The purpose of this research was to investigate consumers' perceptions of foods that are most compatible with traditional Korean liquors. The study participants were a total of 402 customers who visited traditional Korean bars. Thirty-eight percent of the participants drank alcohol once or twice a week, and overall, 79% drank with friends or co-workers. Forty-three percent spent 30,000-40,000 won on alcoholic drinks, and half of them frequently drank distilled Soju whereas 27% drank beer. Those who drank traditional Korean liquor chose to do so because they viewed it as good for their health and the beverage was tasty. Participants selected Yakju/Baekseju (47.5%), Bokbunjaju (21.1%), and Takju/Makgeoli (8.2%) as the most compatible Korean traditional liquors with Korean traditional foods. The most compatible foods with Yakju were identified as Haemulpajeon (11.8%), Dubukimchi (9.8%), and Bossam/Suyuk/Pyeonyuk (7.5%). Bokbunjaju was viewed as a good match with Jangeogui (8.1%), Hunjeori (6.5%), and Saengseonhoe (6.4%). The respondents perceived Deodeokgui (6.7%), Saengseonhoe (5.9%), and Dubukimchi (5.6%) as the most compatible foods with Yakju with mushrooms. Chengju was viewed as a good pairing with Eomuktang (9.2%), Altang/Maeuntang (7.2%), and Saengseonhoe (6.8%). The respondents thought Takju went well with Haemulpajeon (17.7%), Dubukimchi (14.2%), and Kimchijeon (11.7%). And finally, Altang/Maeuntang (11.8%), Samgyeopsalgui (8.7%), and Honghaptang/Jogaetang (8.1%) were mentioned as the most compatible foods with distilled Soju.
This study was conducted to evaluate changes in food consumption during the 1950's on the basis of articles that reflected national policy and changes in society during that time period. Many factors are involved in the development and changes in food consumption culture, and these factors can affect each other. As a result, the process involved in the development of food consumption culture acts as a living system. This study evaluated the food consumption culture during the 1950's because this period was subjected to obvious influences that may explain the modern food consumption market logic and commercialism. Changes in the national food consumption are dependent on natural changes such as income enlargement or cultural exchange with a foreign country. Accordingly, food consumption during the 1950's was influenced by changes in economical, social, and political needs. In addition, the influx of surplus agricultural products from the United States had an adverse effect on local agriculture and resulted in an increased external dependence on food during the 1950s. Moreover, the import of raw materials and simple manufacturing techniques led to the development of an industrial food processing industry that enabled accelerated mass production of food at a low-price. Furthermore, the importation of surplus agricultural products from the United States that were used as the raw materials for foods that had traditionally been produced domestically led to an increased burden and qualitative decline in the local food-service industry. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that during the 1950's fresh food began to be replaced with processed foods in Korea.
This study was conducted to generate fundamental data required by food coordinators and food space creators for planning and directing table settings. The results of this study were then used to suggest an ideal model of table settings for Korean-style food equipped with simple, sophisticated, and practical characteristics. Specifically, this study evaluated the importance of hygiene (safety, cleanness, arrangement), decoration (dignity, form, stylishness, presentation of food on plates), naturalness (seasonal beauty, comfortableness, natural beauty), and modernity (modern style, chic style, urban style). These factors were evaluated according to the preference of the table setting and the characteristics of the meeting, which fit various meal cultures, times, places, and objectives. The results of this study indicate that people prefer hygiene and decoration for family meetings (bansang setting), hygiene and modernity for friendly meetings (simple buffet setting), hygiene and decoration for company meetings (simple buffet setting), and hygiene and decoration for academic meetings (tea party). Hygiene and decoration were highly evaluated in most cases, which indicates that individuals at meetings for special purposes give weight to the meeting's atmosphere, but also consider the hygiene and cleanliness of the food.
