Eumsikjeoljo (integrity with food) originally came from the Andong district, where the Goseong Yi clan inherited a cookbook from their ancestor Lee Jeong-Rong (1798~1871). The cookbook was written in an antiquated style and is estimated to have been written around the year 1865. Details of the era and authorship are seldom available for the extant ancient cookbooks. The authors of these books and the period during which these books were precisely written were studied through the Eumsikjeoljo which is a repository of 46 cooking disciplines. Of these 10 deal with the practice of traditional Korean crispy snack making, 4 with rice cake making, 3 of the yeonbyeong kind, 19 examples of Korean side dish making, 6 recipes of the kimchi variety, 2 examples of paste-based recipes, and 2 instances of instructions on how to make vinegarbased extracts. Also, in Eumsikjeoljo, there are descriptions of 29 different ways to brew rice wine. Of these, Danyang wine among the Leehwa wines and 13 others account for over 44% of the content. Leeyang wine and Sogok wine are represented by 10 different varieties and constitute around 34% of the entries. Samyang wine and Baek-il wine, along with 6 others, constitute 21% of the entries. The secret recipes of the Goseong Yi clan in the Andong district were recorded so that they could be transferred to the descendants of the clan. An inspection of the recipes and wine brewing techniques recorded in Eumsikjeoljo provides a clearer picture of the mid-1800s Andong noble family’s traditional food habits and simultaneously sheds light on the late Joseon dynasty’s food culture.
This study considered the rite of passage ceremonial food in the Mid-Choseon Period through the rite of passage ceremonies, food, and ingredients recorded in the Seoul Noble Ohhweemun Family Diary Shaemirok. The research used a contents analysis method through case studies. The noble families in the Mid-Choseon Period deemed the Jerye to be the most significant out of the traditional ceremonies. The nobles practiced the Sadehbongsah and the Yoonhweebongsah ceremonies for their ancestors. The Rite of passage ceremony required fruit. Of fish and birds, pheasants were used frequently during the ceremonies. Noble families, specifically the richer families, could sustainably normalize the rite of passage ceremonies against the elements. Seasonal ingredients were generally harvested even during spring and winter in large amounts. One of the last rites of passage food by Garye displayed diverse ingredients, such as Bangaeng, Myun, Tang, Uhyookjuk, Poe, Chae, Hae, and Silgwa. Such ingredients prove that the normalization of rite of passage ceremony food was well established and practiced. On the other hand, the birthday rite of passage food did not conform to a specific rite of passage normalcy or preparation. Instead, the birthday food showed a flexible menu of seasonal delicacies that were not confined to a particular traditional formula.
The purpose of this study was to provide basic information on the development of nutrition education programs to improve the mealtime behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by investigating the mealtime behavior and food preferences of children with ASD through the perception of special education teachers. Surveys were given to 108 special education teachers in special education schools in Korea regarding the demographic characteristics, nutrition education support needs, mealtime behavior, and food preferences of children with ASD. Most of the special education teachers responded that nutrition education in special schools had not been conducted properly and nutrition education for ASD children is necessary. Mealtime behavior analysis classified the behavior into three clusters: cluster 1, ‘less problematic mealtime behavior’; cluster 2, ‘general feature of autism’; cluster 3, ‘difficulty in self-directed diet’. The age, eating habits, and food preferences were different according to each mealtime behavior cluster. Therefore, it will be necessary to develop a nutrition education program based on the characteristics of mealtime behavior.
This study examined the background of the dietary life of North Korean defector adolescents born and raised in North Korea and their new South Korean dietary experiences after being settled in South Korea. The study included six North Korean defector adolescents enrolled in an alternative school located in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. This study’s qualitative research methodology included two-by-two group interviews, followed by individual interviews and field observation. The study period was from September 14 to October 26, 2019. Before entering South Korea, they primarily ate food pickled with soybean and salt, a cooking method by which foods are preserved because refrigerators were unavailable. After settling in South Korea, they had difficulty adapting to South Korean foods because of the unfamiliar ingredients and recipes. On the other hand, they quickly adapted to some foods, such as chicken. The participants reported that North Korean foods are generally light, whereas South Korean foods are sweet, salty, and spicy; hence, they do not taste delicious. The results suggest that attention be paid to menu improvement and the provision of nutritional education by schools and the government to prevent undernourishment or malnourishment because of unfamiliar ingredients and recipes.
