본 연구에서는 위험물 취급자의 직무에 기반을 둔 국제해상위험물 전문교육 모델을 제안하고자 해외사례 검토를 통하여 직무별 교육과정 세분화 방안을 모색하고, 설문조사를 통하여 위험물 취급자들의 개선 요구사항을 분석하였다. 해외사례 검토 결과, 미국의 경우 위험물 취급자의 직무에 따른 다양한 교육과정이 운영되고 있었고, 영국에서는 위험물의 종류 및 운송수단에 따른 교육과정이 세분화되어 운영되고 있었으나, 국내에서는 다양한 직무에 종사하는 위험물 취급자에 대하여 동일한 교육과정을 적용하고 있는 것으로 조사되었다. 한편 설문조사 결과, 현 국내 교육과정의 효과가 높지 않고, 응답자들이 IMDG Code 교육의 확대 실시와 인터넷을 통한 정보의 제공을 주로 요구하고 있는 것으로 드러났다. 따라서 결론으로 육상의 위험물 취급자를 육상현장직, 육상사무직, 육상운송직의 세 가지 직군으로 분류한 후 각 직군의 특성에 맞는 교육 방안을 제시하였고, 또한 현 수도권에 집중된 교육 실시지역을 피교육자의 수요에 맞추어 권역별로 확대 실시할 것과 On-line 교육과정의 개설을 제안하였다.
This study, conducted from April to May 2004 in the metropolitan and surrounding areas of Seoul, Korea, was performed to show the relationship between indoor and outdoor levels of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in 14 residential houses. In addition, indoor/outdoor ratios of PM10, PM2.5 concentrations were calculated. The relationship between the PM10, PM2.5 concentrations and respiratory symptoms by self recording questionnaire of 14 houses was investigated. In conclusion, although the results of this study failed to establish the relationship between PM10, PM2.5 concentrations and respiratory symptoms among residents, the levels of indoor PM2.5 were significantly higher than those of outdoor levels. The indoor PM10, PM2.5 concentrations were increased by the amount of time spent of residents. Further research should be directed to establish the relationship between PM10, PM2.5 concentration and respiratory symptoms.
In this paper, the differences between Korean and Japanese ways of seasonings are studied. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Shouyu and Miso which are Japanese equivalents of soy sauce and bean paste of Korean foods are used in variety of different seasonings with some other ingredients while Korean counter parts are used only to add salty tastes. (2) Shouyu and Miso lose their flavors after considerable time of heating, while Korean soy sauce and bean pastes increase their tastes after heating. (3) Mirin adds sweety taste and glaze and Sake makes food soft or hard according to the moment of being added during cooking. (4) In Korean foods soy sauce, bean paste and red pepper paste are on the basis of tastes, Dashi is used in almost every Japanese food. (5) Seasoned vegetables of Korean food are prepared only with spices of green onion, garlic and sesame oil while seasoned fishes or vegetables are mixed with Shoyu or salt and vinegar in Japanese food. (6) In making Zorim, Korean traditional sauces are added from the beginning of heating. But in making Nimono, sugar, salt, vinegar, Shoyu and artificial taste are added in order during heating. (7) In grilling, main food for grilling in Korea is meat, which is prepared with a variety of spices such as soy sauce or/and red pepper pastes, garlic, green onion, sesame oil, sesame powder, pepper and sugar while mainly fishes are grilled with salt, occasionally with Shoyu or Miso in Japanese food. (8) Pan frying fishes are taken with soy sauce with vinegar in Korea but Tepura are eaten with Tentsuyu in Japan.
Pyebaek of Jeonju area based on the method prepared by late old madame Park, Bokja can be characterized as follows: First, vegetables which could be obtained locally constituted the main body of materials of Jeonju Pyebaek and animal foods used in Pyebaek were dried fishe for the most of times. In the pre-refrigerator era, the main reason behind the heavy uses of dried fish such as dried abalone or octopus instead of animal foods can be attributed to the easy availability of dried fish. In recent years, foods made of animal foods has been indispensible items. Second for the patterns and decorations of Pyebaek natural figures such as birds, flowers, butterflies, loaves and half moon were imitated in making of octopus cuttings, squid cuttings, Yakkwa, Hwajeon, Dried persimmons, Jeonbokssam, etc. Beef jerky, Yeotgangjeong were decorated beautifully with pine nuts, shredded dried dates and raisins. Many colors were used in various items of Jeonju Pyebaek such as Hwajeon, Songpyun, Saji. Finally, flavors of Jeonju Pyebaek are sweet and tasty of sesame oil.