Alcoholic beverages can be viewed as repositories of historical information reflecting agricultural environment, economic and scientific level, religion, literature and art of their country. Korean Alcoholic beverages are based largely on rice, which have been developed in the following order: Takju, Cheongju and distilled spirits, Soju. They are closely related with the development of agriculture and historical levels of science and technology, and thus can be seen as symbolizing economic and political changes as well as rises and declines throughout the culture's history. The present review assessed the past and present flows of Korean alcoholic beverage culture, which has had a significant influence on the mental world of Korean people, based on literature concerning the history of food in Korea. Another focus of the study was a discussion on the future transmission and refining of Korean alcoholic beverage culture, which is undeniably informed by the Korean people's unique imagination and cultural sense.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the sanitary management status of chlorine sterilization methods used for raw fruits in a school foodservice, and to suggest basic data for sanitary improvements in the quality of raw fruits. A questionnaire form predicated on HACCP standards was developed and utilized for self-reported evaluations of dietitians regarding their sanitary management practices. The subjects consisted of 257 dietitians that were employed in school (elementary middle high school) foodservices. The collected data were analyzed with the SAS package. According to the results of this study, it was deemed necessary that optimized sterilization and washing methods for good microbiological safety and quality of strawberries and bananas in school foodservice should be determined. Some strategies for future improvement were also suggested. They included the following: (1) Improvement of policy for assuring the quality of raw fruits by designing some sanitation standards and specifications for raw fruits; (2) Strengthening the research and accumulation of background data regarding methods for the sanitation of raw fruits; (3) Enforced improvement of personal hygiene for dietitians and employees; (4) Use of a variety of methods in sanitary education and employee training.
The purpose of the study was to assess the relative preference for hot & spicy sauces using conjoint analysis, with focus on English consumers. From the results of the study, we were able to derive a standard with the best sauce attributes. The respondent group was selected from the CCFRA's customer database. The qualification criteria for inclusion in the sample were: the primary grocery shopper in the household, a consumer of a range of home cooked oriental & far eastern cuisines, enjoyed hot & spicy chili-based foods, and willing to buy hot chili-based oriental sauces. A total of 676 respondents completed the survey in which 76% were women, and all respondents were between the ages of 18 and 65 years. An online survey method was used and a conjoint analysis was adopted. In conjoint analysis, a product is described as a combination of a set of attribute levels, where a utility value is estimated for each attribute level. In summing up the results of this study, the sensory property (flavor) attribute was most important, the second was brand, and the third was price. For the sensory property attribute, a mild chili sauce of blended garlic, sugar, and lime scored highest. In terms of brand, Blue Dragon was selected as the best. The lesser known Korean Kochujang brand of "Hot&Joy" scored lowest with respect to brand value. Encouraging, however, was the description based on the Hot&Joy product: a hot chili sauce blended with ginger and garlic, which held appeal across age groups and genders. In terms of price, 75p per bottle had the best score.
This study examines the impact of the perception that employees of contract foodservice management companies have of internal marketing on service quality. Questionnaires were delivered to 291 employees employed in foodservice management companies. High perception item of internal marketing was 'value of formula education program' (3.36 points), whereas 'adequate allowance disbursement' (2.62 points) and 'various vacation benefits' (2.66 points) scored low. High service quality items for customers were 'kindness to customers' (3.89 points) and 'willingness to help customers' (3.89 points), whereas 'comprehension of customers' special requests' (3.63 point) and ['meeting customer expectations'] (3.64 points) scored low. The internal marketing conceived by employees of contract foodservice management companies has a positive influence on service quality. The most influential internal marketing variable to affect service quality was 'communication' followed by 'education/environment' and 'fringe benefits/[decisive] delegation'.
This study was conducted to determine the optimal cooking conditions for brown rice using an electric pressure rice cooker. The effects of steeping conditions and cooking pressure on the hydration, gelatinization, texture and palatable properties of cooked brown rice were evaluated. Based on water uptake and DSC data, the optimal steeping time and temperature for brown rice were determined to be 25 minutes and ~60℃, respectively. The cooking conditions for brown rice were then divided into the following 6 categories: steeping at 25℃ for 25 minutes and cooking at an atmospheric pressure of 1.7 (25P) or 1.9 (25HP), steeping at 57℃ for 25 minutes and cooking at an atmospheric pressure of 1.7 (57P) or 1.9 (57HP), steeping at 85℃ for 15 minutes and cooking at an atmospheric pressure of 1.7 (85P) or 1.9 (85HP). The susceptibility of cooked brown rice starch to degradation into maltose by α-amylase, which is related to the degree of gelatinization and in vitro digestibility, were then determined. The amount of maltose produced by cooked brown rice samples was highest in the 57HP group, followed by the 57P and 85HP groups. Storing cooked brown rice at 73℃ for 24 hours resulted in significantly higher amounts of starch being degraded into maltose in the 57P, 57HP and 85HP groups than in the other groups. Textural analysis demonstrated that the 57P, 57HP and 85HP groups had significantly lower gumminess and chewiness values when compared to the other groups, and that 57HP received had the lowest hardness of all treatments. These results were confirmed by the results of the sensory evaluations. Furthermore, the 57P and 57HP groups were found to have a higher glossiness, stickiness aroma and taste score than the other groups. These findings were taken to indicate that steeping conditions and pressure exerted a positive synergistic effect on the cooking quality of brown rice. The texture analyzer also revealed that storing the cooked rice at 73℃ for 24 hours only led to significantly lower scores in gumminess, hardness and chewiness in the 57P and 57HP groups, which indicates that these groups underwent a lesser degree of retrogradation than other groups. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that steeping brown rice at 57℃ for 25 minutes and a higher cooking pressure improved the palatability and in vitro digestibility of brown rice significantly.
