In order to establish the processing conditions for salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy(Engrulis japonica), changes in the amino acid composition from oligopeptides during fermentation periods were analyzed. Experimental sample A: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at 50℃ for 9 hrs and then adding 10% NaCl. Sample B: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at 50℃ for 9 hrs and then adding 13% NaCl. Sample C: chopped whole anchovy adding 13% NaCl. Sample D: whole anchovy adding 17% NaCl. The total amino acids from oligopeptides in fermented liquefaction of anchovy increased in early fermentation period and reached highest level, and then they declined irregularly during fermentation. Their maximum amounts were just after heating at 50℃ for 9 hrs in sample A, after 15 days in sample B, and after 60 days in samples C and D. The fermented liquefaction of anchovy extracts were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, lysine and valine. However, the contents of most amino acids fluctuated by the experimental specimens and fermenting periods. Among them glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid which was occupied 0.6~27.7%(average 24.0%) in the content of total amino acids from oligopeptides. The contribution of the amino acid composition from oligopeptides to extractive nitrogen was occupying average 20.8 and 17.5% in rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction(sample A, B and C) and traditional fermented liquefaction(sample D), respectively.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Indongcho(L. japonica Thunb) powder on blood glucose, serum lipid levels and antioxidative enzymes in normal and streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Four groups of rats(3-week-old inbred Sprague-Dawley male rats) were normal rats fed control diet(NC), diabetic rats fed control diet(DC), normal rats fed Indongcho powder diet(NI), and diabetic rats fed Indongcho powder diet(DI). Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin(60mg/kg B.W., i.p.). The animals were fed ad libium each of the experimental diet for 5 weeks. Food and water intakes were determined everyday. Blood glucose and serum total cholesterol levels were determined every week. After 5 weeks the animals were sacrificed and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products were determined in their liver and kidney homogenates. We also determined serum concentrations of total lipid(TL), total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG) and HDL-cholesterol(HDL-C). Blood sugar and water intake were higher in diabetic group(DC and DI group) than normal group(NC and NI group) and were not significantly decreased by dietary Indongcho intake. Body weight gain and FER(feed efficiency ratio) were reduced by STZ treatment. But, Final body weight was recovered by Indongcho-contained diet. LHR(LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol) of the DI g re up was significantly lower than the other experimental groups(NC, NI and DC groups). The hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase(G6Pase) activity of the groups fed Indongcho diet(NI and DI group) was lower than the groups fed control diet(NC and DC group) and the G6Pase activity of NI group was recovered to the normal levels(p<0.05). However, The glutathione peroxidase(GPx) and glutathione reductase(GR) activities in liver and G6Pase activity in kidney were not statistically different between the control and diabetic control groups. Renal GST activity of the DI group was recovered by Indongcho intake. In conclusion, these results confirm oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of rats with STZ diabetes and antioxidative effect of Indongcho.
The purpose of the this study was to investigate the dietary behavior and the food habits of university freshman according to body mass index. Questionnaire were completed by 532 students in university freshman. The data were analyzed by SAS program. The results were as follows : The means of normal group's height, weight were 175.00±5.98cm, 72.93±10.20kg for male students and 162.00±4.75cm, 51.97±4.98kg for female students. Under 20 of BMI(body mass index) among students were 69.7% for male and 9.6% for female. Twenty~twenty five(20~25) of BMI were 21.9% for male and 40.2% for female. The consumption of milk, oil and animal fat were significant according to BMI. There was high significant difference in the score of exercise and activity. In the self recognition of body shape 59.0% of male and 52.6% of female in normal weight group answered that their weight had to be a little thin. Self satisfaction rate was significantly higher in under weight group compared to normal weight group. This study suggest that a comprehensive nutrition education program is need for university students to improve desirable food habits and recognition of rate of figure.
This study was performed to investigate the perception and the preference of Korean traditional foods such as traditional holiday foods, rice cakes and beverages. The subjects were 598 elementary school students(male 310, female 288) in fifth or sixth grades. The most favorite traditional holiday food was rice cake soup(57.4%) and 92.4% of subjects wanted to keep the traditional holiday foods because of the traditional custom. The traditional beverages mainly drinking at home were sikhye(35.6%), misugalou(30.2%), green tea(18.5%), etc. Children's most favorite beverage was misugalou(90.5%) and they had no taste for ginseng tea(39.6%). Children did not know well about booggumi(64.1%), dootubdduk(63.3%), whajun(39.6%), etc. and liked gguldduk(94.2%) better than the others. They liked the rice cake because of its good taste(69.0%) and disliked it because of chocking(30.9%), not eating frequently(29.5%), hard and tough(18.2%), and so on. And they wanted to make the rice cake softer and sweeter like the cake and mostly ate it on the traditional holidays.
