermentation. The amount of water was 300% in total, and after the first watering, 5 days after fermentation, the second watering was carried out. As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the non-steamed fermentation method using ‘Baromi’ was superior to the existing fermentation method in terms of temperature during fermentation, final alcohol content, soluble solids, and pH. By expanding the stability of the production technology of non-steamed fermentation technology, product quality improvement can be expected.