This study will provide a useful information and suggestions regarding new wine drinkers wine selection attributes and preference on wine producing countries to wine distributors, wine producers and marketers in Korea. New wine drinkers showed high preference on sweet wine, rich aroma wine, matured wine and white wine respectively. Regarding wine producing countries, Germany, France and Chile were rated among the top preferred countries by new wine drinkers. Results showed that the reasons for disliking wines were not being used to it as the top reason followed by wine being expensive and wine not being tastes good.
The purpose of this study was to measure the mediating effects of sacrifice, value and satisfaction on the relationship between restaurant service quality and loyalty. A total of 273 questionnaires were completed. Structural equation model was used to measure the causal effects of service quality, perceived sacrifice, value, satisfaction and loyalty. Results of the study demonstrated that the structural analysis result for the data also indicated excellent model fit. The influences of service quality and perceived sacrifice on value were statistically significant. The influences of service quality and value on satisfaction were statistically significant. The influences of value and satisfaction on loyalty were statistically significant. As expected, the service quality had a significant effect on loyalty. The results indicated that the effect of service quality on loyally was mediated by value. Moreover, the effect of service quality on loyalty w3s mediated by satisfaction.
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of attitude toward fish eating, Health involvement and convenience on the relationship between fish consumption and age. A total of 235 questionnaires were completed. Structural equation model was used to measure the causal relationships between constructs. Results of the study demonstrated that the structural equation analysis result for the data also indicated excellent model fit. The effects of age on involvement and convenience were statistically significant. The effects of age on attitude and consumption was not statistically significant. As expected, the involvement had a significant effect on attitude and consumption. The attitude and convenience had a significant effect on consumption. The effect of involvement on convenience was not statistically significant. Moreover, the attitude, involvement and convenience played a mediating role in the relationship between consumption and age. The involvement played a mediating role in the relationship between attitude and age. The involvement played no mediating role in the relationship between convenience and age. The attitude and convenience played no mediating role in the relationship between consumption and involvement.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors consumers seriously considered when purchasing HMRs and the difference among the factors according to their demographic characteristics. The subjects were adults in their twenties or older who had used HMRs and lived in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in Korea. Random sampling picked 550 of them, who were distributed a questionnaire from March 12 to 30, 2005. Total 451 questionnaires were returned(the return rates were 82%). The validity of the 27 features was examined by factor analysis. There were seven factors identified, and they were labeled considering the meaning of their items as follows: 'Factor 1. food quality,' 'Factor 2. appearance and packaging,' 'Factor 3. convenience and reliability,' 'Factor 4. access,' 'Factor 5. familiarity,' 'Factor 6. positive experiences,' and 'Factor 7. practicality.
The objective of this study was to compare the healthy dining out attitude of restaurant diners by self-rated health status. Using healthy dining attitude and behavior questionnaire and a single question describing self-rated health status, the needs and importance of healthy dining out was detected. Mean age of the 182 respondents was 38.9±11.37 years old and 37.4% of the respondents answered their mean monthly income was over 6,000,000won showing the subjects belonged in high income diners. The needs of healthy dining measured by five scales and offering healthy menus(3.80), labeling foods about original country(3.79), using environmentally friendly foodstuffs(3.71) and labeling nutrients on menu board(3.62) show higher score than others. A total of 76.4% of the respondents assessed their health status as 'good-rated Health' and 23.6% was 'poor-rated health'. There was no difference in frequency of eating out by self-perception of health status but, the 'poor-rated health' group need more nutrition information in restaurant specially for calorie(p〈0.05), cholesterol(p〈0.05), fiber(p〈0.05), functional nutrients(p〈0.001) showing significant differences comparing to 'good-rated health' group. In good-rated health group, selection of Korean cuisine for eating out was more frequent than the poor. The results shows the needs of healthy dining can be varied by diner's health status and therefore restaurateur should focus on understanding of the needs of diners with various health status.
