As the demand for ready-to-eat foods continues to grow, concerns about the sodium in processed foods are also growing. In this study, a survey was conducted on the perception of low-sodium products and diffusion plans according to the type of employee (manufacturer, retailer, distributor). Of the 191 responses collected, 189 valid responses (98.9%) were analyzed. The results showed that the employees were aware of the health contribution of a low-sodium diet, labeling for low-sodium, and the promotion of low-sodium food to increase its consumption. Furthermore, retailers recognized the positive contribution of low-sodium products in terms of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) management. The use of sodium substitutes was preferred as the best way to reduce sodium in ready-to-eat foods. With regard to sodium reduction in readyto- eat foods, we found that the technical factors involved were clustered by the type of business. Specifically, distributors showed a similar performance but had a lower perception of importance than retailers. Manufacturers had a lower perception of both importance and performance. In this study, we collected perceptions from employees who were working at food companies, which differed from previous research. We sought to examine the differences in the perception of sodium reduction and consumption of ready-to-eat foods across various types of employment. Furthermore, we provided specific approaches to reduce perception gaps and enhance understanding among employees.
This study examined the MZ Generation Consumers’ perception and needs of HMR (Home Meal Replacement) using local food. The paper provides basic data for deriving a plan to promote local food consumption and reports the implications for various development and distribution strategies regarding HMR using local food. In this study, a quantitative survey was conducted targeting 600 consumers to examine the general consumption status of HMR using local food by MZ consumers. In addition, a qualitative survey was conducted targeting 21 people to derive the specific perceptions and unmet needs of MZ consumers. These results showed that MZ consumers require healthy and fresh HMR but have low awareness of HMR using local food. Therefore, it is necessary to deliver sufficient information and promote it. In particular, MZ consumers have high expectations for ‘healthy and safe’ food when purchasing HMR using local food, which plays an important role in purchasing decisions. They also valued ‘convenience’, which means ‘simple cooking’, ‘subdivision packaging’, and ‘accessibility of purchasing channels’, as important when purchasing HMR using local food. Lastly, MZ consumers positively evaluated the values of ‘healthy eating’ and ‘revitalization of the local economy’ through local food.
This study investigated the awareness and consumption behavior of 118 vegetarians and omnivores toward plant-based dairy alternatives. The preference and choice attribute questionnaires were compared. Significant differences were obtained between the two groups when considering the purchase experience, preference, and selection attributes of plant-based dairy alternatives. Vegetarians had more experience purchasing plant-based dairy alternative products. In both groups, environmental and animal protection were the major factors that influenced the highest response rate for purchasing plantbased dairy alternatives. The preference score of vegetarians for plant-based dairy alternative products was high, indicating that vegetarianism had a significant effect on their preference for plant-based dairy alternative products. Analysis of selection attributes revealed that price, product weight, appearance, and manufacturer were considered important by vegetarians, whereas nutritional components and labeling, manufacturing environment, composition of ingredients, and taste and texture were considered more important by the omnivores. Results of this study can be used as basic data for the future development of the fast-growing industry producing plant-based dairy alternative products.
This study aimed to examine the operations of school food services to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in schools nationwide. The survey data on school food service operations targeting nutrition teachers and nutritionists at 1,023 schools in 2020 and 1,177 schools in 2021 were used. The year 2021 saw an increase compared to 2020 in the following: ‘average days to be served with meals for a year (144.5 vs. 184.7)', 'provided meals to all students (92.3% vs. 96.6%)', 'utilization of additional staff for foodservice assistance (33.4% vs. 38.8%)', 'installation of partitions (61.2% vs. 83.8%)', 'provision of general diet (96.1% vs. 99.1%)', and 'use of kitchen utensils (91.3% vs. 95.1%)', 'use of cafeteria water cup (9.9% vs. 31.0%)' and 'use of drinking water in school (46.8% vs. 52.1%)'. Compared to 2020, in 2021, it was confirmed that the school food service operations stabilized due to the increase in the normal school attendance rate and that systems were in place for operations during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the future, it will be necessary to develop manuals and special recipes necessary for responding to infectious diseases, and to operate a manpower pool that can quickly find replacement personnel if required.
In this study, we investigated the effect of the extracts of Cyrtomium fortunei J.Sm. (CFJ) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in mouse BV-2 microglial cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability were measured using the Griess reagent and the (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) (MTT) assay. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in BV-2 microglial cells with and without CFJ extracts. Subsequently, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and antioxidant markers were assessed by western blot analysis. It was found that the CFJ extract significantly decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-, and IL-1) and NO in BV-2 microglial cells that were stimulated with LPS. In addition, the expression levels of the phosphorylation of the MAPK family (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases [JNK], and extracellularsignal regulated kinase [ERK]) were reduced by CFJ. Also, treatment with CFJ significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase type 1(SOD1) and Catalase in BV-2 microglial cells. Our results indicate that CFJ has a potent suppressive effect on the pro-inflammatory responses of activated BV-2 microglia. Therefore, CFJ has the potential to be an effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, as it can inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators in activated BV-2 microglial cells.