This study was carried on the preferences for food intake pattern of Korean industrial workers. The survey was conducted from Feb 17, to March 31, 1992 by questionnaires which was composed of 21 items. The subjects of this study were composed of 426 clerical workers, and 439 physical workers. The results were obtained as follows. 1. In the educational background, clerical workers was almost of highschool or collage graduates, and physical workers was almost of highschool graduates. Marginal food cost of per person for lunch a day was from 500 Won to 1,000 Won. They replied that amount of staple food and side dishes were appropriate, and the type of preferable foods was Korean style cooked rice. Also it was known that physical workers thought their nutritive condition more badly than that of clerical workers. So the physical workers considered their health very much when they had meal. It was represented that unbalanced diet, without diet and drinking alcohol effected badly to food intake and taste of food was the most important point in food intake. 2. Preferences for staple foods; Cooked rice was preferred the most by the subjects. Cooked rice with redbean was preferred by clerical workers and cooked rice with soybean was preferred by physical workers and cooked rice with soybean was preferred by physical workers. Also clerical and physical workers liked Kalkooksoo (hot noodle), Nangmyun (cold noodle), bread, vegetable bread and disliked Sphagetti, Ramyun (Instant noodle) in same rate. In the next, cooked rice covered with raw fish pieces (Sushi) was preferred by clerical workers and Mandu-kook was preferred by physical workers. Also they disliked Curriedrice and Hashrice in same pattern. 3. Preference for side-dishes; The Acceptances for side-dishes were high soybean paste soup (clerical workers:43.7%, physical workers:34.4%), Kim chi stew, fried potatoes, crab steaming (37.8%, 36.9%), broiled fish (34.6%, 33.9%), fried green pepper, Ham, Chinese cabbage Kim chi, and pickled garlic by clerical and physical workers all together. But in clerical workers, Wooghugi beef-rib tang, Deodeok muchim, spinach namul, beef jangjeorim, fried shrimp were shown to have high preference in physical workers, beef-rib tang, wild onion and shepherd's purses muchim, soybean sprout, fish jeorim, fried sweet potatoes were high preference. 4. Preference of Snacks; The preferences for snacks were high in strawberry (clerical:36.3%, physical:34.3%), milk (49.9%, 44.4%), waxy rice Doek (30.7%, 30.2%), coffee (40.1%, 38.9%) by two groups in same order.
The purposes of this study were to: (a) measure the levels of job satisfaction with five facets of a job: the work itself, promotion, pay, supervision and co-workers and (b) investigate relationships between job characteristics and job satisfaction levels of the dietitians in school foodservice. Subjects consisted of 151 dietitians, with 91 in Seoul and 60 in KyoungKi-Do. The survey form was developed on modifying Job Descriptive Index developed by Smith, Kendall, Hulin and Job Characteristics Inventory developed by Sims, Szilagy, Keller. The responding rate was 81.7%. Data were analyzed for frequencies, means, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multiple regression using SPSS PC Package. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Less than a half of the sample(40.9%) were 31 to 35 years, married were 62% and junior college graduates were 33.9%. 2) A striking majority of the respondents(81.7%) ranked work itself as the the most important aspect of their jobs. 3) The dietitians were the most satisfied with work itself, then supervision, co-workers, wage and promotion in decreasing order. 4) In relations of demographic factors to the job satisfaction, satisfactions with wage and co-workers were found significantly related to education. 5) Task identity was the most prevalent job characteristics. 6) The R2 for the multiple regression model was 0.26, indicating that 26% of the variance in job satisfaction could be accounted for the job characteristics. This model showed that friendship of job characteristics made the greatest contributions. The second was variety and the third was dealing with others. Especially dealing with others was negatively related to job satisfaction.
