The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation indicator for the industrialization of local cuisine. We conducted a literature study, interviews with experts, and a Delphi survey. The resulting evaluation indicator was divided into four groups and nine sub-groups. The four groups were locality, taste and functionality, industrial base, and business value. The nine sub-groups were traditionality, regionality, eating quality, nutrition and functionality, condition of development, technological level, rights and policy, marketability, and ripple effects. Also 22 items were created as indicators for evaluating classes ; historicity, sustainability, rarity, awareness of local resident, the number of similar restaurant, appearance, taste, nutritional balance, health functionality, availability of raw materials, suitability of environmental exchange of market, standardization of recipe, simplification of recipe, storability, intellectual property rights, government's policy, appropriacy of price, popularization, possibility of franchise, globalization, improvement of local image, vitalization of local economy. The four most important classes corresponded to one of the four groups. These classes were sustainability, taste, state (local autonomy) policy, vitalization of local economy. The implications of this study are that the possibility of industrializing the local cuisine of each region can be evaluated and applied. Moreover, these indicators could promote the discovery of local cuisines, support planning for the commercialization of local cuisine.
This study was performed to investigate the consumption of coffee beverages and energy contribution ratios of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks by college students in Deajeon City and Chungnam Province in Korea. Questionnaire survey, dietary survey, and snack survey using food record method during 3-days were carried out. As a result, we found that 86.9% of male students and 75.6% of female students consumed coffee beverages usually, with no differences between the two groups. However, the frequency of coffee beverages consumed by female students out-numbered that of male students by 1 cup a day to 1-2 cups a week (p<0.05). Furthermore, male students most likely consumed coffee beverages at schools or academies, but female students consumed them at coffee shops (p<0.01). The reasons male students gave to consume coffee beverages were for scent, taste, fatigue, and to stay awake. Similarly, the reasons female students gave to consume coffee beverages were for scent, taste, habit, and to stay awake (p<0.01). Fully 58.1% of male students and 80.0% of female students ate snacks along with coffee beverages (p<0.01). Most male students substituted a coffee beverage and accompanying snack for a regular meal once a month. Female students were doing it at most 2-3 times a month (p<0.05). The mean daily dietary energy intake of male students was 1,924 kcal/d, and of female students was 1,518 kcal/d (p<0.001), which both were below the estimated energy requirements. Male students obtained 285.6 kcal/d and female students obtained 289.5 kcal/d from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. There was a significant different in dietary intake of energy (p<0.05), calcium, and iron (p<0.001) for each ratio of reference intake between male and female students. The students who ate larger amounts of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks consumed less dietary energy, protein, calcium, and iron, respectively (p<0.05). These results show that many students consume coffee beverages regularly and obtain large amounts of energy from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. It also shows that student's dietary nutrient intake tends to be poorer, as he or she obtains more energy from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. Therefore, it is critical to monitor the influence of consumption of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks on the dietary nutrient intakes and health of college students, and to provide nutrition education about the proper consumption of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks based on scientific evidence.
This study was designed to provide practical environmental marketing data by measuring the effect of environmental marketing on customer loyalty and trust at coffee stores. The results were obtained by empirical analysis and are summarized as follows. The first hypothesis, the effect of environmental marketing on consumer trust at coffee stores, showed that environmental marketing at coffee stores had a statistically significant positive effect on consumer trust. Price, product, and facilities as sub-factors of environmental marketing at coffee stores had effects on consumer trust. Especially, facilities was the highest. The second hypothesis, the effect of environmental marketing on customer loyalty at coffee stores, showed that environmental marketing at coffee stores had a statistically significant positive effect on customer loyalty. Price, product, and facilities as sub-factors of environmental marketing at coffee stores had effects on customer loyalty. Especially, facilities was the highest. The third hypothesis, the effect of consumer trust on customer loyalty at coffee stores, showed that consumer trust at coffee stores had a statistically significant positive effect on customer loyalty. Improvement of consumer trust by environmental marketing was an important factor in improving customer loyalty. As for these findings, price, product, and facilities as sub-factors of environmental marketing at coffee stores had effects on consumer trust and loyalty. Consequently, these findings provide helpful information for coffee stores to plan environmental marketing strategies and establish direction, and they can be used for management activities.