Microalgae are unicellular microorganisms inhabiting various ecosystems of the world, including marine and freshwater systems and extreme environments. Only a few species have been actively used as food. Microalgae are attracting attention as a means of biological CO2 reduction because they play an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 through their rapid growth by photosynthesis in water. Besides, microalgae are considered to be an eco-friendly energy source because they can rapidly produce biomass containing a large quantum of lipids that can be converted into biodiesel. Several microalgae, such as Chlorella spp., Spirulina spp. and Haematococcus spp. have already been commercialized as functional health supplements because they contain diverse nutrients including proteins, vitamins, minerals, and functional substances such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), β-glucan, phycocyanin, astaxanthin, etc. Moreover, they have the potential to be used as food materials that can address the protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) which may occur in the future due to population growth. They can be added to various foods in the form of powder or liquid extract for enhancing the quality characteristics of the foods. In this review, we analyzed several microalgae which can be used as food additives and summarized their characteristics and functions that suggest the possibility of a role for microalgae as future food.
This study investigated the effect of the addition of various levels of pig head meat (HM) as a substitute for rear leg meat (RLM) on the physico-chemical quality characteristics of non-emulsified, smoked, and cooked sausage during refrigerated storage. Sausages were prepared in four variations according to the proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, or 30%) of HM added and maintained at 4°C. Quality measurements were taken for 28 days. The sausages added with the addition of 20% and 30% HM had significantly (p<0.05) higher moisture and lower protein content compared to those without the addition of HM. The pH value during the storage period was higher (p<0.05) in the sausages to which the HM had been added than in those without HM. The sausages with 30% HM showed the lowest (p<0.05) L* and b* values and the highest (p<0.05) a* value during the storage period. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness of the sausages showed no significant variations with the addition of various levels of HM. These data suggest that RLM could be substituted with 30% HM because it does not negatively affect the quality of the non-emulsified sausage. However, a further study on sausages made with 100% HM instead of RLM may be needed to improve its utilization.
The oriental plum (Prunus salicina) is one of the most popular fruits in Korea due to its sweet taste and pleasant aroma. The objective of this study was to analyze the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of a puree made using plums stored at low-temperatures. The quality characteristics were determined by estimating total soluble solids (TSS, °Brix), titratable acidity (TA, % citric acid), TSS/TA ratio, pH, colors, sugar content, and sensory profiles. The antioxidant effects were estimated by total polyphenol and flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the plum puree containing both the flesh and the peel had markedly higher red coloration (a* value) than the puree without the peel, while yellow coloration (b* value) and lightness (L* value) were lower in the puree without the peel than with the peel. The sensory qualities including the plum taste and flavor, texture as well as overall acceptance showed no significant variation between the samples. Meanwhile, the total polyphenol/flavonoid content and radical scavenging activities were significantly improved by the presence of fruit peel and by frozen storage. These findings suggest that frozen plums could be a suitable ingredient for making a puree and concentrate for the food manufacturing industry.
There is little information on the nutrient intake according to the city size and small town in Korean elderly. This study analyzed the nutritional consumption of older people in metropolitan, middle and small cities, and rural areas according to four income levels. The recent data from the 2016~2018 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used. The final analysis included 4,325 individuals (Male: 1,856, Female: 2,469) over 65 years old. Multivariable regression with a complex sample design was conducted to compare the nutrient intake among the groups. In a comparison within regions, the nutrition status of the elderly in small towns was more vulnerable than metropolitan and middle & small cities. The energy intakes were similar between the groups. The carbohydrate intake of middle & small cities was significantly higher than the other regions. The intake of other nutrients in metropolitan and middle & small cities appeared to be higher than in rural areas. The number of nutrients with statistical significance between low and high-income levels were 19 in metropolitan, 11 in middle & small cities, and 5 in rural areas. Each contribution of carbohydrate, fat, and protein to the total energy intake was lower in the low-income level than the high-income level in metropolitan and middle & small cities. On the other hand, in rural areas, only the contribution of protein to energy intake was lower in the low-income level than the high-income level. Cities with higher levels of urbanization had more severe nutritional inequality in relation to the income level. There was also nutritional inequality present in rural areas but it was to a lesser extent. Moreover, the generally low level of nutrient intake was problematic in rural areas. These findings could be used as fundamental evidence for developing community nutritional policies for the elderly.
