The study presented attempts to analyze and categorize Chosun’s food ingredients and culture through a Western perspective based on 32 representative Western documents pertaining to old Korea. Before modernization, Westerners visited Chosun during their visits to old China or Japan. Westerners were most active in Chosun from the open port period to the annexation of Korea to Japan occupation. They were teachers, missionaries, diplomats, and doctors visiting Chosun with personal goals. In 31 book traveler’s journal, it records Chosen’s mainly produced ingredients, such as grains, spices, fruits, cabbage, chicken, and chestnuts; foods from Chosen include kimchi, soup, and tofu. Foreigners especially liked foods made of eggs and chicken, but they did not enjoy Chosun’s lack of sugar and dairy. Thirty-one book foreigners’ records describe Chosun’s Ondol, kitchen, crock, fermented foods, low dining tables, and chopsticks. Chosun people liked dog meat, unrestrained drinking culture, sungnyung, and tea culture. Foreign documentation on Chosun’s food culture allows modern scholars to learn about Chosun people’s lifestyles, as if their lives were a vivid picture
The purpose of this study was to discuss how ‘milk’ was produced and supplied introduced and spread in the modern Joseon period. Condensed milk and powdered milk were mainly consumed in Joseon during the Japanese colonial period since they could be conveniently preserved for a long time, although raw milk was also produced and consumed. For areas adjacent to farms, milk delivery service was offered while areas with great consumption received an additional supply from different areas by rail. Since no manufacturing plants were operational in Korea, condensed milk and powdered milk consumed in Joseon had to be imported. In the case of condensed milk, when production in Japan increased, extra supply was aggressively sent into their colony, Joseon. The ‘Gyeongseong Milk Association’ founded in 1937 is considered significant in that it led to standardization of the production system and prices as well as pasteurization of milk. In the late Japanese colonial era, milk production and consumption were controlled. As milk was purchased as a war supply, the milk consumption market became distorted and limited
This study introduced 「Dongchundang Eumsikbeop」and examined its value as a reference. 「Dongchundang Eumsikbeop」is a recipe book from the Head House of Eunjin Song Clan. As the author is unknown, the book is named after where it was found.「Dongchundang Eumsikbeop」records the recipes for 32 total foods, including 12 types of fermented foods, eight types of liquor, and six types of side dishes, etc. In「Jusiksiui」, written by the same clan 100 years before, fermented foods account for 15% of its contents. On the other hand, this book assigns 34% of its space to fermented foods. It is assumed that the recipe book must have been compiled according to what households ate the most, as hostesses had to cook for their households due to financial difficulties at the time. In「Dongchundang Eumsikbeop」, baking soda and alum were used as leavening agents for confectionery while sugar-based caramelizing was used for making soy sources, implying that modern food techniques were already applied. In short, this book provides a glimpse into the wisdom of hostesses of the Head House who improved recipes to suit changing times while adhering to tradition.
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between school administrator support as perceived by nutrition teachers (dietitians) and job satisfaction in order to provide data concerning efficient job performance of nutrition teachers, to determine effects of school administrator support on job satisfaction in nutrition teachers, and to provide basic data that could help improve school meals. Major supporters of nutrition teachers (dietitians) were chief administrators (55.3%), principals (27.2%), assistant principals (15.0%), and managers in charge (2.4%). Nutrition teachers (dietitians) scored 3.38 for perception of school administrator support, 3.66 for emotional support, 3.27 for informational support, 3.22 for instrumental support, and 3.11 for evaluation support. Support of nutrition teachers (dietitians) by school managers included emotional support (3.66)>informational support (3.27)>instrumental support (3.22)>evaluative support (3.11). Nutrition teachers (dietitians) scored 3.37 for job satisfaction, as follows: work performance (4.19)>interpersonal relationships (3.39)>job satisfaction in general (3.37)>job itself (3.29)>job environment (3.07)>performance rating and benefits system (2.70). Statistically significant correlation was observed between perception of school administrator support and job satisfaction (r= .771, p< .01). Therefore, school administrators are necessary to provide evaluative supports to nutrition teachers (dietitians), performance assessment, employee benefit packages, and improvement of school meal plans and quality.
The purpose of this study was to investigate eating habits and dormitory foodservices’ satisfaction in university students using dormitory foodservice in the Jeollabuk-do Iksan area. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 195 students (86 male, 109 female). Many students (58.5%) ate less than two meals per day and spent around 30 min eating meals. The results show that snack and midnight meals were the main reasons (37.9%) for unhealthy eating habits. Main source of nutritional knowledge and information were TV and the Internet (58.5%), followed by friends and people (25.1%), nutrition books (10.3%), elective courses (4.6%), and newspapers and magazines (1.5%). Men had significantly higher satisfaction scores for nutrition, taste, diversity of menu, as well as hygiene of dormitory food court compared to women (p<0.05). Salty taste was the most important factor in evaluation of taste satisfaction, whereas sour taste was opposite. The reason for taste dissatisfaction in the dormitory food court was not salty enough, and it may be related with their eating habits. The results show that students need education for adequate knowledge and information about the relationship between health and nutrition.
This study was conducted to assess the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of Yanggaeng prepared with different concentrations of blackcurrant powder (0, 1.5, 3, and 4.5%). The moisture content ranged from 41.95% to 45.38%, exhibiting no significant differences between the groups. The pH gradually decreased with increasing levels of blackcurrant powder. The lightness (L) value decreased while redness (a) value increased with an increasing amount of blackcurrant powder. Hardness of the control group was lower than those of the treatment groups. Consumer acceptance test revealed no significant differences in surface color, smell, taste, and overall acceptability scores between the control and 3% added groups. The total polyphenol contents and total anthocyanin contents were 7.58~54.88 mg GAE/100 g and 0.00~4.20 mg C3G/100 g), respectively, which increased proportionally with increasing levels of blackcurrant powder. The antioxidant activity measured based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significantly higher in treatment groups than the control and increased as the concentration of blackcurrant powder increased. From the above results, blackcurrant powder up to 3% can be incorporated into Yanggaeng to satisfy taste and functional needs for consumers.