본 연구에서는 장뇌삼 엽차의 활용 가능성을 확인하기 위하여 장뇌삼 잎의 성분분석 및 장뇌삼 엽차의 항산화효과를 비교하였으며, 고지방식이를 공급한 흰쥐에게 장뇌산삼 엽차를 7주간 공급한 후 혈청의 지방대사에 미치는 영향을 검토하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 장뇌삼 잎의 수분은 19.14%, 조회분은 6.64%, 조지방은 0.82%, 조단백질은 11.03%, 조섬유는 11.47%, 탄수화물은 62.37%를 나타내었고, 무기질 중에서는 칼륨이 2,111.38mg/100 g으로 가장 높은 함량을 나타내었다. 장뇌삼 잎에서는 카페인이 검출되지 않았으며, 1,170.48 mg/100 g의 탄닌이 함유되어 있으며, 조렉틴 함량은 5,540 mg/100 g으로 분석되었다. 전자공여능으로 측정한 항산화활성은 장뇌삼 엽차 추출물의 농도에 비례하여 증가하는 경향을 보였으며 특히 장뇌삼 엽차를 500 ppm로 처리 하였을 때에는 45% 이상의 높은 전자공여능을 나타내었다. 아질산염 소거능으로 측정한 항산화활성은 pH 3.0 보다 pH 6.0에서 높게 나타났으며, pH 6.0에서 250, 500, 1,000 ppm 농도로 처리했을 때 각각 23.47, 32.84, 51.41%를 나타내었다. 고지방식이를 7주간 급여하며 장뇌삼 엽차를 병행 투여하였을 때 식이섭취량은 고지방식이 급여 대조군과 장뇌삼 엽차를 병행 투여한 실험군 모두가 정상군에 비해 감소하였으며, 고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 장뇌삼 엽차 급여군은 약 6.4% 감소하였다. 체중 100 g당 간의 무게는 3.11±0.29 g인 정상군에 비해 4.82±0.08 g인 고지방 급여 대조군에서 유의적으로 증가하였으며, 장뇌삼 엽차 병행급여군도 고지방식이 급여 대조군과 유사한 경향을 나타내었다. 혈액 중 총 지방함량은 정상군에 비해 고지방식이 급여 대조군에서 66.2% 증가하였으며 장뇌삼 엽차 급여 시 고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 8.0% 감소를 나타내었으나 유의적이지는 않았다. 혈액 중 총콜레스테롤 함량은 정상군에 비해 고지방식이 급여 대조군에서 66.6% 증가하였으며, 장뇌삼 엽차 공급 시고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 감소하는 경향이었다. 혈액 중 중성지질 함량은 정상군에 비해 고지방식이 급여 대조군에서 172.5% 증가를 나타내었고, 장뇌삼 엽차 공급군은 고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 7.3% 감소하였다. 혈액 중 HDL-콜레스테롤 함량은 정상군에 비해 고지방식이 급여로 36.4%의 유의한 감소를 나타내었으며, 장뇌삼 엽차를 병행급여하였을 경우 정상군과 유사한 수준이었다. 이상의 결과에서 장뇌삼엽차의 항산화활성 및 지질대사 개선효과 등을 통해 장뇌삼엽차의 개발 및 산업화에 대한 기초자료를 얻었으며 추가 실험을 통한 연구가 필요할 것으로 사료된다.