To find an efficient solution for the globalization of Korean food in Brazil, we conducted a survey about the satisfaction of Brazilian natives who had visited a Korean restaurant, and possible suggestions for improvement. We also conducted indepth interviews with 13 owners of Korean restaurants in Seo Paulo, Brazil, about their plans to improve Korean food to be more appealing to the Brazilian palate. Our research shows that Korean restaurants had a below average reputation for employee kindness, menu taste and variety, interior, mood, and accessibility. As a result of the survey, we found that Korean restaurants were considered in general to be below average. The survey also showed that the higher the level of a person's economic standing, the less satisfaction they had with Korean food restaurants. We also found that the most common pieces of advice that Brazilian women had regarding Korean restaurants were to offer more variety in the menu, maintain a cleaner restaurant, and to actively engage in public relations. The general concerns of everyone surveyed focused on cleanliness and public relations of the restaurant. However, food-related people focused more on the taste and quality of the food. Sao Paulo is currently the most well-developed economic center in South America, so the world's food service industry is pushed to the front of its ongoing development. For Korean food to make inroads into Brazil, Korean restaurants need to change the niche that they occupy. First-generation family businesses and second-generation specialized family businesses coexist in that city. So first of all, to localize the Korean food for Brazilian tastes, a menu system that will easily allow natives to access Korean food must be established. And second of all, it must support the total food culture by improving distribution, sanitation management, and marketing methods that can get the natives to like Korean food ingredients.
This study presents the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a potential decision-making method for obtaining the relative weights of alternatives through pairwise comparison in the context of hierarchical structure. The aim of this study was to elicit prior strategies for brand communication for Korean restaurants overseas. We created a questionnaire and surveyed experts at government agencies, restaurant companies, and universities from October to November 2011. By applying the pairwise comparison matrix, relevance was perceived as a more important strategy evaluation criteria than effectiveness or urgency. The highest-ranked strategy was the 'Identification of the BI and positioning of Korean restaurants' followed by 'Development of Korean food content for overseas promotion', 'Development of locally customized Korean food recipes and new Korean menus', 'Development of marketing communication strategies for Korean restaurants by countries', and 'Development of Korean restaurant differentiation strategies'. The results of this study can be used for effective Korean food globalization by enhancing the competitiveness in the world market.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among food quality, food awareness, customer satisfaction, and revisit intentions of Korean restaurants in Chinese University or College students in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk areas. A questionnaire developed from a literature review included a series of questions about the quality of Korean food, Korean food awareness, customer satisfaction, and revisit intentions. Analysis of the survey data was performed on 234 valid responses. Statistical analyses, including frequencies, factor analysis, reliability analysis and regression, were performed using the SPSS program. The results indicated that food quality perceived by Chinese students had a significant impact on customer satisfaction. On the contrary, food quality according to Korean food awareness by Chinese students did not have a significant impact on customer satisfaction. Further, customer satisfaction had a significant influence on revisit intentions, whereas customer satisfaction according to Korean food awareness did not have a significant effect. In conclusion, food quality is a significant factor in determining the success of the foodservice industry.
This study was conducted to compare the preference and satisfaction for Korean traditional foods (Jeonju Bibimbap, Daetongbap, Jeonbokjuk, Jorangiddockguk, Hobakbumbuk, Darkgalbee, Eonyang Bulgogi, Moyackgwa, Insam Jeonggwa, Maejackgwa) in foreigners and Koreans. In this study, 27 foreign and 31 Korean university students were surveyed. Statistical analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were performed using the SPSS statistical package (17.0). The major findings were as follows: 1) Foreigners had higher experience of eating Darkgalbee (84.6%), Jeonju Bibimbap (80.8%), Daetongbap (53.8%), and Jeonbokjuk (53.8%) among Korean traditional foods, whereas their eating experience of Insam Jeonggwa (3.8%), Maejackgwa (11.5%), Moyackgwa (15.4%) and Jorangiddockguk (23.1%) was lower. 2) Foreigners and Koreans both liked sweet taste, but disliked sour taste, bitter taste, garlic flavor, sesame flavor, and soy sauce flavor among the sensory characteristics of Korean traditional foods. 3) Foreigners scored their overall satisfaction of Korean traditional foods in the order of Jeonju Bibimbap (7.70±0.95), Eonyang Bulgogi (7.62±2.10), Daetongbap (7.59±1.60), Darkgalbee (7.20±1.56), and Jeonbokjuk (6.67±1.64), whereas Koreans rated higher scores for Eonyang Bulgogi (8.28±1.19), Darkgalbee (8.20±1.00), Jeonju Bibimbap (7.73±1.08), Jeonbokjuk (7.69±1.44), and Moyackgwa (7.43±1.52).
