The sauce and paste, which is collectively called as ‘jang’ in Korean is the staple seasoning of Korean cuisine. Although China shares some aspects of the Jang (醬), the exact types and forms are different. In this study, we explore the current Korean jang through the six culinary books-「Seongwonlog (醒園錄)」,「Yangsolog (養小錄)」,「Jojeongjip (調鼎集),「Susiggeeumsigbo (隨息居飮食譜)」,「Junggwerok (中饋錄)」, and「Sosigseolyag (素食說略)」 from the Qing Dynasty of China. The Jang of Qing Dynasty are further classified into the Chumjang (甛醬), Dusi (豆鼓), Chungjang (淸醬), and jangyou (醬油). To make these four types, the huangzi (黃子) has to be first made from the flour or beans, after which salt is added and sun-dried. Chumjang is the type of Chunjang used to make Zhajiangmian and is widely used in the Northern part of China. Like Chumjang, Dusi is made from flour and beans. Salt as well as various spices like Star anise, Chinese pepper and sesame are added. This type of paste is widely used in the Southern part of China. Chungjang is made when salt and water are added and sun-dried, after which it is filtered through an apparatus called Jangyou. The final product is sauce similar to today’s soybean sauce.
This study aimed to characterize the use of spices in Korean cookbooks published from the 1400’s to 1700’s. We conducted a content analysis of seven old cookbooks (「Sangayorok」,「Suunjapbang」,「Eumsikdimibang」),「Yorok」,「Jubangmun」,「Somunsaseol」, and 「Jeungbosallimgyeongje」). We collected a total of 238 food recipes, including spices as ingredients. We analyzed the types of spices used and characteristics of the recipes according to 18 dish groups. As results, a total of 10 spices were used as ingredient: ginger, pepper, Chinese pepper, garlic, sesame, chili, mustard, cinnamon, fennel, and clove. Among 238 food recipes analyzed, ginger was used most often (40.3%), followed by pepper (36.1%), Chinese pepper (30.3%), garlic (17.2%), and so on. In particular, chili was used in 18 different kinds of food recipes, which were 「Somunsaseol」and「Jeungbosallimgyeongje」published in 1700s. Spices were used in different dish groups mostly as condiments. Among 18 dish groups, Chimchae was the most frequent dish group (44 recipes), followed by Jjim · Seon (31 recipes), Jang · Yangnyeom (20 recipes) and rice cake · cookie (20 recipes). Pepper or Chinese pepper were the most frequently used spices in all food groups except Chimchae, Hoe, Jang · Yangnyeom and rice cake · cookie, in which garlic, ginger, sesame and ginger were used most frequently, respectively.
Records regarding beef cuisine and its tenderization were identified in 38 publications. Old cookbooks, agricultural texts, and Joseon’s encyclopedias addressed the subject 411 times. The beef recipe was as follows: cutting 184 times, seasoning 112 times, moist heat cooking 196 times, dry heat cooking 129 times, and drying off 33 times. Recipe also used main ingredients 194 times, sub ingredients 203 times, garnish eight times, and stock six times. Regarding seasoning and flavoring materials, there were a total of 41 types of spices, tenderizers, and others written 839 times. There are two main types of tenderizing beef: physical and chemical methods. A total of 18 types of natural tenderizers were written 57 times in the recipe.
This study conducted a literature review, field study, and in-depth interview on the build order, cooking method, and origin of ‘Donggot-tteok (rice cake)’, which was the ritual food for ‘Chungjae Gwon Beol from the Andong Gwon clan Jongga’ in Bonghwa, Gyeongbuk, who deifies Chungjae Gwon Beol as Bulcheonwi. Donggot-tteok of Chungjae Jong-ga is classified as one kind of Bonpyeon (Janjeolpyeon) and 11 kinds of Utgipyeon, and assumes a unique circle build shape. According to the results of the literature review data in 2004 and 2010 with field study data in 2014, the build order, materials, and cooking method were maintained without large changes. With regard to Utgipyeon with which Donggot-tteok is topped, Cheongjeolpyeon, Milbiji, Songgisongpyeon, Gyeongdan, Ssukdanja, Bupyeon, Japgwapyeon, Jeon, Sansim, Jo-ak, and Kkaeguri were heaped in each layer, and the beauty of obangsaek (five colors) was well harmonized. Besides, with regard to the origin of Donggot-tteok, which was presented without elaborating sundry records, we examined the possibility of being introduced from the royal court through old paper and the Jokbo (family tree) that Jong-ga owns.
One of the main processes of tenderizing beef in Joseon Dynasty was chemical methods involving Apricot seeds, manchu cherry twig and leaves, bamboo skins, mulberry tree bark, mangsa (硭砂), salmiacum (磠砂), alcohol, fermented malt, and original honey. This study analyzed and compared the effect of broussonetia papyrifera, fermented malt, cherry trees, and mulberry tree bark from old cookbooks. Tenderizing beef with cherry trees was most effective in the experiment on shearing force, TPA, and electrophoresis of beef. According to sensory evaluation and electrophoresis test results, tenderized beef with mulberry tree bark was slightly more preferred over the method using cherry trees. However, in accordance with the above mentioned experiment, quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the most common tenderizing material was derived from morus alba powder.