알로에 베라 원액 첨가량을 달리하여(0, 3, 6, 9, 12%) 제조한 알로에 설기떡을 4일간 저장하면서 기계적, 관능적 품질특성을 평가하였다. 수분함량은 제조 직후 대조군이 33.79%였고, 알로에 원액 12% 첨가군에서는 다시 감소하는 현상을 보였다. 저장기간별로는 대조군과 첨가군 모두 저장기간이 길어질수록 수분함량은 감소하였다. 물성측정에서는 응집성, 탄력성, 점착성, 부착성, 씸힘성은 알로에 원액 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 색도에서 L값은 설기떡에 첨가한 알로에 원액의 양이 많을수록 유의적으로 감소하였고, a값의 경우 제조 직후 대조군은 -0.56이었으나, 알로에 원액 첨가량이 늘어날수록 음의 값을 나타내는 것을 볼 수 있었고, b값은 알로에 원액 첨가량에 따라 유의적으로 증가하였다. 관능검사에서는 색, 향, 맛, 부드러움, 촉촉함 및 전반적인 기호도에서 모두 9% 첨가군이 가장 높은 것으로 나타났을. 따라서 설기떡에 알로에 원액을 사용함으로써 떡의 품질특성이 향상되어 건강 기능성 상품개발이 가능할 것으로 예상된다.
Antioxidant activity of Astragalus membranaceus, Polygonatum stenophyllum, Angelica gigas, Acanthopanax sessiliflorus and Angelica pubescens extracts cultivated in Jecheon prepared with different solvents were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzyl(DPPH) radical scarvenging ability and thiocyanate method . The highest hydroxy radical scarvenging activity was shown in Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, while the lowest was in Polygonatum stenophyllum. Angelica gigas showed strong antioxidant activity by thiocyanate method. Methanol extracts and water extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than ethanol extracts. Angelica pubescens showed the highest polyphenol contents and Acanthopanax sessiliflorus showed the highest flavonoid contents. Direct correlation between the hydroxy radical scavenging activity and polyphenol contents or flavonoid contents was established by simple regression(r>0.8) in each solvent extracts. Among medicinal plants cultivated in Jecheon, Acanthopanax sessiliflorus and Angelica pubescens showed strong antioxidant activities. These results suggest that methanol or water extracts of several medicinal plant cultivated in Jecheon could be used as natural antioxidants.
We investigated the intake trends of street foods for middle school, high school and colleges students through the survey study. In addition, the factors affecting the students' consumption of street foods and their perception toward hygiene status of street vendor were studied. The levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliform groups and enterobacteriaceae in Kimbab, eomuk, and eomuk-kukmul were counted using 3M petrifilms. More than ninety seven % of the respondents had experienced street foods. All the respondents ate street foods 1 to 5 times a month. Forty percent of the respondent stated that 'good taste' and 'time-saving convenience' were their reason for eating the street foods. Their favorite foods were ddokbokgi and various fried foods. All the students responded that frying oil, drinking water, and soy sauce as well as the street vendors' attire and their cooking tools in street vendor were unsanitary. Forty percent of the respondents ranked frying oil as the most unsanitary substance. Eighty percent of the respondents responded that an enforcement of hygiene should be imposed on the street foods vendor. There were significant differences (p〈0.001) among the student's age in the opinion related to the reasons of eating street foods, hygiene enforcement, existence of street foods and interest of hygiene status of street foods. High correlation (p〈0.05) between the frequency of street foods and snack intakes was shown, regardless of student's age. The result shows that those who eat snacks more than once a day tend to eat street foods more frequently. Aerobic plate counts in Kimbab in 5 different vendors exceeded 105/g and contamination levels of enterobacteriaceae or coliform in Kimbab exceeded more than 103/g, which did not satisfy the microbiological standards. In conclusion, although the respondents thought that the sanitation of street foods was poor, most of them want the street food vendor to be maintained with better hygiene condition. This indicated that the regulation for safe street foods should be enforced and educational information about the preparation and serving for safe street foods should be provided to street food vendor.
