This research intended to conduct literary research on ‘Jeok’ of 25 jong-ga through Jong-ga Ancestral Ritual Formalities and Food, published by the Cultural Heritage National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage during 2003~2008, and compared and analyzed an arranging method and recipe transmission process by directly visiting four Jong-ga. Religious ceremony foods of Jong-ga could be divided according to the standard of the hakpa attribute (large), regional attribute (midium), and family attribute (small), which forms a complex connection structure between the attributes. ‘Jeok’ arranging form is divided into ‘3-Jeok building method (vertical structure)’, ‘3-Jeok arrangement method (horizontal structure)’, ‘3- Jeok replacement method’, ‘2-Jeok arrangement method’, ‘Jeon-Jeok arrangement method’, and ‘Others-Jeok arrangement method’. Generally, ‘jeok’ arrangement order per hakpa is in the order of ‘meat jeok - chicken jeok - fish jeok’ in case of Gihohakpa, whereas Yeongnamhakpa is in the order of ‘fish jeok - meat jeok - chicken jeok’. Umoringye (羽毛 鱗介), the method of laying ‘dojeok’ of the Gyeongbuk region, could be found in the 2nd century B.C. Chinese ancient book Hoenamja and the theoretical background was Yin and yang philosophy (陰陽論). This research has significance in terms of securing advanced results compared to advanced research that has so far concentrated on some regions and hakpas.
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in nutritional knowledge and food preferences according to foodrelated lifestyle among 400 married women. Using the K-average clustering method, food-related lifestyles of subjects were categorized into three clusters: rational and diversity-oriented group, convenience-oriented group, and health-oriented group. The nutritional knowledge level and food preferences among three clusters were compared to each other using ANOVA test. The findings were summarized as follows: For the nutritional knowledge level, health-oriented group showed the highest mean score, whereas the lowest score was detected in the convenience-oriented group. The convenienceoriented group showed higher preferences for fish, meat, eggs, fruits, milk/dairy products, seaweed, grains, etc. among natural food than the other groups. Meanwhile, the rational and diversity-oriented group preferred legumes, and green vegetables, whereas the health-oriented group showed preferences for other vegetables. However, the convenience-oriented group reported more preferences for breads, noodles, pancakes, fried/stir-fried food, and processed food such as sausage, ham, and fast food, This study found that nutritional knowledge level and food preferences were significantly different according to food-related lifestyles of married women living in Seoul and Gyonggie areas. Thus, it is suggested that nutritional education targeting married women needs to be carefully designed by considering their food-related lifestyle.
Traditionally, food and medicines are considered as having common roots. That is, their energies share the same source (藥食同源), which has created a unique food culture, and nurtured a unique academic area of dietary medicine (藥膳食料 學). This study aimed to develop a desirable dietary life-style based on the oriental dietary medicine theorem originated from the schema of four qi as well as five flavors of foods (四氣五味), originated from the yin-yang and five phase theory based on a clear understanding of a modern point of view, and experimental analysis of nutrients and dietary effects of clear heat effect materials. This study can promote more healthy life-styles and prevent adult diseases by following oriental dietary medicine theory. We should develop a Yack-sun theory and dietary culture that is suitable for physical and genetic health.
The aim of this study was to investigate food culture represented by the grain yard, water well, kitchen, and meat storage space which were depicted in the mural painting of An-Ak tomb No. 3. The mural paintings of An-Ak tomb No. 3 were compared with those of ancient Chinese tombs before the 4th century in order to understand their characteristics. Above all, the tomb murals describe the form and function of the stove (buttumak) as well as the cuisine using the cauldron (sot) and steamer (siru) in a very interesting manner. The meat storage space of An-Ak tomb No. 3 shows whole carcasses of animals such as roe deer, dog, and pig. However, Chinese murals show that while small animals such as soft-shelled turtle, fish, chicken, duck, pheasant, rabbit, etc. were stored as whole carcasses without being cut into pieces, large animals such as cows and pigs were slaughtered and each piece of their carcasses such as the head, thigh, meat loaf, and cardiopulmonary part was separately depicted. These tomb murals vividly describe the food culture of Koguryo and China before the 4th century.
This study investigated the correlation between consumer’s buying habits and food styling visual elements. Differentiated and original techniques were used to determine whether or not visual elements in tteok menus reflect the aesthetic needs of consumers without altering the nutrition of tteok. The targeted tteok cafes were in Jeonju Hanok Village, which is a tourist attraction in Korea. First, sub-factors of food styling visual elements applied to tteok café menus such as shape, size/volume, color, and texture all had significantly positive effects on customer satisfaction, proving that food styling visual effects applied to tteok café menus have significant effects on customer satisfaction. Second, sub-factors of food styling visual elements applied to tteok café menus all had significantly positive effects on buying habits. Third, customer satisfaction of menus had a significant effect on buying habits, as proven by previous studies. Fourth, the effects of customer satisfaction on the relationship between food styling visual factors applied to tteok café menus and buying habits were investigated.
