조선시대의 조리서를 중심으로 선의 종류와 사용된 재료 및 조리법의 변화, 조리용구, 계량단위, 조리용어, 등을 분석 고찰한 결과를 다음과 같이 요약할 수 있다. 1. 선의 종류는 18가지였다. 그 중 채소류 12가지, 어류 3가지, 육류 1가지, 두류가공품 1가지였다. 2. 선에 사용된 주재료는 다음과 같다. 육류 : 양 채소류 : 배추(배추속대), 동아, 호박, 가지, 오이. 어류 : 민어 두류가공품 : 두부 3. 선에 사용된 부재료는 다음과 같다. 수 조육류 : 쇠고기, 쇠머리, 제육, 영계. 어패류 : 해삼. 전복. 채소류 : 배추(배추속대), 무우, 당근, 오이, 시금치, 미나리. 버섯류 : 표고, 석이, 목이, 느타리. 기타 : 녹두녹말, 밀가루. 4. 선에 사용된 양념류는 다음과 같다. 생강, 마늘, 파, 고추, 초장, 참기름, 꿀, 소금, 소다, 겨자즙, 간장, 기름, 후추, 조미료. 5. 선에 사용된 고명류는 다음과 같다. 잣, 계란, 실고추, 붉은 고추. 6. 선을 만들 때 사용된 재료의 계량단위는 20가지였다. 그 중 용량단위 9가지, 수량단위 6가지, 기타 5가지였다. 7. 선을 만들 때 사용된 기구는 12가지였다. 그 중 많이 사용한 기구는 채반, 채, 솥 등이었다. 8. 선을 만드는데 이용된 조리용어는 18가지였다. 그 중 가열용어 6가지, 써는 용어 12가지였다. 결론적으로 선은 식물성식품을 주재료로 하여, 찜과 같은 방법으로 조리하는 것이라고 하였으나, 본 연구를 통하여 선은 배추, 동아, 호박, 가지, 오이 등의 채소와 소의 양, 민어, 두부 등을 주재료로 하여 수 조육류, 어패류, 버섯류 등 여러 부재료를 양념하여, 주재료의 속에 넣고, 육수에 끓이거나 중탕하여 그릇에 담고, 잣, 계란, 실고추, 붉은 고추로 고명을 얹은 음식이다.
To analyse the royal marriage of Yi-Dynasty, the authors studied 'Kuk Hon Geong Rea', which is a historical record, published in 1749(King Yong-Jo), on the usage of marriage articles in the royal family. The essential steps or articles described in the record were as follows, Royal marriage of King : Wedding presents, black and red silks from the bridegroom's to bride's, proclamation of Queen and wedding ceremony(納采) (納徵) (冊妃) (親迎 尊雁 同牢). Royal marriage of Crown Prince : Wedding presents, black and red silks from the bridegroom's to bride's. proclamation of Crown Princess, wedding ceremony, and bride's gifts to her parents-in-law(納采) (納徵) (冊嬪) (親迎 尊雁 同牢) (朝見體). Royal marriage of Crown Princess : Wedding presents, black and red silks from the bridegroom's to bride's, wedding ceremony, bride's gifts to her parents-in-law(納采) (納徵) (尊雁 同牢) (見舅姑禮). Necessary articles for weddings were different according to royal status of the member in the royal family.
한국(韓國)에서 농경(農耕)의 시작은 신석기시대(新石器時代) 말기(末期)에서 부분적으로 시작되어 보편화된 것은 B.C 4000년경으로 보고 있다. B.C 8000~B.C 6000년 전쯤의 어느 신석기(新石器) 유적(遺蹟) 중에서 농경(農耕)에 쓰였던 석기(石器)들과 함께 도토리가 발견된 것으로 보아 유사이전(有史以前)의 한국인(韓國人)들의 조상(祖上)들은 도토리와 개암 아가위 등 야생식물(野生植物)의 열매를 따서 이용했을 것이다. 부족국가시대(部族國家時代)의 마한(馬韓)에서는 밤을 재배하였다. 삼국사기(三國史記)에는 복숭아, 오얏, 배, 매화(梅花)를 재배하였음을 알 수 있다. 중국(中國)의 기록(記錄)을 보면 신라(新羅)에서는 잣, 호도, 석류, 백제(百濟)에서는 밤이 유명하다. 발해왕조(渤海王朝)에서도 오얏과 배, 잣이 유명하였다. 고려시대(高麗時代)에 복숭아, 오얏, 매화, 앵두, 잣, 살구, 포도, 대추, 배, 귤, 유자, 은행 등을 재배 이용하였다. 조선초기(朝鮮初期)의 지리서(地理書)인 「세종실록지리지(世宗實錄地理志)」(1454)와 「新增東國與地勝覽」(1492)에는 개암, 아가위, 복분자(覆盆子), 비자, 잣, 은행, 대추, 밤, 감, 석류, 살구, 복숭아, 호도, 모과, 귤, 유자, 앵두, 포도, 능금 등 우리가 현재 재배하고 있는 과실나무가 거의 재배되고 있다. 조선시대(朝鮮時代)에 들어온 과실(果實)로써 위의 지리서(地理書)에 없는 과실(果實)로는 비파(枇杷)와 무화과(無花果)이다. 비파는 조선초기에 들어온 듯하여 무화과(無花果)는 16세기 전후에 들어온듯 한데 이들 두 종류의 과실나무들은 내한성(耐寒性)이 약한 종류(種類)이기 때문에 지금도 제주(濟州)와 전남(全南), 경북(慶北) 등지에만 재배되고 있다. 조선시대(朝鮮時代)에 들어 와서는 많은 농서(農書)들이 출간(出刊)되었는데 거기에는 과수재배법(果樹栽培法)과 이용법(利用法)도 다양하게 기록되어 있다. 그리고 1900년 전후해서 西洋에서 피칸 양앵두 뿐만 아니라 최근 키위 등이 수입되어 상당히 이용되고 있다. 또 이외에도 과실(果實)의 약리적(藥理的)인 면을 이용하여 모든 과실을 한약(漢藥)으로써 의료면(醫療面)에도 널리 이용(利用)되었다. 과실(果實)은 우리들의 식생활(食生活)을 풍성하게 하기 때문에 과실의 소비량은 생활수준(生活水準)의 척도(尺度)가 된다. 이렇게 오랜 역사를 통하여 과수(果樹)들을 개량(改良)하고 도입(導入)하면서 재배(栽培) 이용(利用)하여 온 과실류(果實類)의 지위는 우리의 食生活史에 확고하게 유지(維持)되어질 것이다.
Soybean was originated from the regions of Manchuria where it was processed into Dujang, the fermented soybean souce. It was not until the Han dynasty in China that 'Shi', one type of Dujang, was introduced. 'Shi', which is also known as 'Sanguk'(loose soybean Meju), is made by first boiling and then fermenting the kernel of cooked soybean. It was admitted by the Chinese scholors that the 'Shi' which was used in China was introduced from Manchurian, the neighboring people to China at that time and the concestor of Korean. 'Maljang' is a form of caked-shaped 'Meju' which is made by formenting cooked and mashed soybean. The 'Maljang' of Manchuria was introduced to China, where it was called 'Maldo'. This fact is stated in a book, 'Saminwolyong', written during the 2nd century. 'Maljang' is presently used in Korea, but China has abandoned the use of 'Maljang' since the 6th century. It was introduced to Japan from Korea around the 7th century, and is remained in a few local regions. Although the term 'Jang' is representing all sort of fermented soybean preducts, including 'Shi' and 'Maljang', today, the definition of 'Jang' differs between China and Korea. According to the Chinese definition of 'Jang'. it is fermented soybean mixed with other cereal Koji. 'Jang' was first mentioned in 'Jaeminyo sool' in China and it was lator introduced to Japan However, in Korea, the Chinese type of 'Jang' was not commonly used due to the popularity of 'Maljang'.