The purpose of this study was to survey the concern for health, nutrition knowledge, and nutritional attitude of the elementary school children's mothers, to investigate the correlations among them, and to estimate their effects on the growth of their children. The questionnaire was answered by 780 mothers in the Busan area. The concerns over health and nutritional attitude were above average in all items. The perception and accuracy with respect to nutrition knowledge were 90.3% and 77.0%, respectively, and the mean score of the nutrition knowledge was 17.5 on a basis of twenty-five. This indicates that the subjects had a comparatively deep concern for health and good knowledge of nutrition, and professed a relatively desirable attitude. These results indicate a desirable dietary attitude for children as well as parents. The correlation coefficients between nutrition knowledge and a concern for health, and between nutrition knowledge and nutritional attitude were very low. This suggests that the subjects' knowledge of nutrition does not develop into practice. The correlation coefficient was high (r=.610) between the concern for health and the nutritional attitude. In conclusion, the nutrition education program for mothers should be developed to add good practice to knowledge, thus increasing the concern for health, correcting their faulty knowledge of nutrition, teaching the good nutrition, and taking a practical attitude toward the use of their present nutritional knowledge.
Food habit, eating-out pattern, smoking and drinking habits of 814 elderly (aged over 60) living in Incheon were surveyed by questionnaire. The ratio of the elderly who have balanced meals at moderate amount was slightly higher in urban area. Urban elderly tended to have mild foods, while rural elderly preferred hot and salty foods. Score for food habit was higher in urban elderly and there was no difference between male and female elderly. Most urban elderly had their meal at the public facilities for elderly, while most rural elderly used general restaurant and public room for elderly. Korean foods were the most favorite menu when ate out. Ratio of elderly who have difficulties in chewing was 21.2 and 39.6% for urban and rural elderly, respectively. Many elderly, especially more than 70% of female elderly, prepared the meals for themselves. Rural elderly smoked and drank more than urban elderly and male elderly did more than female elderly.
The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern and perception of food consumption, mass restaurant use, drinking style, and food purchasing factors by cohort groups i. e., World Cup(W) generation, baby boom, and silent generation. Data were collected from 412 respondents including three generations by questionnaire method in April through May 2002. Analysis of variance and chi-square results indicate that there were significant differences among three generation groups for the pattern and perception of food consumption, the use of mass restaurant, preferred drinking style, and influencing factors for food purchasing. W generation are more likely to be influenced by sensibility factor than baby boom and silent generation. Considering food preference pattern, baby boom as well as silent generation prefer green vegetables than meats, and they must have Kimche when having meals. Similarities and differences in perceptional pattern types are discussed, and future implications for food and nutrition specialists and food marketers are provided.
The purpose of this study was to identify the dimensions and patterns of the perception of Korean traditional food and to find the determinants of the patterns between Korean and Yanbian housewives, taking food culture into account. Data were factor and cluster analyzed, and the results revealed two and three different dimensions and patterns for Yanbian and Korean housewives respectively. Descriptive statistics showed that perceptional patterns are likely to vary depending on cultural background of Korean traditional food. Similarities and differences in perceptional patterns between Yanbian and Korean housewives are discussed, and future implications for food as well as nutrition specialists and food marketers are provided.