The study was conducted to identify the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in sprouts of mouse-eyed bean (Rhynchosia nulubilis), ginseng (Panax ginseng), perilla (Perilla frutescens), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown with organic germanium concentrate. Western blot analysis was performed to assess the antiinflammatory activity of the extract. All extracts exhibited noticeable anti-oxidant activity, indicating a significant correlation between the germanium content and anti-oxidant activity (p<0.05). In particular, rat-eyed bean sprouts with the highest germanium content showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05) by significantly inhibiting the expression of the inflammatory complexes, NLRP3, cytokines IL-1β and caspase-1. Ginseng and broccoli sprouts showed strong anti-cancer properties and had high anti-oxidant effects (p<0.001). Germanium-concentrated water allows the mass production of agricultural products containing high concentrations of organic germanium. Agricultural produce grown with germanium concentrate add organic germanium to various physiological active ingredients, increasing the anti-oxidant and anti-cancer effects. These results strongly suggest that agricultural products containing high germanium concentrations can be used as novel health supplements to improve health.
This study investigated the factors affecting restrained and emotional eating according to the BMI of college women in Seoul. Based on their weight, 514 college women were divided into 3 groups. General demographics, nutrient consumption, eating habits and DEBQ were subsequently evaluated. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors responsible for restrained and emotional eating in each group. Percentage of the overweight or obese group having negative emotions, such as frequency of overeating (p<0.05), habitual eating, regret, and guilt after overeating, was higher as compared to the other groups (p<0.001). Considering factors that affect restrained eating, negative emotion after overeating had a positive correlation in the underweight group (β=0.481, p<0.001). In the normalweight group, the BMI (β=0.201, p<0.001), total food intake (β=0.241, p=0.002), and negative emotion after overeating (β=0.284, p<0.001) positively affected restrained eating. In the underweight group, habitual eating (β=0.292, p=0.002) and negative emotions after overeating (β=0.233, p=0.012) were determined to affect emotional eating. Moreover, habitual eating (β=0.290, p<0.001) and negative emotions after overeating (β=0.172, p=0.004) were observed to influence emotional eating in the normal weight group. In the overweight and obese groups, habitual eating was determined to affect emotional eating (β=0.410, p<0.001). Taken together, these results provide a basis for creating a weight control program for young women having undesirable eating behaviors, such as restrained and emotional eating.
Sodium intake has been associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study examined the demographic factors related to HRQoL and whether there is an association between sodium intake and HRQoL in adults residing in rural areas. A total of 1,980 adults (aged ≥20 years) were selected from a cross-sectional study conducted between December 2013 and February 2014 in Gyeongju, South Korea. The sodium intake and HRQoL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the EuroQol Five-Dimension (EQ-5D) (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression), respectively. The education levels (<5 years) were inversely associated with all five dimensions of HRQoL. Men had better EQ-5D scores for each of the five components examined. Adults living with spouses had better scores related to usual activities and anxiety/depression, whereas widowers had decreased scores of mobility and self-care. Unlike older adults aged 70-79 years, adults aged <60 years were more likely to have greater scores related to mobility, usual activities, and pain/discomfort. The income levels were also inversely related to the scores for self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Sodium intake was positively associated with the HRQoL related to self-care, usual activities, and pain/discomfort, but it was negatively associated with anxiety/depression. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the demographic factors and sodium intake were independently associated with HRQoL. The results highlight the need to provide tailored, targeted policies and interventions that consider personal characteristics and dietary intake to improve the overall HRQoL in adults residing in rural areas.
This study examined the antioxidative and lipid accumulation inhibitory effects of 14 plants from Mongolia and Myanmar on 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) of 14 plant extracts were measured, and the antioxidative activities were analyzed using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC. After measuring the pancreatic lipase levels and performing the thiobarbituric acid assay, the degree of lipid accumulation was determined by lipid (Oil Red O) staining and triglyceride assay in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. M. paniculate (259.43 mgGAE/g) and C. benghalensis (130.78 mgNAE/g) had the highest TPC and TFC, respectively, among the 14 plants. R. acicularis Lindl. had the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH. The ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC results showed that the antioxidant activity of 11 species was higher than that of the positive control. The pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect of C. angustifolium Scop. was reduced to 23.65% at 0.1 mg/mL, and the level of lipid peroxidation of C. abrorescens Lam. was 0.63 nmol/mg. Five selected plants inhibited the lipid accumulation and triglyceride content, respectively, in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. These results provide scientific evidence for developing functional foods using 14 plants from Mongolia and Myanmar, which have antioxidant activities and lipid accumulation reduction effects.