The purpose of this study is (1) to develop native foods in the future continuosly, and (2) to provide basic information allowing college student's to correctly understand traditional culture, by investigating those college students' preference and understanding of the native foods in Cheju-do. To accomplish these purposes, the survey was carried out by use of questionaires for 344 residing in Cheju-do from 20th to 29th May, 1989. The statistical analysis including frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation was performed by use of SAS program, while the significant difference between groups was examined by 2-test. The results of this study are summarized as follows : 1. It was showed that college man had higher understanding and preference of those native foods than college women. 2. The result relating to age indicated that the more the age, higher understanding and preference. 3. The result by residing areas showed that the college students in the rural area showed higher understanding and preference than students in the urban area. 4. Based on the educational background of those subjects' mothers, it was shown that those college students of mothers having lower educational background had higher understanding and preference of native foods. 5. Those college students having good understanding of native foods accounted for 63.4 percent, while students requiring the continued development of those native foods for 91.0 percent. As a consequence, it is apparent that most subjects tended to show the positive responses to those native foods.
This study was designed under the purpose to analyze the Korean Traditional Folk Remedies on food, to submit the basic statistical data, and to utilize them by examining how much they know about the Korean Traditional Folk Remedies and also by examining how frequently they used them. The sample was consisted of 312 housewives living in Daegu, Kyungsan city and Kyungsan-eup, the survey was made by use of questionaires from July 15 to August 1 1989. The results are as follows 1. Analysis of Folk Remedical Contents 1) The method of the Folk Remedies used in this area was mainly food, which can be easily found around their house and easy to use, it was possible to apply scientific principles in some cases. 2) The major popular method was shown to feed boiled barley or brown rice which are known as the Folk Remedy for Diabetes. 3) The ANOVA of variable shows the significant influence on each object which age, religion, the level of education, job, monthly income, and the area except family formation. 2. The Frequency of Folk Remedies and additional analysis 1) The most frequently used Folk Remedy was Arterio-sclerosis(1.44), which is followed by the loss of Eyesight(1.40), Hang over(1.28), Couth(1.27), Cold(1.26) etc. 2) In the analysis of Pearson Correlation between frequencies of Folk Remedies used, and demographic variables such as age(p<.05), the monthly income(p<.01), in that area, total number of response items showed a positive correlation. 3. The source to learn about Folk Remedy. 1) It is acknoledged that they are mostly instructed by their forefathers, friends, neighbors, professional textbooks, mass communications, herb doctors, other medical sources or education at school etc. 2) The ANOVA of Variables shows the big differences between each group by age. Based on the above findings, the following suggestions are made ; Most of Korean Traditional Folk Remedies are recognized scientific and reasonable which are based on the scientific research and herb medicine therefore it should be made good use of for our life in good health additionally. I hereby insist that the importance of our Folk Remedies should be reviewed and focused for maintenance our health.