The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for development of vinegar-based sauce and menu for foodservice institution and restaurant. To accomplish this, importance-performance analysis (IPA) was adopted as the major research method by analyzing the overall perception and characteristics of purchasing of vinegar-based sauce. A significant difference was detected in all items except package design for importance and satisfaction (p<0.01). Highest importance and satisfaction were determined for taste and convenience, respectively. Price and additive belonged to quadrant 2, where level of importance is low but satisfaction is high. Preference and satisfaction showed significant differences in all items (p<0.05). Meat and seafood belonged to quadrant 2 where level of importance is low but satisfaction is high. Developing a variety of vinegar-based sauces that meet consumers' well-being needs is needed
The objectives of this study were to investigate the quality characteristics of Jeungpyun added with goji berry powder (0, 2, 4, 6%) and to develop functional Jeungpyun as snack for the elderly. The volume of batter without goji berry powder increased 2.9 times after 4 hrs of fermentation, whereas those with 2, 4, and 6% goji berry powder increased 1.8~1.9 times. The pH and brix of the batter increased by increasing the concentration of goji berry powder. The expansion volume of Jeungpyun decreased by increasing the concentration of goji berry powder. The pH of Jeungpyun was higher than that of Jeungpyun batter in all groups. However, the brix of Jeungpyun was lower than that of Jeungpyun batter in all groups. The L value of Jeungpyun decreased, whereas a and b values increased by increasing the concentration of goji berry powder. The consumer acceptability score was higher in the elderly than in university students. Jeungpyun with 4% goji berry powder had best ratings in taste and overall preference. The DPPH free radical scavenging antioxidant activity of Jeungpyun significantly increased with increasing concentration of goji berry powder. Therefore, goji berry Jeungpyun is available as a snack for the elderly and can be added to goji berry powder up to 4%.
The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. water and 70% ethanol extracts. The content of total polyphenol was significantly higher in water extract than in 70% ethanol extract. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of water extract was similar to that of Vit. C at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. The ABTS radical scavenging activities of water and 70% ethanol extract were similar to that of Vit. C at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. SOD-like activity of water extract was higher than that of 70% ethanol extract at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL but lower than that of Vit. C. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and SOD-like activity increased as concentrations of water and 70% ethanol extracts increased. Cell cytotoxicity was not observed at all concentrations except at 100 μg/mL concentration of water extract. Inhibitory activity on NO production effect of water extract was significantly higher than that of 70% ethanol extract. These results show that E. caryophyllata Thunb. has potent biological activities, and their activities were different depending on extraction solvent.
Kunrak, a type of Korea traditional cheese, is made using Tarak, a yogurt produced with makgeolli as the fermentation source. Kunrak is produced by removing whey from Tarak, followed by drying process for safe storage and consumption over a longer period. In this study, we produced kunrak based on the method described in「Imwonsibyukji」. Prepared Kunrak was ripening for 96 hours at 20, 30, and 40oC. In order to study characteristics of Kunrak, physiochemical properties (pH, acidity, water contents) and contents of metabolites (organic acids, sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids) were analyzed. During ripening, water contents decreased. The main organic acids in Kunrak were citric acid and lactic acid, and the main free sugar was lactose. Main amino acids were glutamate and phenylalanine, and main fatty acid was saturated capric acid. At later ripening, all metabolites increased immediately after preparation. The sensory evaluation score of overall preference was highest for Kunrak, which was ripening at 40oC for 96 hours. This study was aimed to assay metabolites of Kunrak under various ripening conditions. The results provide basic data to produce conditions for standardized manufacturing of Kunrak.
This study investigated grape powder substituted for wheat flour in muffin recipes with the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%. Grape powder consisted of 6.76% of moisture content, 4.63% of crude protein, 4.82% of crude fat and 4.16% of crude ash. DPPH radical scavenging activity is 68.79%, total phenol content is 205.79. Specific loaf volume have decreased as the grape powder content increased. Baking loss have increased as the grape powder content increased. Moisture and brix have increased as the grape powder content increased. pH have increased as the grape powder content decreased. Chromaticity measurement result showed that the ‘L’ and ‘b’ value of muffins decreased as grape powder content increased, whereas ‘a’ value increased. The texture measurement result showed that the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of muffins increased as the grape powder content increased, whereas springiness decreased. Cohesiveness did not show any considerable differences between muffins. Overall preference scores showed high overall acceptability for the muffins made with 10% grape powder
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sample presenting types on the sensory characteristics of chilled buckwheat noodle soup (Naeng-myeon). Generic descriptive analysis was performed for evaluating only stock (system 1), only noodle (system 2) and stock with noodle (system 3). Eight kinds of commercially available Naeng-myeon were samples of interest. Ten female descriptive panelists participated. ANOVA and regression analysis were used for data analysis. In the training sessions, ten sensory properties were developed for system 1, four were additionally established for noodle. In each system, the 8 products showed significantly different intensities in almost all sensory attributes like darkness of stock, overall flavor, sweetness, saltiness, sourness. When integrating the two systems, sample presenting types showed significant difference for the seven sensory attributes, especially saltiness, sourness, beef flavor tended to be rated more strongly in system 1 than system 3.