3% 갈근 열수 추출액 급여와 카드뮴을 흰쥐에게 4주 동안 급여 한 후 간과 신장 조직의 카드뮴 함량, renin 호르몬 농도, 혈청중의 GPT, GOT 및 LDHase의 함량을 조사하였다. 식이섭취량에서 대조군인 24.62 g에 비하여, 3% 갈근 열수 추출액 급여군은 23.41 g으로, 카드뮴 급여군은 23.76 g에 비하여, 갈근 열수 추출액급여군과 카드뮴 병합 급여군은 22.25 g으로 감소하였으나 유의한 차이는 없었다. 체중 증가량은 대조군이 124.50 g이고, 3% 갈근 열수 추출액급여군은 127.22 g으로 대조군에 비하여 감소하였다. 카드뮴 급여군은 107.57 g에 비하여, 갈근 열수 추출액급여군과 음용수와 카드뮴 병합 급여군은 128.80 g으로 유의적으로 증가하였다. 식이효율은 카드뮴 급여군과 갈근- 카드뮴 병합 급여군 간에는 유의성이 인정되었다. 간의 무게에서 대조근에 비하여 갈근 열수 추출액 급여군이 약간 감소하였으나 유의한 차이는 없었으며 카드뮴 공급군에 비하여 갈근-카드뮴 병합 급여군이 유의적으로 증가하였다. 신장 무게는 카드뮴 공급군에 비하여 갈근 카드뮴 병합 급여군이 유의적으로 증가하였다. 간 조직내에서의 카드뮴 함량은 대조군이 0.15 ug/g으로 갈근 열수 추출액급여군은 0.14 ug/g에 비하여 별다른 차이를 보이지 않았다. 카드뮴 급여군은 3.04 ug/g에 비하여 갈근-카드뮴 음용수 병합 급여군은 2.87 ug/g 유의적으로 감소하였다. 신장 조직내에서 대조군은 0.21 ug/g이었으나, 갈근 열수 추출액급여군 은 0.23 ug/g으로 별다른 차이는 없었다. 카드뮴 급여군은 6.48 ug/g에 비하여 갈근 열수 추출액급여군과 카드뮴 병합 급여군은 4.42 ug/g 4.57ug/g으로 유의적으로 감소하였다. 혈장호르몬인 renin 농도는 갈근차 음용수군은 16.73 ngAl/mL/hr으로 대조군인 15.89 ngAl/mL/hr에 비해서 증가하였다. 카드뮴 급여군은 25.72 ngAl/mL/hr으로 카드뮴과 갈근 열수 추출액 병합 급여군인 18.57ngAl/mL/hr에 비하여 유의성 있게 증가하였다. GOT는 대조군이 96.16 U/L에 비하여 갈근차 단독 급여군은 96.44 U/L로 약간 증가하였다. 카드뮴 급여군은 154.40 U/L인데 비하여 카드뮴과 갈근 열수 추출액 병합 급여군이 118.80 U/L으로 유의적으로 감소하였다. GPT는 대조군이 59.60 U/L에 비하여, 갈근 열수 추출액 급여군은 63.46 U/L으로 약간 증가하였으나 유의한 차이는 없었다. 카드뮴 급여군은 73.54 U/L 인데 비하여 갈근 열수 추출액 급여군과 카드뮴 병합 급여군은 69.80 U/L으로 유의적으로 감소하였다. LDHase는 대조군이 179.00, 갈근 열수 추출액급여군은 198.60 U/L으로 대조군에 비하여 감소하였으나 유의한 차이는 나지 않았다. 카드뮴 급여군은 264.30 U/L 인데 비하여 갈근 열수 추출액급여군와 카드뮴 동시 병합 급여군은 227.30 U/L으로 유의적으로 감소하였다. 카드뮴에 중독된 흰쥐에 대한 갈근 추출물의 해독 효과를 알아 보는 본 연구에서 50 ppm의 카드뮴액과 함께 3% 갈근 추출액을 급여한 흰쥐의 체중증가량과 사료 섭취 효율을 50 ppm의 카드뮴만을 급여한 흰쥐의 이들 측정값과 비교할 때 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 그러나 50 ppm의 카드뮴액과 함께 3% 갈근 추출액을 급여한 흰쥐군은 50 ppm의 카드뮴액만을 급여한 흰쥐군과 비교하여 신장내 카드뮴 함량과 GPT 및 LDH 활성도, renin 활성도가 유의적으로 감소되었고 신장 무게는 정상 흰쥐와 같은 수준으로 회복하였고 GOT 활성도 역시 정상 흰쥐와 같은 수준으로 감소를 보여 갈근이 카드뮴 중독 흰쥐에서 신장 등의 장기내 카드뮴 축적의 감소로 카드뮴 중독 작용의 경감 효과를 갖는 것으로 나타났다.
