Traditional cuisine reflects cooking traditions shaped by political, economic, social, cultural, and environmental conditions characterized by authenticity and uniqueness. Traditional food is not only a part of our cultural heritage but also a knowledge resource. Application of food science and technology in Korean traditional foods was reviewed from six points of view, including food preservation, fermentation, changes in food materials, utilization of food functionality, and packaging and development of cooking appliances. Books from disparate times were chosen in order to cover a wide range of materials from the past to the present. Food preservation and fermentation techniques were applied to various food materials. Combination of science and skills contributes to the accessibility of diverse food materials and better quality foods. Koreans use assorted and resilient plants, which have an abundance of functional substances such as food materials. Among cooking appliances, microwave oven and refrigerator are the most innovative products with huge influences on food eating patterns as well as lifestyle. Packaging effectively reduces post-harvest preservation losses, and better packaging has technical improvements for storage and distribution. Kimchi was chosen as an example in order to study technology from the past to the present. Availability of Kimchi cabbage, enrichment of functional ingredients, identification of useful microbial species, standardization of recipe for commercialization, prevention of texture softening, introduction of salted Kimchi cabbage and Kimchi refrigerators, and packaging were reviewed. The future of traditional foods in the market will be competitive. First, traditional foods market should be maintained to protect the diversity of food materials. Secondly, tailored foods for individuals should be considered using foods with functional properties. Information on health benefits would provide insights into health and traditional food products. Third, speedy transfer of new technology to the traditional food industry is needed to ensure food quality production and new opportunities in the market. Fourth, safety of traditional foods should be ensured without sacrificing the essential characteristics of culturally important foods. Improvement of logistics, distribution, and facility should be carried out. As demand for convenience foods increases, traditional foods should be developed into products.
“Sujeonggwa” is a traditional korean beverage made from dried persimmon, cinnamon, and ginger and is oftengarnished with pine nuts. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the ingredients, recipes, and processingof “sujeonggwa” in Korean cookbooks published since 1400. The name sujeonggwa is derived from jeonggwa. In the early1600s, sujeonggwa was used in ancestral rites and as a reception beverage, although we don't know its cooking method.According to the literature of the early 1800s, sujeonggwa was made from various fruit ingredients such as pear and yuzu.But since the late 1800s, it has been mostly made from dried persimmon based on ginger and cinnamon boiled with water.Garyeon-sujeonggwa is made with lotus leaf while japkwa-sujeonggwa is made with pear and yuzu. Japkwa-sujeonggwa issimilar to hwachae in terms of ingredients and cooking method.
In this study, the eating out behavior and recognition of salinity in restaurant food in Jecheon area were examined. Demographic characteristics of the subjects, eating out behavior and perception of salinity in food purchased in restaurants were surveyed. Also salinity of the high Na-containing menus were measured using salimeter. Exactly 51.6% of the study subjects usually ate out more than one to two times per week. A large percentage (88.6%) of the subjects mentioned that they ate more than half the amount of liquid in their dishes. The study participants recognized that the salt concentrations of stews, soups and noodles in their orders were high. JJamppong was recognized as the most salty among nine kinds of eating out menus, whereas mulnaengmyeon was the least. Although the recognized salt concentration of mulnaengmyeon was relatively low, this dish had the highest salinity out of nine eating out menus. Relative salinities of eating out menus were higher than absolute salinity mostly except yukgaejang. It is necessary to supply exact nutrition information and widely implement nutrition labeling. Furthermore, consumers should personally be careful to limit consuming food with high sodium levels when dining at restaurants and eat less liquid in dishes.
This study analyzed purchasing characteristics of local agricultural products and processed products as well as evaluatedoperation programs for Changnyeon festival participants. The purchasing rates of local agricultural products and processedproducts at this festival were 63.6% and 49.1%, respectively, and the main purchased crops were onion (42.6%) and garlic(20.7%). Drinks (43.6%) were highly purchased processed products. The recognition (95.3%) and preferences (98.4%) forChangyeong local agricultural products were high at this festival. Subjects (72.5%) responded that public relations wereeffective for sale at this festival, and evaluation of the operation program for the festival was 3.51±0.74 (total score 5 points).Satisfaction with the experience event (37.7%) and exhibition event (33.6%) were high at this festival program, whereasparticipants gave low rates for art exhibition and sale events of local agricultural products (16.2%), cooking education(14.7%), direct education program (12.9%), and games (12.1%). This festival was an effective means of public relations,although purchase effects were not significant. This result suggests that the festival is necessary for planning a program toincrease purchasing.