Despite expansion of the mulnaengmyeon market, there have been no studies on consumers’ attitudes towards mulnaengmyeon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage and consumption patterns for mulnaengmyeon among adults in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea. A survey including demo- and socio-graphics, general mulnaengmyeon usage, and consumption questions was tested on 210 consumers. The results of the survey showed that the majority of consumers consumed mulnaengmyeon more frequently during summer. Although the instant mulnaengmyeon market has rapidly increased, it was found that mulnaengmyeon is a food that is generally consumed in restaurants. In addition, mulnaengmyeon usage and consumption patterns significantly differed according to consumer age, whereas there was no difference observed according to parent’s or grandparent’s hometown of origin. Older consumers were observed to consume and purchase mulnaengmyeon as well as instant mulnaengmyeon more often than young consumers. Also, older consumers were shown to consider “health” related factors as more important when selecting mulnaengmyeon, whereas young consumers considered “price” related factors to be more important.
This study aimed to identify the effects of health-related menu choice attributes on customer behavioral intentions at wellbeing restaurants and analyze the moderating effects of food involvement and trust, which can influence customer preference and their intentions to visit well-being restaurants. This study designed a survey, and 351 respondents who have eaten at well-being restaurants completed the questionnaire. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to identify underlying dimensions related to health-related menu choice attributes, food involvement, and customer behavioral intentions toward well-being restaurants. The three factors regarding health-related menu choice attributes and the three factors related to food involvement were identified. In order to test the relationships between health-related menu choice attributes and behavioral intentions as well as to investigate the moderating effects of food involvement and trust, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. Results indicated that the three factors of health-related menu choice attributes were significantly and positively related to behavioral intentions. Among food involvement factors, dining environment and cooking were significantly related to behavioral intentions toward well-being restaurants. Trust had a significant influence on behavioral intentions. Results showed that food involvement and trust could moderate the effects of health-related menu choice attributes on behavioral intentions toward well-being restaurants.
The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness and attitudes for leftover foods and the relationship between gender/number of family members on the effect of leftover foods-free day in elementary school students. The reasons for school lunch leftover foods were ‘too much amount (38.3%)’ and ‘disliked menu (33.6%)’, and the preferred ways for reduction of leftover food was ‘to cook deliciously (34%)’. In the case of students who received nutrition education for reduction of leftover lunch, approximately 33.8% of subjects received nutrition education by administered by nutrition teachers during lunch time. The reason for reducing the amount of leftover foods was ‘not to waste the foods (35.5%)’. After a leftover food-free day, approximately 62.3% of subjects responded that they ate their whole meal, except for soup. The subjects wanted ‘twice per week for leftover food-free day’ and had positive attitudes for that program. Proportion of practicing reduction of leftover foods in families was 55.9% of subjects, and 40.5% of subjects preferred dietary education by nutrition teachers in the classroom. For effective reduction of leftover lunch in school, nutrition teachers should attract interest on the environment and foods through after-school activities.
This study compared the nutritional composition and antioxidative activities of different parts (aerial part and root) of Taraxacum coreanum and Taraxacum officinale. To identify the nutrient composition of different parts of Daedelion species, nutrient contents were analyzed. Crude ash, protein, and fat contents of T. coreanum and T. officinale were higher in the aerial part compared to the root. There was no significant difference in crude ash, protein, or carbohydrate content of the aerial part depending on the Daedelion species. Aerial part contents of vitamin A, E, and C were significantly higher in T. coreanum than T. officinale. The K content of the aerial part of T. coreanum and T. officinale was highest, although there was no significant difference among Daedelion species. Contents of oxalic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid in the aerial part of T. coreanum were highest. Contents of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the aerial part were significantly higher in T. coreanum than T. officinale. In conclusion, the aerial part of T. coreanum and T. officinale could be used as antioxidative functional food sources.
In this study, we compared the organoleptic and other qualities of fermented milk containing 10 or 15% purple carrot extract that had either been previously fermented with Aspergillus oryzae or not fermented. Fermentation characteristics, pH, chromaticity, viscosity, viable cell counts, and sensory evaluations were measured. The pH and acid values did not differ between purple carrot extract fermented with Aspergillus oryzae and non-fermented extract. Viable cell counts were significantly higher in 15% purple carrot extract fermented with Aspergillus oryzae compared to the control after fermentation. Regarding characteristic changes, purple carrot extract fermented with Aspergillus oryzae group showed a lower red value but higher yellow value compared with non-fermented purple carrot extract due to heat-sterilization. Both fermented and non-fermented extract groups showed significantly increased viscosity compared to control. In the sensory evaluation, 15% purple carrot extract fermented with Aspergillus oryzae showed the highest score. In conclusion, addition of 15% purple carrot extract fermented with Aspergillus oryzae resulted in a superior fermented milk product.
The purpose of this research was to appraise physicochemical properties by utilizing different Mit-sool, Juk, Seolgi-tteok, and Godubap, to produce traditional liquor. In all experimental plots, pH and amino acidity tended to increase with duration of fermentation. Titratable acidity displayed a very high number on the second day but then tended to decrease as fermentation progressed. Sugar contents were highest on the fourth day and tended to decrease with time. Alcohol content increased sharply at the initial stage of fermentation and increased gradually. On the 15th day, traditional liquor made with Godubap recorded the highest alcohol content. Common free sugar components were glucose and sorbitol. Common free organic acid components were lactic, succinic, citric, tartaric, malic, and acetic acids. Volatile flavor compounds were six alcohols, five esters, three aldehydes, and two ketones. Regarding overall acceptability in the sensory evaluation, traditional liquor using Seolgi-tteok as Mit-sool scored the highest. Overall, even though different types of Mit-sool had different physicochemical properties, there were no significant differences in volatile flavor compounds or sensory evaluation scores.