Today, energy bars are consumed not only as snacks but also as meal replacement foods. Convenience and nutritional supplementation are the main factors accounting for the increasing use of energy bars. Two hundred Chinese customers who attended the China Fisheries & Seafood Exposition in China, and had no inhibitions about consuming cereal bars were selected. The questionnaire was composed of CATA choices that selected both the reasons for liking and disliking four different types of cereal bars, namely topokki flavor (hot pepper paste), seaweed flavor, kimchi flavor, and ginseng flavor cereal bars with 10% of dried anchovy content produced by BadaOne Co. (Seoul, Korea). The purpose of the study was to investigate Chinese consumer’s attitudes and acceptance of different flavored cereal bars containing protein and calciumrich anchovy. For the selected Chinese customers, the acceptance score for the seaweed flavor was the highest, followed by topokki, red ginseng, and kimchi. The acceptance for the topokki flavor was higher than for seaweed for the attributes of color except for general acceptance, flavor, aroma, and texture. The results of the survey showed that the acceptance of kimchi was the lowest, contrary to earlier predictions. The results of the Check All That Apply (CATA) analysis showed that the reasons for liking the seaweed & anchovy flavor were the most diverse, and there was no reason chosen for disliking this flavor. The reasons for liking this flavor were listed as sweet flavor, healthy, seafood flavor, malty flavor, texture, new/unique, and umami. In the case of topokki and kimchi, the reason for disliking the flavor was umami, and in the case of red ginseng, the ginseng flavor was the reason for both likes and dislikes. CA analysis showed that both the flavor and emotional factors were positive for seaweed & anchovy and topokki, but negative for red ginseng. As a result, seaweed & anchovy flavor, which is familiar to the Chinese people, should be the first cereal bar considered for a launch.
The purpose of this study is to observe the influence education experience (home, school, and mass media) on reducing practice behavior(purchasing, using, disposing and leading) of food-related wastes. The study also sought to promote strategy and suggest effective activation plans for the vitalization of behavior of reducing food-related wastes. The study subjects were 412 adult consumers who answered a structured questionnaire. The main findings are as follows: First, the scores of home education experience were 3.61±0.71, which was the highest, and 3.45±0.74 for school education experience, which was the lowest. Second, according to factor analysis, the reducing practice behavior of food-related wastes was converged purchasing, using, disposing and leading behavior. The scores of disposing behavior were 3.79±0.67, which was the highest, and 2.87±0.82 for leading behavior, which was the lowest. Third, the common variables influencing the reducing practice behavior(purchasing, using, disposing and leading) of food-related wastes were home education and mass media and the powerful variable influencing was home education. The results of this study can be used as basic data for the development of educational programs for effective food-related waste reduction.
The Chinese Sigyeong records the foods of the Primitive Pickling Period, pickling being a universal vegetable storage method, but does not indicate the origin of the pickled vegetables or the location of the source of transmission. Kimchi mainly used salt and sauce-based soaking materials at the beginning of the Fermented Pickling Period (beginning in the 1st to 3rd centuries A.D.), and it differed from the Chinese method, which used alcohol and vinegar. In the Umami-Flavored Pickling Period (beginning in the 14th and 15th centuries A.D.), jeotgal, fermented seafoods, were added, and pickles with a completely new identity were created, one different from any other pickles in the world. Lastly, entering the Complex Fermentation and Pickling Period (beginning in the 17th and 18th centuries), the technical process evolved using a separate special seasoning containing red pepper as the secondary immersion source after pickling in brine, the primary immersion source. As a result of this, kimchi was transformed into a food with a unique form and taste not found anywhere else. The unique characteristic of kimchi is that the composition of original materials, a combination of salted marine life and vegetable ingredients, is its core identity, and there is a methodological difference in that it is completed through a second process called saesaengchae (生菜)-chimchae (沈菜).
What is the origin of kimchi and what changes did it go through to become the kimchi of today? Also, what makes kimchi different from other pickled vegetables such as Chinese paochai, Japanese tsukemono, and Western pickles, and sauerkraut, and what is the identity of kimchi? This study is the result of thought on these fundamental questions about kimchi which is the only pickled vegetable distributed around the world that uses a fermented and ripened animal seasoning called jeotgal (salted marine life) to dramatically improve its umami taste and nutritional value, thereby securing its uniqueness. Kimchi has further evolved into a unique and high-quality pickled vegetable through the use of its specialized seasoning, adopting a composite fermentation mechanism and absorbing new ingredients such as red pepper. It is expected that this paper will invigorate the discussion on the firm establishment of the identity of kimchi and the future direction that it may take.