"Japji" was an old cookbook written in 1721. There are 27 types of foods recorded in "Japji"; 10 descriptions of Byeonggwaryu (rice cakes and cookies): Yakgwa, Junggye, Mandugwa, Chaesugwa, Umujeonggwa, Dongajeonggwa, Baekjapyeon, Aengdupyeon, Toranbyeong, and Yeot; and 16 descriptions of Chanpumryu (side dishes): Jinjumyeon, Jeunggyetang, Geumjungtang, Eoreumtang, Changjajjim, Gajijjim, Oejjim, Dubuseon, Dubuneureumi, Geneureumi, Gesanjeok, Hodojaban, Jeonyak, Seokryutang, Sungeojuak, and Yangmandu. There is also a description of Gugija (Chinese wolfberry) liquor. Here, comparative analysis based on culinary science was carried out on the Korean foods recorded in "Japji" as well as the similar foods recorded in "Gyuhapchongseo" (Women's Encyclopedia) written around 1815. Of the 27 types of Korean foods recorded in "Japji", 13 were also found recorded in "Gyuhapchongseo". The time period for "Japji" can be assumed to be 1721 based on the fact that it is written in a cursive handwriting style of Hangeul, that chili was never used as an ingredient, and that the word "Shinchuknyeon (辛丑年)" was transcribed at the beginning of the book. The dating method also included considerations of whether Neureumi was used or not as well as changes in its cooking style.
This study examined the prevalence of the traditional pressed sweet called dasik recorded in 15 Joseon dynasty (1392-1909) royal palace studies. The ingredients used in Dasik during the Joseon dynasty were categorized into 43% cereal powders, 18.6% tree fruits, 17.4% flower powders, 11.6% root clods, 8.2% dry-fish beef powders, and 1.2% vegetables. In the early era of the Joseon dynasty there were no reports of dasik in the royal palace. In the middle era of the Joseon dynasty there was one report of dasik in the royal palace. But in the late era of the Joseon dynasty there were 85 kinds of dasik reported in the royal palace. The most common ingredients were, most common first, Song-wha (松花), Huek-im (黑荏), Hwang-yul (黃栗), Nok-mal (菉末), and chungtae (靑太). The appearance and taste of dasik varied greatly throughout the time period, eventually resulting in nutrient supplementation. This observation may be associated with the commercial industrial development that prevailed during the late Joseon dynasty. Further investigation will be conducted on the recipes and ingredients recorded in these old studies to develop a standardized recipe for the globalization of dasik.
This study investigated the perception, consumer pattern and satisfaction of the ginseng products of 600 people in the Seoul area surveyed from Feb. 1 to 28, 2011. The perception and satisfaction tests were performed using a 5-point scale (1=disagree (dissatisfy) very much, 5=agree (satisfy) very much. People perceived ginseng to have refreshment (3.86), immuno-modulation (3.78), anticancer (3.51), and antiaging (3.41) properties. People in their 20s (4.02) scored high on refreshment compared to people in their 60s and over (3.73). Most people (79.8%) consume ginseng products and prefer red ginseng (74.3%). More people in their 40s (54.1%) and 50s (48.2%) consume ginseng products for refreshment than people in their 20s (38.7%), 30s (41.5%) or 60s and over (40.0%). However, more people in their 50s (36.1%) and 60s and over (43.6%) consume ginseng products for disease prevention than people in their 20s (8.6%). Most people (66.4%) take ginseng all year round. People in their 20s (2.70) showed a smaller satisfaction score of the taste of ginseng products than those in their 30s (3.21), 40s (3.23), 50s (3.26) and 60s and over (3.38).