The purpose of this study was to identify the change attributes of food courts inside department stores or shopping centers, which are becoming more sophisticated and gentrified. A survey was conducted regarding customer satisfaction level of food services, which influences customers’ revisit behavioral intentions, to provide future development direction. Using an exploratory factor analysis, 55 questions on food and beverage service, atmosphere, comfort, sanitation, and food quality were produced. This study tested how these choice factors affect customers’ positive or negative impressions of their dining experiences through multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that ‘food service’ was the most important factor contributing to customers’ positive impressions along with higher revisit behavioral intentions. On the contrary, respondents who received poor ‘food service’ had higher negative impressions with low revisit intentions. The results and findings of this study will positively influence marketing and customer relationship management and thus help design of successful strategies for food court development.
In this study, sponge cakes were prepared with replacement of 1, 3, and 5% spergularia marina griseb powder. The specific gravity tended to increase as the ratio of spergularia marina griseb powder increased. The control group had higher moisture content, volume, and specific volume than the spergularia marina griseb powder samples. As the amounts of spergularia marina griseb powder increased, L and b value increased. In terms of textural characteristics, Sponge cake levels of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and brittleness increased as the amount of spergularia marina griseb powder additive increased. In the sensory evaluation, overall acceptability of 3% spergularia marina griseb powder was the highest. Based on the above results, sponge cake, made by addition of 3% spergularia marina griseb could be helpful in improving physical quality as well as taste enhanc the functionality of the product.
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of dried noodles prepared with strawberry powder in order to determine the most preferred noodle recipe for children’s school meals. The proximate composition of strawberry powder used was as follows: moisture, 3.39%; crude protein, 1.53%; crude lipid, 0.97%; crude ash, 0.82%; and carbohydrates, 93.29%. When viscosity of the composite strawberry powder-wheat flours was measured by amylograph. Gelatinization point, maximum viscosity, viscosity at 95oC and viscosity at 95oC after 15 min decreased as the level of strawberry powder increased. As the level of strawberry powder increased, both L and b color values decreased, whereas a value increased. Weight, water absorption and volume of cooked noodles decreased, whereas turbidity of soup increased. For textural properties, addition of strawberry powder to cooked noodles reduced hardness, chewiness and brittleness. Overall preference according to the results of the sensory evaluation, noodles added with 6% strawberry powder were the most preferred. According to the results, the addition of strawberry powder can positively affect the overall sensory evaluation of dried noodles, and 6% is the optimal level for addition.
Recently, food industries are increasingly interested in launching ethnic foods in the global market, but communicating sensory information to target consumers has been complicated due to the ambiguity and complexity of Korean sensory descriptors. This study was conducted to elicit various multidimensional sensory descriptors and their definitions using focus group interviews (FGI). Two consumer groups, consisting of 10 panelists in their 20s and 10 panelists in their 30-40s respectively, participated in the FGI. A total of 14 commonly used multidimensional sensory descriptors, including gamchilmat (감칠맛), gaeun (개운), goso (고소), gusu (구수), kkal-kkeum (깔끔), neu-kki (느끼), dambaek (담백), birin (비린), siwon (시원), sikeum (시큼), ssapssarae (쌉싸래), eolkeun (얼큰), jjapjoreum (짭조름), and kalkal (칼칼), were elicited. Their definitions showed that these descriptors not only were constructed using several sensory elements but also contained hedonic connotations. Descriptors such as gaeun, siwon, and kkal-kkeum were more closely associated with overall sensory impressions, including aftersensations and post-ingestive effects rather than sensory concepts. As individuals tend to weigh different elements to construct the concept for each multidimensional descriptor, further studies are required to identify elements consisting of these descriptors to develop better test methods and gain a clearer understanding of the sensory profiles of Korean foods.
The objective of this study was to determine sensory profiles of rice confections. The samples used in this study obtained from Korea (traditional Korea rice snack and local specialty rice snack) and three countries (USA, Japan, and China) were evaluated and compared. The sensory characteristics of five kinds of rice confections were evaluated using a sensory test and were analyzed via quantitative description analysis (QDA), principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). In the descriptive analysis, 10 trained panelists evaluated sensory characteristics consisting of 19 attributes, and there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the 16 characteristics. For the descriptive data, multivariate analysis of variance was carried out and identified differences among the samples. The PCA of rice confections for the first two principal components could explain 85.66% of the variations. The Korean, Japanese, and Chinese rice confections were savory, gritty, and particle-sized, the other Korean local specialty rice confections were fruity, sweet, honey-flavored, compact, and crispy, and those from the USA were glossy, grainy, bright, adhesive, cohesive, crispy, and sweet.