To understand the dietary culture in Poongki region which was established as Kamrokchon of a folk community, the transmission pattern of the traditional dietary life was investigated by questionnaire to 383 housewives, and the results are as follows : 1) Daily diet : Among 65 traditional main dishes of 6 areas including Kyungsangdo, D’cokguk of Kyungsangdo was consumed most frequently, 87%. General consumption rate based on origin of food was 33.3% of Kyungsangdo, 21.2% of Chungchongdo, 13.1% of Kangwondo, 11.9% of Hwanghaedo, 1.1% of Pyungando and Hamkyungdo, respectively. Among 243 traditional minor dishes, Doenjangjjigye and Kochuchang of Kyungsangdo were most consumed as rates of 91.6%, 89.3%, respectively. General consumption rate based on origin was in order of 38.4% of Kyungsangdo, 19.3% of Chungchongdo, 14.9% of Kwangwondo, 10.4% of Hamkyungdo, 8.7% of Hwanghaedo and 8.3% of Pyungando. 2) Special diet : Among 66 traditional D’ocks, Injeolmi of Hamkyungd was consumed most freguently, 58%. General consumption rate based on origin was in order of 26.3% of Hwanghaedo, 17.6% of Kyungsangdo, 16.1% of Kwangwondo, 16.0% of Hamkyungdo, 13.0% of Pyungando and 11.0% of Chungchongdo. Among 27 cookies, Kangjeong of Hamkyungdo was consumed most frequently 46.7%. General consumption rates based on origin was in order of 55.7% of Hamkyungdo, 22.7% of Kyungsangdo, 2.4% of Pyungando, 5.8% of Kwangwondo, 3.0% of Chungchongdo and 0.4% of Hwanghaedo. Among 19 refresh drinks, Kamju of Kyungsangdo was consumed most frequently, 76.0%. General consumption rate based on origin was in order of 74.3% of Kyungsangdo, 7.8% of Chungchongdo, 6.9% of Hamkyungdo, 5.9% of Hwanghaedo and 5.1% of Kwangwondo. 3) Ceremonial diet : Myyeogguk and Baeksulgi for the 100-Days ceremony and Hynbab and Baeksulgi for the First Birthday were used mainly. For birthday, noodle(59.5%) for lunch besides rice as main dish and Soojeoggwa(37.9%) were served and noodle(30.8%) was used for host. Thirty percent of the varieties used traditionally for Pyehak and 40-50% of the varieties for Jesa(Memorial day) are still prepared currently. 4) Seasonal diet : For Jeolsik(major seasonal diet), the usage rates are as follows : D’ockguk(87%) for Jeongwolchoharu, Ogokbab(77.6%) for Jeongwoldaeborum, Patjuk(72.6%) for Dongji, Samsaeknamul(54.1%) for Chusuk. Relatively high usage rates of Surichi-D’ock(40.5%) for Dano and Mandu(40.5%) for Suddalgumumnal are probably due to the immigrated people from this area and the geographical effect. The consumption rates of Sisik(minor seasonal diet) for Chunghwajeol, Samjinal, Youdooil, Chungyangjeol and Muoil are about 10% and the rates for Chopail and Chilsuk are followed. Gaejang and Nangmyon for Sambok used as a rate of 32%. 5) Others : Table pattern; Table for one person(4.7%), table for two(16.7%), table for several(64.2%), table with chair(14.4%) are used. Serving pattern; All-together style(69.7%), monopoly style(24.0%), personaldish style(6.3%) are used. Cooking ware; Among 95 varieties, Doma and Jangban are used most(62.7%) and Pulmae, Poonju and Budulgori are never used. Nine sorts besides Jeongoltle are used as a rate of less than 1%. About 25% of total subjects were the immigrants from other areas. Some of them were moved in due to Chunggamrok. In conclusion, the usage of the traditional food is thought to be maintained well despite of the rapid change to incustrialized society because the native Kyungsangdo foods are combined with foods from the neighboring Kwangwondo, Chungchongdo and northern area.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the socio-economics status and the dietary behaviors of college students in Pusan. This survey was carried out through questionnaries and the subjects were 244 men and 229 women students of 7 universities in Pusan. The results of this study can be summarized as follow: 1. 54.1% of men and 43.5% of women were having breakfast regularly, while 43.9% of men and 30.1% of women were having dinner regularly. 2. Mean score of the eating behavior was 3.29 in men and 3.21 in women, and of the concern on food and nutrition was 8.46 in men and 9.98 in women. 3. Eating behavior had significantly high relationship with concern on food and nutrition but had a little relation with valuation on food and nutrition. 4. Variation in valuation and concern on food and nutrition or in eating behavior were negatively related with smoking and drinking. A considerable correlationship between smoking and drinking was found.
