Changes in contents of free sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids of legumes were analyzed for each phase of in vitro digestion. In addition, contents of resistant starch in raw and digested pulses were compared. Soybeans, kidney beans, cowpeas, and chickpeas were analyzed. An in vitro digestion model was used to analyze contents of nutrients using LC-MS and GC-MS. Stachyose in kidneybean, cowpea, and chickpea increased as the digestion phase progressed. In four types of legumes, raffinose slightly decreased or showed no significant difference between the Oral phase and the BBMV phase. Content of glucose, a monosaccharide, increased during the BBMV phase. During the digestion phase, levels of free amino acids and free fatty acids also increased. Content of resistant starch was reduced compared to that in the raw material. It was 0.01g/100 g food in soybean, 1.06 g/100 g food in red kidney bean, 0.77g/ 100g food in cowpea, and 0.76 g/100 g food in chickpea. It was confirmed that nutrients in the in vitro digestion model were liberated at each digestion phase with changes in the content of resistant starch. These results are expected to be used as fundamental data for obtaining bioavailability of nutrients.
This study investigated the potential role of dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. The scoping review method was used to evaluate the studies that utilized the secondary data sets comprising the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Articles published between 2012 and 2022 were identified using RISS, KISS, DBpia, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases. In all, there were 32 published articles on obesity and 119 on MetS. Obesity research included eight articles on nutrients, 12 on food items/food groups, two on dietary patterns, nine on dietary behavior/eating habits, and one on the dietary index. MetS studies comprised 34 articles on nutrients, 43 on food items/food groups, seven on dietary patterns, 25 on dietary behavior/eating habits, and 10 on the dietary index. Carbohydrates, alcohol, and coffee consumption were the most frequently studied dietary factors for obesity and MetS. The primary areas of study were largely focused on nutrients and food items/food groups. Thus, to overcome the paucity of information on the relationship of dietary patterns and dietary indexes with obesity and MetS, there is a need for further research using the KNHANES and KoGES data sets.
This study examined the traditional edible basis and ingredients of Song-gi used for Pyeon of Jong-ga ancestral ritual food. Through an investigation of references, a case study, and ingredient analysis for traditional edible basis of Song-gi, the nutritional value and availability as food material were reviewed. Among the 4 kinds of pine trees from 4,705 types of edible materials usable as food listed in the 《Korea Food Standards Codex》, ‘Pinus radiata D. Don’, in which the husk is acknowledged as an edible food, was applied in this study. This study processed the Song-gi following the method of jongga and divided into pine inner bark (PIB) and pine inner bark powder (PIBP) to analyze the general composition and dietary fiber. The main composition of PIB was carbohydrate, in which the content was 88.7% per 100 g. The content of dietary fiber was 73.7% per 100 g and the insoluble dietary fiber reached 92.3% in total dietary fiber. In conclusion, the edibility of Song-gi, which has a considerable amount of insoluble dietary fiber caused constipation because it absorbed the moisture in the intestine due to the lack of nutrients but may be developed as a functional food that helps the digestive activation of the intestine and improve the health of the intestine if taken with balanced nutrition.
This study conducted a literature review, field study, and in-depth interview on the build order, cooking method, and origin of ‘Donggot-tteok (rice cake)’, which was the ritual food for ‘Chungjae Gwon Beol from the Andong Gwon clan Jongga’ in Bonghwa, Gyeongbuk, who deifies Chungjae Gwon Beol as Bulcheonwi. Donggot-tteok of Chungjae Jong-ga is classified as one kind of Bonpyeon (Janjeolpyeon) and 11 kinds of Utgipyeon, and assumes a unique circle build shape. According to the results of the literature review data in 2004 and 2010 with field study data in 2014, the build order, materials, and cooking method were maintained without large changes. With regard to Utgipyeon with which Donggot-tteok is topped, Cheongjeolpyeon, Milbiji, Songgisongpyeon, Gyeongdan, Ssukdanja, Bupyeon, Japgwapyeon, Jeon, Sansim, Jo-ak, and Kkaeguri were heaped in each layer, and the beauty of obangsaek (five colors) was well harmonized. Besides, with regard to the origin of Donggot-tteok, which was presented without elaborating sundry records, we examined the possibility of being introduced from the royal court through old paper and the Jokbo (family tree) that Jong-ga owns.
This study examined the food purchasing behavior of rural housewives in Bibong-myeon, Hwaseong. The survey targeted grocery shopping for the home, in particular by housewives. The type of grocery store frequented, age, socioeconomic factors, and ease of purchase were compared with interests in health foods. One super supermarket (SSM), three supermarkets (SM), and four convenience stores were examined in the research area, whereas a large-scale discount store and grocery stores were also examined outside the research area. The grocery store visiting rate was 61.5% in the research area and 38.5% in the other area. The SSM (62.7%) and SM (29.9%) in the research area and LDS (57.1%) and SSM (16.7%) in the other area were most frequently visited. Major purchasing products greatly differed according to the grocery store type. Major foods purchased in the SSM were grain, meat, and fish. Major foods purchased in the LDS and SM were processed products and vegetables, respectively. The LDS visiting frequency was 41.7% for 2-3 times per month and 41.7% for <1 time per month. The means of transport were mostly by private car (87.5%), whereas the SSM was visited 1-2 times per week 53.1% of the time by foot. In addition, various grocery stores are absent in rural areas and it is therefore important to find other methods to assess the food environment of rural areas. In future research, it will be necessary to design various ways to perform food environment research.
The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation indicator for the industrialization of local cuisine. We conducted a literature study, interviews with experts, and a Delphi survey. The resulting evaluation indicator was divided into four groups and nine sub-groups. The four groups were locality, taste and functionality, industrial base, and business value. The nine sub-groups were traditionality, regionality, eating quality, nutrition and functionality, condition of development, technological level, rights and policy, marketability, and ripple effects. Also 22 items were created as indicators for evaluating classes ; historicity, sustainability, rarity, awareness of local resident, the number of similar restaurant, appearance, taste, nutritional balance, health functionality, availability of raw materials, suitability of environmental exchange of market, standardization of recipe, simplification of recipe, storability, intellectual property rights, government's policy, appropriacy of price, popularization, possibility of franchise, globalization, improvement of local image, vitalization of local economy. The four most important classes corresponded to one of the four groups. These classes were sustainability, taste, state (local autonomy) policy, vitalization of local economy. The implications of this study are that the possibility of industrializing the local cuisine of each region can be evaluated and applied. Moreover, these indicators could promote the discovery of local cuisines, support planning for the commercialization of local cuisine.