This study was conducted to compare the antioxidant activities of fermented soy products such as chungkukjang, meju and doenjang with soybeans. Total phenolic, flavonoids contents and antioxidative activities of the methanol extract of soy and fermented products were compared with specific reference to alpha-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging effects, ferric /reducing power (FRAP), inhibition of conjugated diene formation and tyrosinase activities. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents increased in soybeans after fermentation. Fermented soy products also displayed enhanced antioxidative activities in comparison with the non-fermented soybeans. There were linear relationships between total phenolic and flavonoids contents and ferric reducing/antioxidant power of the samples. Overall, the fermented soy products showed a better antioxidant activity than soybeans. Among the 3 kinds of fermented soy products, chungkukjang, meju and deonjang, doenjang exhibited the highest levels of DPPH-free radicals scavenging activity, ferric /reducing power, inhibition of conjugated diene formation and tyrosinase activities. The fermented soy products with longer fermentation time demonstrated the higher antioxidant activities as well as higher total phenols and flavonoids in the order of doenjang > meju > chunghlkjang> soybeans.
Effects of Takju(Korean turbid rice wine) lees on noodle investigated by substituting Takju lees water extract powder for each 2% and 4% wheat flour in sample II and III, respectively. The lightness(L) of uncooked noodles was decreased, whereas that of cooked noodles was increased with increasing amount of extract added. Redness(a) and difference of total color(δE) were significantly increased according to the amount of extract added in uncooked and cooked noodles. Yellowness(b) of the noodles containing 2% Takju lees water extract powder was exhibited lowest values in uncooked and cooked noodles. In cooking property of noodles, turbidity of soup decreased in proportion to amount of extract added, 2% and 4% in sample II and III, respectively whereas the weight and volume of noodles were not significant than those of control. Tension of cooked noodle was highest in sample II and lowest in sample III. Texture profile analysis of cooked noodle showed an significant increase of hardness in addition of Takju lees water extract powder but not significant different in springiness, chewiness, adhesiveness. Cohesiveness was significantly lowest in sample II. The sensory evaluation showed that significant difference between noodles with 2% addition groups and control was not recognized but was recognized 4%. Therefore, based on cooking properties and sensory evaluation, Takiu lees water extract powder up to 4% could be substituted for wheat flour.
This study was carried out to make the new products of color moot as a functional food by variation of the color and flavor through addition of gamgyul, Daccus Carota Var. Sativa, Vitis vinifera, soy sauce, and Pimpinella brachycarpa N., respectively. For all the products, the color was observed by Colorimeter and the sensory evaluation was performed to evaluate their effectiveness and usefulness. The Aw (water activity) test of color mooks has performed to examine their water activity individually. The Aw of color moot was higher than that of the white one. The characters of texture of color mook as a function of the amount of the color and the flavor added were measured by a texture analyzer (XT-RA, Texturometer). By the TPA test, the rainbow and orange color mook examined were high in the springiness.
The elderly population in Korea is growing rapidly and their nutritional status is not acceptable. Data were collected from the self-administered questionnaire of 495 free living elderly, over 65years old, in Korea to asses the intake and consumption pattern of milk and dairy products. The questionnaire contains demographics, health related characteristics, and perception on milk, and consumption behaviors of milk and dairy products. Most of the elderly subjects understood that milk is good foods in terms of nutritive value and health. And 67% of the subjects satisfied with the sanitation status of milk on the markets. The kind of milk that majority of the subjects consumed was whole milk, and only 5.1% of them consumed low fat milk. Less than 20% of the subjects consumed milk everyday, living alone group consumed milk less frequently than living with others. It was found that the majority of the elderly subjects did not meet current recommendation for milk. Liquid and curd type yogurt were the major dairy products used among elderly, and the reasons were good taste and digestion. They believed that these kinds of dairy products help constipation and digestion problems. The price of milk was ranked for the first factor needed to be considered for milk and dairy products consumption in elderly korean.