These studies were conducted to: a) investigate work patterns and productivity indices, b) rate performance levels of employees and c) determine the suggested levels of personnel and labor hours for the effective labor control in school foodservice. Eighteen elementary school foodservices in Seoul were selected in order to analyze work patterns by the work sampling methodology. Allowance time and performance rating by VTR observation was done to determine the standardized labor hours. The results were as follows. The average percentage of each work function of the total work functions such as direct work function, indirect work function and delay were 65.57%, 8.12%, 26.31% respectively. The productivity index is 0.92 min/meal. The average working and delay hours per week of the foodservice director, foodservice employees and supply person were 33.64 hours, 23.25 hours, 38.52 hours respectively. The percentage of delay hours of total labor hours for foodservice employees and supply person were 42.27% and 24.0%. The standardized work hours and the appropriate levels of foodservice employees of 17 elementary school foodservices were examined: The average rating of the foodservice employees work was 1.19 and British Insulated Calendarer Cables (BICC) allowance rate was 19.40% on the average. The total work hours of foodservice employees were 172.64 hours per week and levels of personnel were 4.53 persons. BICC allowance rate was applied: The standardized work hours per week was 180.95 hours and appropriate levels of personnel were 4.11 persons based on legal 44 working hours.
The purpose of this paper it to investigate the differences in prevalence of obesity and body fat distribution on the variances of age. Height, weight, skinfold thickness and girth circumference on about 422 women residing in Cheju, Korea were surveyed. The results of analysis of the survey are as follows : 1) All the antropometric measurements except height were shown to increase with age. Weight is at its highest level between the age of 50-59. The measurement of skinfold thickness and girth circumference between the ages of 20-39 of the female subjects are significantly higher than the above 40's. However, there is no significant difference among the middle aged women. 2) Physical indices tend to increase according to age. Both BMI and RBW of women in their 50's are at their highest values, however, the index values of the women in their 60's decreased slightly (p<0.05). On the contrary, there is no significant difference in the percentage of body fat and total body fat content among the middle aged women surveyed. 3) According to this survey, 15.6% of the 422 subjects are assessed as being obese ; more specifically 4.4% of women in their 20's, 12.6% in 30's, 25.6% in 40's, 22.5% in 50's and 17.3% in 60's. 4) 39.4% among obese women proved to be upper body type women. Because the frequency of upper body type women became higher as the obese women aged, there is possibility that the pattern of fat distribution can change. 5) Weight is the most highly correlated with BMI(r=0.91), whereas weight as correlated with RBW, percentage of BF and WHR are 0.8, 0.66 and 0.44 respectfully. The conclusion of this survey is that it is better to estimate the value of total body fat and percentage of body fat than the value of BMI in the analysis of prevalence of obesity and its related factors of middle aged women.
된장은 한국과 일본의 식생활상 중요한 전통식품이나 10~20%의 비교적 높은 염분함량으로 건강상 또는 여러가지 질병의 원인이 되고 있다고 보고 있다. 그러나 근래에는 Na함량 뿐만이 아니라 K함량과의 비(比)도 중요하다고 보고 있어서 본 연구에서는 한국과 일본 된장들의 Na, K, NaCl함량과 동시에 Na/K비(比)를 측정하고 양국간의 비교도 하였기에 보고한다. 한국의 시판 된장과 가내제품의 Na의 평균함량은 각각 4181.3 mg/100g, 6015.6 mg/100g 이고 일본에 있어서는 5082 mg/100g, 5890.6 mg/100g이다. 한국의 시판 된장과 가내제품의 K의 평균함량은 각각 595.8 mg/100g, 331.3 mg/100g 이고 일본에 있어서는 365.4 mg/100g, 381.3 mg/100g이다. 한국의 시판 된장과 가내제품의 NaCl의 평균함량은 각각 10.62%, 15.28%이고 일본에 있어서는 12.91%, 14.96%이다. 한국의 시판 된장과 가내제품의 Na/K비(比)의 평균치는 각각 7.25, 21.54이고 일본에 있어서는 14.42, 16.14이다. 이상의 결과에서 예상과는 달리 한국의 시판 된장이 가내제품에 비해서 NaCl양이 적고 그외에도 Na양과 Na/K비(比)에서도 다른 제품들에 비하여 낮으므로서 영양상 유리함을 나타냈다.