The food service industry has grown larger with changes in the economic and socio-cultural environment. In this saturated food service industry, generation X and MZ are the main consumer forces that demand attention. That is because a generation is the main psychographic factor that reflects personal values and lifestyle based on one’s life cycle. From such a perspective, a generation in marketing has been used as a variable to predict a market by supplementing demographic factors. Accordingly, this study classified generations into generation X and generation MZ with the use of the 2019 consumer behavior survey for food by Korea Rural Economic Institute (KREI) and then investigated the factors influencing group and personal dining-out expenses. The analysis was carried out applying the Tobit model using SPSS and R. The positively influential variables on generation X's personal dining-out expenditure were male, single person, high income and simple lifestyle, whereas housewives, personal ethical consciousness, behavioral ethical consciousness, and safe dietary life were negatively influential variables. The positively influential variables on generation MZ's personal dining-out expenditures were male, dual-income, high education level, corporate and governmental ethical consciousness, while the number of family members and safe dietary life were negatively influential variables.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of the quality of school meals by parents of kindergarten children in Seoul, analyze the acceptance price and the optimal school meal cost using PSM (price sensitivity measurement) techniques, and provide basic data for improving the quality of kindergarten meals. The survey was conducted using descriptive statistics and PSM analysis of the responses of 1,272 parents of 779 kindergarten children belonging to the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education from April to May 2021 and prior research analysis related to kindergarten meals. 74.1% of the parents surveyed were women, with 61% of children attending kindergartens attached to elementary schools, followed by private kindergartens (28.9%) and public kindergartens (10.1%). According to a study of the quality of meals, private kindergarten parents are highly satisfied with all the quality attributes of meals, such as “sanitation of dining environment” and “nutritionally balanced food” (p<0.001, p<0.01). The analysis of the acceptance price range and the optimal price for school meals showed that there was no significant variation based on the type of kindergarten establishment, with parents' acceptance price range ranging from 3,596 won to 4,454 won with an optimal price of 3,948 won.
In this study, consumers’ perception and consumption behavior of blended tea were investigated. Also, consumer perception of Siberian chrysanthemum, consumption behavior, and awareness of efficacy were investigated. As a result of the survey, it was confirmed that it was necessary to develop a blended tea with taste and flavor characteristics that consumers prefer, having the capability of relieving stress, and preventing cold or respiratory disease. In addition, the degree of recognition of Siberian chrysanthemum was very low, and the recognition of the efficacy appeared in the order of 'cold relief' and ‘respiratory disease relief’. Factor analysis results, safety attributes, health attributes, product attributes, marketing attributes, and sensory attributes were factorized into five factors, and after analysis, it was concluded that the sensory attributes of taste and aftertaste were considered the most important. Consumers surveyed appeared to consume blended tea for ‘relieving mood or stress relief’, to enjoy the taste, and to prevent cold or respiratory diseases. Siberian chrysanthemum displays efficacy in cold relief and relief of respiratory diseases. Therefore, developing Siberian chrysanthemum as a blended tea could be a practical application that can expand the range of its use, making it more popular and increase its commercial applications.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of roasting temperature on the quality characteristics and biological activity of quinoa. Quinoa was roasted at 160, 200, and 220oC for 20 min. The lightness (L*) of quinoa decreased, however, the redness (a*) increased as the roasting temperature increased. The yellowness (b*) was the highest at 160oC and decreased at 200 and 220oC. The highest contents of total polyphenol, flavonoid, and quercetin were observed at 220oC, the highest roasting temperature. The highest radical scavenging activities of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (73.65%) and α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radicals (47.82%) were found in roasted quinoa at 220oC. The α- glucosidase activity was inhibited by 62.13% at this temperature. The roasted quinoa at 220oC also showed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. These results could be useful in the development of food products using quinoa.
This study was carried out to investigate the flavoral essential oil components in the stems of Agastache rugosa. These components were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). The stems of Agastache rugosa were contained alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acid esters, and terpenoids. The peak area (%) of estragole was highest among its oil components and the next were pulegone and menthone. The terpenoid alcohols found were 1-octen-3-ol, chavicol, spatulenol, 3-hexen-1-ol, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, methyl eugenol, and octaethyllene glycol. The stems also contained ketones such as pulegone, menthone, cis-isopulegone, 2-cyclohexene-1-one, 3-octanone, 1-cyclohexanone, isoindole-1- one, t-ionone, inden-2-one, as well as the aldehydes of 4-methoxycinnam and benzaldehyde. The following esters were also detected 1-isopulegone-3-yl acetate, caryophyllene oxide, acetate and benzendicarboxylic acid ester. The terpenoids in the stems were identified as caryophyllene, limonene, cyclohexasiloxane-D, germacrene-D, anethole, cadinene, muurolene, and bourbonene. Overall Agastache rugosa contained several functional oil components including phenylpropanoids and terpenoids as flavoral essential oil components for natural aromatherapy.
This study sought to investigate the effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and ethanol treatment (EOH) for improving the quality and storage stability of Tteokbokki Tteok. The quality characteristics were evaluated by moisture, pH, color, texture profile analysis, and observing the microbial properties after the heat-moisture treatment or ethanol treatment. As the storage period increased, the moisture content of Tteokbokki Tteok tended to decrease except for the HMT group (p<0.05) while the pH did not show significant variation except for the EOH group (p<0.05). While measuring the color, the L-value tended to increase in all groups during the storage period. The a-value and the b-value showed the highest values in the HMT group and the control (CON) group, respectively. In the texture profile analysis, all groups showed a significant tendency to increase levels of hardness and chewiness as the storage period increased (p<0.05). The HMT group showed an increase in hardness and adhesiveness, which are characteristics of the HMT treatment. The results of examining the microbial properties of Tteokbokki Tteok showed that the total microbial count in the HMT group was 4.52 on the 8th day of storage, which was lower than the level in the CON group and the EOH group on the 4th day of storage. Yeast and mold were not measured during the storage period. Thus the results of this study showed that when manufacturing Tteokbokki Tteok, the heat-moisture treatment of rice powder increased the storage stability by delaying microbial growth and also had positive effects on quality.