This is a study about Jangs presented in the Cheminyosul. Scattered yeast and purified salts are used as ingredients of Jangs. Hwangeui, Hwangjeung and Eol are scattered yeast, and Sangmanyom, Hwayom and Inyom are purified salts. According to their main ingredient, Jang can be classified Kokjang, Yukjang and Eojang. Kokjang was made from soybean and/or wheat, Yukjang made from meat, and Eojang made from fish and crustacea. Eojang is similar to Korean fish sauce, Jeot. Three kinds of Kokjang, four kinds of Yukjang and seven kinds of Eojang are described in the Cheminyosul. Generally, Jangs were fermented and ripened for one day to one hundred days. Also, most of Jangs were made in cold season except Keonjeeojang and Janghae.
PALFAZE is one of ZE. ZE is One of the Chinese Sause. Especially PALFAZE is made from eight materials and used for the slices raw fish or raw meat. At first ZE was made from pickled vegitables that minced, or added vineger, some spices. But later when the garic-growing was spreaded it was changed to be made from minced garic, ginger mixed in vineger or added some spices, starch. Especially PALFAZE is made from garic, ginger, salt, vineger, mamanufactured plum, dried orange rind, boild chestnut, boiled rice.
This study was carried out to understand and analyze the cooking and processing methods presented in CHE MIN YO SUL, Chinese books of husbandary was written in sixth century. This book was composed of two parts-part I is Agricultural production and part II is product-Utilization. Especially, wines and yeast(NU RUK) written in part II were studied at this study paper. Most of yeast was made of barley and wheat. These materials had been prepared as raw, steamed, and roasted state by proper ratio with kinds of yeast and then fermented as dough state. Occasionally, various kinds of soup made from cocklebur, leaves of mulberry tree, wormwood etc. put into yeast dough. Yeast doughs were shaped round and square with or without hole in the center, made in July of the lunar calendar and fermented for 3 or 4 weeks. There were 43 kinds of wines in this book. Most of them were made of all kinds of cereals grown at that time-rice, waxy rice, millet, waxy millet etc. These cereals had been steaming or cooking gruel with grain or powder state and then fermented with yeast. These wines were prepared by single or double brewing methods and the kinds of double brewing wines were more than single brewing wines by two times. There were none of wines made from fruit and distilled wines. Generally, single brewing wines were not made in Apr., Nov., Dec., of the lunar calendar and double brewing wines were not made in Aug., Oct., Nov., of the lunar calendar. And ripenning periods of wine brewing were various, from 1 day to 7 months for single brewing, from 2 days to 8 months for double brewing.
This paper is a part of the regional characteristics of Korean chotkal. The kinds and materials of Korean chotkals are studied by interviewing local people living in 142 different regions which are bigger than 'myon' in size. Regions are classified according to the structural style of commoner's house. Regional characteristics of chotkal are analyzed and interpreted with natural environmental factor. The rest of my further interested subject will be followed in later issues ; the ways of preservation, period of fermentation according to the regional characteristics and uses of Korean chotkal. The results of this study can be summerized as follows, 1. There are 145 different kinds. 2. Raw materials of 145 kinds of chotkal are devided roughly into five groups ; (1) fishes in 87 kinds (2) Pelecypoda and Gastropoda in 14 kinds (3) Cephalopoda in 10 Kinds (4) Crustacea in 32 kinds and (5) Holothuroidea and Echinoidea in 2 kinds. They can also be classified according to the parts of individual material ; (1) body or flesh in 118 kinds (2) internal organs in 15 kinds and (3) eggs in 12 kinds. Regions are devided into four provinces ; 'Kwanso', 'Chungbu', 'Nambu', and 'Kwanbuk' in which the number of different kinds of chotkal are 32, 41, 99 and 34, respectively. Raw materials vary because of the distribution of marine life in different regions. Fishes and Cephalopoda are used in all four regions, Pelecypoda and Gastropoda in 'Kwanso', 'Chungbu' and western part of 'Nambu' regions. Different species of Crustacea used in each different regions ; sea crab and sea shrimp in the western coastal area, fresh water crab in the field area, fresh water shrimp in 'Chollado', mantis crab at 'Shihung-gun' in 'Kyonggi-do', Holothuroidea and Echinoidea are used in 'Nambu' regions. Chotkal are not used at all in six local districts which are located in inland areas where the transportation is inconvenient.