This study was carried out to understand and analyze the cooking and processing methods presented in CHE MIN YO SUL, Chinese books of husbandary was written in sixth century. This book was composed of two parts-part I is Agricultural production and part II is product-Utilization. Especially, wines and yeast(NU RUK) written in part II were studied at this study paper. Most of yeast was made of barley and wheat. These materials had been prepared as raw, steamed, and roasted state by proper ratio with kinds of yeast and then fermented as dough state. Occasionally, various kinds of soup made from cocklebur, leaves of mulberry tree, wormwood etc. put into yeast dough. Yeast doughs were shaped round and square with or without hole in the center, made in July of the lunar calendar and fermented for 3 or 4 weeks. There were 43 kinds of wines in this book. Most of them were made of all kinds of cereals grown at that time-rice, waxy rice, millet, waxy millet etc. These cereals had been steaming or cooking gruel with grain or powder state and then fermented with yeast. These wines were prepared by single or double brewing methods and the kinds of double brewing wines were more than single brewing wines by two times. There were none of wines made from fruit and distilled wines. Generally, single brewing wines were not made in Apr., Nov., Dec., of the lunar calendar and double brewing wines were not made in Aug., Oct., Nov., of the lunar calendar. And ripenning periods of wine brewing were various, from 1 day to 7 months for single brewing, from 2 days to 8 months for double brewing.
The objective of the study was to evaluate nutritional balance for fast foods selected by middle and high school students using INQ (Index of Nutritional Quality). A thousan students that is 0.09% of the population (middle and high school students in Seoul) were surveyed from January 21 to February 10 in 1989. A total of 835 subjects excluding incomplete answer were analyzed. All statistical data analyses were conducted using the SPSS. Fifty kinds of fast foods were analyzed for nutrient values calculation. INQ and % of std. values of selected fast food combination were calculated, and % of std. were charted with each first letter of menu items by using GW-BASIC program. Satiety of fast foods was low in hamburger and pizza chain, high in noodle chain. 66.3% of the subjects ate fast foods snack, 29.2% for meals and 6% for beverages. Protein content of hamburger sold in Korea by American brand name was insufficient compared to the data published in the U.S. for the same brand's menu item. As a result of INQ evaluation, the desirable case of both 'nutritious' and 'fitness for a meal' was only appeared in selecting several menu items at once. A total of 59% of combined fast foods surveyed were revealed as 'nutritious'. Both 'nutritious' and 'fitness for a meal' was 10.4% and 'nutritious' was 48.6%, 'Unfitness for a meal' but 'nutritious' was 48.6% and 'undernutritious' was 37%. Thus a total of 85.6% was 'unfitness for a meal'. 'Undernutritious' but 'fitness for a meal' was 3.5%
양념의 섭취는 고대 에집트 시절부터 시작되어서 현재에까지 인류의 식탁을 지켜 오고 있다. 양념의 용도는 시대에 따라서 다양화되고 있다. 고대에는 양념의 용도는 단순히 음식의 풍미를 돋구기 위해서 사용하였지만, 현대 사회로 올수록, 다양한 음식과 음료수의 맛과 향, 식품저장, 의학적 생리학적인 용도, 및 화장품 및 향수 제조를 위해서 사용한다. 세계적으로 이용되고 있는 양념의 수는 약 70여종에 이르고 있으나, 우리나라 식탁을 오르내리는 상용하는 양념의 수는 10종 내외로 본다. 그러므로 우리나라 음식 향과 맛의 단조로움을 느끼기 때문에 보다 다양한 양념의 개발이 요청된다. 최근 들어와서 고추와 마늘의 생리학적 기능이 재평가되고 있어서, 현대인의 고민인 고혈압과 이와 관련된 순환계 계통의 질병 및 암의 발병 방지 및 치료에도 효과가 있다는 보고가 되고 있다. 위궤양 및 위산분비 비정상인은 자극적인 양념인 고추나 마늘의 섭취를 금지하여 왔으나, 특별히 고추의 섭취가 이러한 상태에 있는 사람들에게 반듯이 위액분비를 자극하지 않는다는 보고도 되어 있다. 양념에 함유된 영양소의 함량으로 미루어 보면 열량 무기질의 일부 및 비타민의 일부 공급원으로 중요하다. 한국인에게 중요한 양념으로 여겨지는 고추와 마늘의 섭취량은 한국 경제가 성장함에 따라 그 섭취량이 증가되는 경향을 나타낸다.