This study aimed to examine the cooking methods used in the Joseon Dynasty using cooking books. We chose「Suwoonjabbang」 (1500’s) and「Eumsikdimibang」 (1610) as the subjects of this study. Cooking methods from these tworecipe books were categorized into staples, side dishes, rice cakes, Korean traditional sweets and cookies, drinks, fermentedfoods, seasonings, and storage methods. Firstly,「Suwoonjabbang」 contains a total of 121 cooking methods divided intotwo volumes. In contrast,「Eumsikdimibang」includes 146 cooking methods. There are 18 methods for noodles and dduks,74 methods for fish and meat, and 54 methods for drinks and vinegars, and others. Secondly,「 Suwoonjabbang」 writtenby Yu Kim in Chinese characters can be described in simple terms. It provides caution against indulging in the taste of food.In contrast,「Eumsikdimibang」 by Kye Hyang Jang contains detailed cooking methods that have disappeared. Thirdly,「Eumsikdimibang」 introduced more diverse cooking methods for noodles, dumplings, side dishes, rice cake, Koreantraditional sweets and cookies, and fermented foods as compared to 「Suwoonjabbang」. In conclusion, unique cookingmethods introduced in these two cooking books, which are rare these days, are expected to be further applied anddeveloped.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of local food value perception on purchasing and experience inconsumers. χ2-test, ANOVA, and linear regression analysis were conducted. The findings are summarized as follows: Themost common place for buying agricultural products was ‘hypermarkets’ (41.7%), and the most important factor forpurchasing local food was ‘local government’s certification products’ (23.7%). The most important value recognition itemfor local food was ‘I think that local food is a high-quality agricultural products.’ (3.74 points), followed by ‘I think that localfood have a value of respect for customers’ (3.61 points) and ‘I have a faith for the local food.’ (3.61 points) in that order.The main tourism experience activity was ‘food experience’ (49.0%), and information source of local food experiencetourism was ‘mass media (TV, newspapers, etc.)’ (37.3%). As age increased, experience of local food also increased. Themost effectual value recognition item for purchasing local food was ‘I think that local food have a value of respect forcustomers’. The most effectual value recognition item for increasing intake experience of local food was ‘I think that the localfood is high-quality agricultural products’.
This study investigated data on beef dietary consumption during the Joseon Dynasty Period, including「the Annals ofthe Joseon Dynasty」,「the Diaries of the Royal Secretariat」, and「Ilsongnok」. Beef stands for superstitions as well asrespect, broad-mindedness, exquisite culinary taste, and is a symbol of taste. In the historic record, we found two extremelyopposite trends; specifically, Ugeum (牛禁, forbidding beef consumption and indulgence in beef). On the one hand,believing that they were the rudimentary foundation to Korea’s agriculture, Joseon authorities tried to protect cows and bullsas valuable agricultural assets. Meanwhile, there were several officially sanctioned beef consumption events in the Joseonperiod. These included Jesu (祭需, food for ancestral rites), Daejup (待接, servings), Hasa (下賜, bestowment), and Hogue(饋, comforting soldiers with culinary methods). These included offerings to the departed spirits, servings, bestowment,and comforting soldiers with culinary methods. Especially in Joseon’s Yeonhang (燕行) Journals, we can see different beefdistributions and preferences between Japan and China. Furthermore, The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty even addressedthe general issue of beef treatment; special methods for beef processing, beef distribution, tool materials, and prices of beef.
This study investigated the physicochemical properties and antioxidative activity of soymilk added with buckwheat sprout (SBS), and sensory properties of SBS were analyzed with control soymilk (CS). Moisture content decreased while protein, ash, and lipid contents increased according to content of buckwheat sprout. Solids content and viscosity tended to increase with addition of buckwheat sprout from 0% (CS) to 2.5% (2.5SBS), 3.5% (3.5SBS), and 4.5% (4.5SBS). SBS was found the significant pH drop from 7.08 to 6.43, 6.34, and 6.21. Suspension stability of soymilk slightly decreased with addition of buckwheat sprout. Hunter's color value L of SBS decreased while a and b values increased in comparison with CS. Rutin content was measured 23.78 mg/100 g (2.5SBS), 39.68 mg/100 g (3.5SBS), and 44.80mg/100 g (4.5SBS). Vitamin C content in SBS was higher than CS. Daidzin content increased as buckwheat sprout was added. Total phenolic content increased from 100.95 mg/100 g (CS) up to 315.71 mg/100 g (4.5SBS). For free radical scavenging activity, SBS was significantly higher than CS. In conclusion, SBS can be used as a functional food with higher amounts of rutin, vitamin C, total phenolics, and daidzin. 2.5SBS and 3.5SBS also showed better overall quality characteristics.