The effect of cooking(boiling, steaming and baking) and drying on the cholesterol content and formation of oxidized cholesterols and acid value in squid(Japanese flying squid, Todarodes pacificus) was studied. Cholesterol content of live squid meat varied with the portion sampled. The data from spectophotometric assay ranged from 263.2 mg/100g(mantle) to 315.8 mg/100g(tentacle). The cholesterol levels found for squid samples analyzed by gas chromatography(GC) were lower by 7% of total cholesterol for live squid meat and 24% for processed meat than those results by spectrophotometric assay. Cooking resulted some decrease in the initial total cholesterol content of raw meat from 10%(boiling for 5 min.) to 25%(steaming for 5 min.). The amounts of cholesterol remaining after baking were 68% for microwave oven samples and 64% for convection oven samples. Drying of raw tissue caused the greater reduction in cholesterol content than cooking but brought about no significant difference in samples stored for 6 weeks at 4℃ and 20℃. Raw squid meats contained essentially no oxidized cholesterols, while the 22-hydroxychoesterol was detected in frozen meats. The additional oxidized cholesterols as cholestane-triol was indentified with 22-hydroxycholesterol in cooked samples. Sun dried meat stored at 4℃ and 20℃ for 6 weeks had the three kinds of oxidized cholesterols such as 22-hydroxycholesterol, cholesta-3,5-dien-7-one and cholestane-triol. For the boiled and steamed squids, 10% higher acid value and 5% higher acid value respectively were observed but oven cooked samples resulted in a 50% higher acid value than raw samples. Squids had a 45% higher acid value than raw one during sundrying and presrevation at 20℃ but there was not a severe difference of acid value between 4℃ and 20℃ stored samples.
Pyebaek of Jeonju area based on the method prepared by late old madame Park, Bokja can be characterized as follows: First, vegetables which could be obtained locally constituted the main body of materials of Jeonju Pyebaek and animal foods used in Pyebaek were dried fishe for the most of times. In the pre-refrigerator era, the main reason behind the heavy uses of dried fish such as dried abalone or octopus instead of animal foods can be attributed to the easy availability of dried fish. In recent years, foods made of animal foods has been indispensible items. Second for the patterns and decorations of Pyebaek natural figures such as birds, flowers, butterflies, loaves and half moon were imitated in making of octopus cuttings, squid cuttings, Yakkwa, Hwajeon, Dried persimmons, Jeonbokssam, etc. Beef jerky, Yeotgangjeong were decorated beautifully with pine nuts, shredded dried dates and raisins. Many colors were used in various items of Jeonju Pyebaek such as Hwajeon, Songpyun, Saji. Finally, flavors of Jeonju Pyebaek are sweet and tasty of sesame oil.
Changes in ATP and related compounds, TMAO, TMA, creatine and creatinine were analyzed to establish the processing conditions for rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy(Engrulis japonica) extracts during fermentation. Experimental sample A: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at 50℃ for 9 hrs and then adding 10% NaCl. Sample B: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at 50℃ for 9 hrs and then adding 13% NaCl. Sample C: chopped whole anchovy adding 13% NaCl. Sample D: whole anchovy adding 17% NaCl. ATP, ADP, AMP and IMP were broken down during fermentation period, while inosine and hypoxanthine or hypoxanthine were detected in each fermented liquefaction of anchovy. However the amounts of them were varied from collection to collection according to the pretreatment methods. Possibly ATP and their related compounds will not make a great contribution to the umami taste in fermented liquefaction of anchovy. The contents of TMAO were decreased during fermentation period, ranging from 3 to 15 mg/100g in the fermented liquefaction of anchovy after 180 days. The TMA contents were increased slowly during fermentation period, ranging from 60 to 114 mg/100g in the 180 days specimens, however their contents were varied from sample to sample. The contents of creatine and creatinine were increased during early fermentation period, and then they were decreased in the last period. As for distribution of nitrogen in the anchovy extracts, the contribution of creatine and creatinine to the extractive nitrogen was occupying 6.8, 5.7, 4.6 and 5.7% in the experimental sample A, B, C and D, respectively. The contribution of ATP and related compounds to the extractive nitrogen was occupying 2.1, 2.4, 2.2 and 2.7% in the experimental sample A, B, C and D, respectively. The contribution of TMAO and TMA to the extractive nitrogen was very low as they are occupying 0.7~1.2% in the four experimental samples.
The theory-the doctrine of Confucius and Mencius was an objective existance in Chinese dietary culture history, but it was ignored in the last two thousand years. In addition, some people misunderstood Confucius' and Mencius' thoughts and statements. This paper believes that the doctrine of Confucius and Mencius is Confucius' and Mencius' diet opinions, thoughts, theories and basic style in their diet experiences. Confucius' diet experience and Mencius' diet experience were alike, and Mencius' experience carried on Confuius' and theirs were the same in some sections. They all stay their diet standard to their stomach and don't persue good meal. They all thought resolving people's diet was important for a country and for the politic problems. Mencius succeeded Confucius' diet thoughts and put them to the theories-diet principle, diet standard, and diet morality. This paper deeply discusses theory, developing history condition and the affection and position in Chinese diet history of the doctrine of Confucius and Mencius.