본 연구는 재배종 감자 덩이줄기에 존재하는 glycoalkaloid (PGA) 중 특히 α-chaconine, α-solanine, demessine을 산가수분해 처리하여 분해 생성물인 아그리콘 및 배당체를 분석하는 방법으로 PGA의 정량 가능 유무를 조사하였다. 1. 표준품의 solanidine을 1 N-HCl로 가수분해하면 산 가수분해 반응 10분 후부터 solanidine이 급속하게 감소하였고 새로운 피크가 급증하였다. 이 피크를 GC-MS로 분석한 결과, 분자 이온 피크(M+=379)가 검출되어 이 물질을 solanthrene으로 분류하였다. 이 solanidine-solanthrene의 반응은 시간의 경과에 따라 진행되었다. 2. 표준품의 demissidine을 solanidine과 같은 방법으로 가수분해하여 GC-MS로 분석한 결과, solanidine의 경우와는 상이하게 solanthrene는 검출되지 않았고 demissidine (M+=399, 204,150)의 피크만이 검출되었다. 이로써 demissidine은 산 가수분해 처리에 의한 분해가 일어나지 않는 것을 추측 할 수 있었다. 3. α-chaconine, α-solanine, demessine를 산분해하면 α-chaconine과 α-solanine은 solanidine에서 solanthrene으로 분해 반응이 일어났다. 이 두 물질의 아그리콘인 solandine을 측정하는 방법으로는 PGA량을 산출하는 것은 불가능하리라 생각된다. 그러나 산 분해에 의해 생성된 배당체는 매우 안정하여 이 배당체의 당함량을 측정하여 이 두 물질의 PGA 함량을 산출하는 것은 가능하였다. demissine는 산 분해에 의해 생성된 아그리콘(demissidine)은 매우 안정하여 생성된 아그리콘의 양으로부터 demissine 함량을 산출하는 것은 가능하였다.
The principal objective of this study was to investigate the influence of buckwheat sprouts on the acid production and growth of lactic acid bacteria in to which 5 and 10%(w/v) buckwheat sprouts was added, followed by fermentation with Lactobacillus bulgaricus. In yogurt to which 5 and 10% buckwheat sprouts was added, pH was lower and titratable acidity was higher than those of the control. It was also noted significant changes in the number of viable cell counts with differing amounts of added buckwheat sprouts until 12 hours. When the yogurt samples were stored for 12 days at 4℃, the pH and titratable acidity of the yogurt to which 5 and 10% buckwheat sprouts was added were maintained at lower and higher than control levels, respectively. The highest number of viable cell counts was found in the yogurt to which 5% buckwheat sprouts was added. Rutin content was reduced via lactic acid fermentation, but quercetin content increased significantly in the yogurt with added buckwheat sprouts. It may be that the glycosidic bonds connected to rutin were hydrolyzed during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The total phenol compound content of the yogurt samples also increased after fermentation. The antioxidative activity of yogurt to which 10% buckwheat sprouts was added was shown to have a 60.95% free radical scavenging effect, which was the highest among all yogurt samples evaluated.
This study was conducted to identify the factors associated with weight control and nutritional knowledge of juvenile delinquents. The average heights of the subjects in this study were 172.20 cm (male) and 160.89 cm (female), and the average weights were 66.73 kg (male) and 58.42 kg (female), and the BMIs (Body Mass Index; kg/m2) were 22.46 (male) and 22.54 (female). The results of this study revealed that 41.4% of the subjects were over weight or obese. In addition, there were significant differences in the BMI, satisfaction with body image and perception of body image observed between male and female subjects. Furthermore, female subjects were more experienced at weight control than male students (p〈0.001). Additionally, overweight and obese individuals had more experience with weight control than subjects that were not overweight. Moreover, there were significant differences in the reason that subjects took weight control measured between male and female students. Specifically, female subjects practiced weight control due to their appearance (p〈0.001). The order of methods by which male subjects attempted to control their weight was exercise〉diet control〉starvation and for girl student were diet control〉starvation〉excercise. The nutritional knowledge scores were higher for female subjects than for mele subjects. In addition, the nutritional knowledge scores increased as the BMI value increased and the father˚Øs educational level increased. These results of this study could be useful data to plan and develop nutritional education programs for juvenile delinquents.
This study was conducted to investigate whether there is a difference in calcium intake between elementary school students who are participating in the school milk program and those who are not. The study samples consisted of 240 milk program participants and 120 non-participants in the fifth and the sixth grades at a school located in Cheong-ju. The survey questionnaire included questions related to general status, drinking milk at school, and intake of milk and dairy products at home. An FFQ (food frequency questionnaire) was composed of 30 calcium-supplying foods, which surveyed the normal intake amount at one time and the frequency per month. The average daily intake of calcium by the participants (1052.3 mg) was higher than that of the non-participants (772.5 mg) by 279.8 mg, and the major consumed food item contributing to the difference was milk. The major sources of dietary calcium were 'milk' for the participants and 'ice cream' for the non-participants. In a question asking the reasons for participation in the program, 48.8% of the participants answered 'benefits to health', and the primary reason why the nonparticipants did not drink milk at school was 'stomach pain' (55.0%). Among the participants, 80.4% said they 'are drinking milk at home', which was in contrast to only 50.8% of the non-participants. And 48.7% the participants said they drank 'more than 1 cup' of milk at home, and 47.5% of the non-participants said they drank 'less than 1 cup'.