Onions contain antioxidant flavonoids and bioactive sulfur compounds. These substances are more abundant in the peel than in onion flesh. For this reason, whole onions including peels were added to soy milk to produce soy milk with whole onions (SWO), whereas peeled onions were added to soy milk to produce soy milk with peeled onions (SPO). The functional and antioxidant properties of these two kinds of soy milk were then analyzed and compared. Compared to control soy milk (CS) without onion powder, treated samples (to which freeze dried onion powder was added at 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0%, respectively) showed significantly increased amounts of quercetin, isoflavone, and total phenol (p=0.05). The magnitude of the increase rose as the amount of added onion powder increased and when onion powder contained onion peels. With regards to antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), SWO showed a greater value than SPO. The sensory evaluation scores of SWO and SPO were lower than CS for roughness and swallowing, as adding onion powder increased solid contents and viscosities. However, higher overall acceptability were obtained 1.8SPO and 1.8SWO.
Antioxidant activity of dropwort fermented extract (DFE) was measured according to fermentation period, and liverprotective effects were examined using Sprague-Dawley rats. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents as well as DPPH andABTS radical scavenging activities increased up to 60~80 days and then decreased slightly. Proper fermentation time forDFE was more than 60 days and less than 80 days. Administration of alcohol to rats for 10 days at 10mL/kg/day raisedserum AST, ALT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels, which were then lowered by DFE and sugar liquid with thesame soluble solids. While sugar liquid increased the blood lipid profile, especially TG levels, DFE had no effect due to itsantioxidant activity. When TBARS content of the DFE group in liver tissue significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner compared to that of the ALH group (p<0.05). Liver damage was recovered by DFE treatment and wasconfirmed by hamatoxylin-eosin staining. These results suggest that DFE has a protective effect against alcohol-inducedhepatotoxicity in SD rats.
The purpose of this study was to compare weight control behaviour, eating habits, and health-related life habits accordingto degree of obesity among normal, overweight, and obese groups. Self-perception of weight and desire for weight controlin males (p<0.001) and females (p<0.001) varied among the three groups. Reasons (p<0.001), experience (p<0.01), andmethod of weight control (p<0.05) were different among the three female groups, whereas males did not show anydifferences. Intake of nutritional supplements in the male obese group was higher compared to other groups (p<0.01),whereas eating habits were not significantly different among the three groups for both males and females. Food habits scorefor intake of fruits, milk, and yogurt were higher in females than males (p<0.001). Correlation coefficients of food habitsscore and anthropometric measurements showed that hip circumference was negative for intake of fruits in males, whereasRBW and BMI were positive for food combination, intake of bean products, and fishes in females (p<0.05). Frequency andfitting exercise in the obese female group were lower than in the other groups (p<0.01). Therefore, proper nutritionaleducation for obese individuals is recommended proper self-perception of weight, good food habits, and regular exercise.
This study was performed to analyze health problems in older adults in a comprehensive manner, including usual livinghabits, nutritional status, and society psychological factors. Research was conducted by a structured questionnaire byinterviews with a test group of 316 people over the age of 65 from April 2012 to August 2012. Elderly people’s dietary intakewas assessed using NSI (Nutrition Screening Initiative) by the 24-hour retrospective method, and elderly people’s feeling ofhelplessness and sense of belonging were assessed using the measuring device. Material analysis, descriptive statistics, andregression analysis were performed using SPSS. Elderly people with increased age showed higher chances of being in thehigh-risk and undernourished group. Elderly with high NSI showed low intake of fat, protein, fibrin, vitamin C, E, B1, B2,Niacin, K, Fe, Zn, and Cu than those with low NSI. Findings from this comparative analysis indicate that elderly with betternutritional status showed a lower feeling of helplessness than those with poor nutritional status. Overall, elderly peopleconsumed a b road variety of foods, and social emotional stability of elderly people increased at optimal dietary levels.
The purpose of this study was to investigate improvement of food habits and eating behavior in children with obesity andprecocious puberty by nutritional education monitoring. The results are as follows. Average height and weight of subjectsexceeded Korean height and weight standards for children as outlined by The Korea Pediatric Society. Using nutritioneducation monitoring, meals became more regular, overeating significantly decreased, and eating speed decreased. Further,frequencies of eating-out and night-eating significantly decreased. The most preferred menu item when eating-out wasKorean food, and the most preferred menu item for night-eating was fruits, fast food, & processed food. Meat & fish andvegetable intakes all significantly increased. Fruit and milk intakes also significantly increased while bread, snack, and icecream intakes decreased. Further, fast food & instant food intakes decreased. However, water intake was not significantlyaffected. The favorite food of children was meat & fish, followed by fast food & processed food. This study may provideinformation on dietary behavior of children with obesity and precocious puberty and suggests that nutrition education orcounseling can improve food habits and eating behavior.