The study surveyed care giver's perceptions of baby food and evaluated the quantitative and qualitative aspects of Korean websites related to the baby food for atopic dermatitis infants. Sources of care giver information about baby food were the internet (93%), clinics (57%), television (52%), oriental clinics (37%), and neighbors (6%). The five most commonly-used internet search engines (Daum, Google, Nate, Naver and Yahoo) were searched using the terms "atopic dermatitis", "weaning food" and "baby food". The searched websites included oriental medical clinics (38.8%), online merchant companies (13.4%), corporations (13.4%), medical clinics (11.9%), related associations (11.9%), public health centers (4.4%) and personal sites (4.4%). Website food and nutrition information included medical information about baby food for atopic dermatitis (92.6%), baby food for atopic dermatitis (67.6%), related community (58.8%), product information (32.4%) and baby food preparation for atopic dermatitis (23.5%). Qualitative evaluation was conducted based on the American Library Association website checklist; Website operator and information sources were provided for 62.7% and 38.8% of the websites, respectively. The purpose of a website was more explicitly stated in medical clinic sites than nonmedical sites. Only 24.2% of websites had a title that appropriately reflected the site's purpose. The majority (92.5%) of the sites were easy to read and understand. Information was judged to be sufficient in 65% of the medical sites and 74.1% of non-medical sites. A feedback menu and search function were enabled in 85.1% and 28.4% of the sites, respectively. The mean score for quality grade was 14.64 (range 9-19). In conclusion, in order to improve the information of baby food for atopic dermatitis infants in websites, accurate information by experts and continuing monitoring are highly required.
We surveyed 553 middle school students living in Incheon using questionnaires to compare their food behaviors and snack intake patterns according to weight groups based on BMI. Mean BMI was 20.3 for males and 19.6 for females. The rate of underweight, normalweight and overweight students was 33.3, 51.7, and 15.0%, respectively. Compared to the other two groups, the overweight students perceived their body shape more accurately (p<0.01). Regarding the reasons for skipping dinner, the most frequent answer by the underweight students was 'because of snacks', while that of the overweight students was 'to lose weight' (p<0.01). The normalweight students were found to eat a Korean traditional type breakfast more frequently than the other weight groups (p<0.05). The overweight female group was more likely to overeathabitually, whereas the normalweight and underweight groups tended to overeat when they were under stress (p<0.05). As for the amount of the snack intake, the overweight male students replied that they eat quite a lot of snacks. As a conclusion, the problems found in the underweight group were unbalanced diet and the disturbance of regular meal patterns due to inappropriate snack intake. The problems shown in the overweight group were overeating due to habit or stress, fast eating speed and large amount of snack intake.
This study investigated the preference, intake condition and awareness of Kimchi of 660 elementary students in the Seoul area surveyed during June, 2008. The preference test was performed by using 5-point hedonic scale (1=dislike very much, 5=like very much). The most preferred types of Kimchi were Baechukimchi (4.32), Bossamkimchi (4.08) and Kkakdugi (4,01). The most preferred foods prepared with Kimchi were Kimchi jjige (4.59), Kimchi bokkeumbap (4.47), fried Kimchi (4.35), Kimchi pancake (4,31), Kimchi mandu (4.20) and Kimchi kimbap (4.06). Kimchi pizza (2.88), Kimchi hamburger (2.85) and Kimchi spaghetti (2.81) were not preferred. Most students (62.7%) ate Kimchi at almost every meal. The main reason for eating Kimchi was its delicious taste (50.3%). Concerning intake of Kimchi provided at school lunch, 48.4% of students ate some, 45.9% ate all and 5.8% ate none. Various kinds of Kimchi should be developed for elementary school students to meet their taste.
This study was conducted in order to investigate and compare anthropometric measurements, bone density, nutrient intake, blood composition and food habits between non-smoking, non-alcohol drinking and smoking, alcohol drinking male university students in Seoul, South Korea. The data for food habits and health-related behaviors were obtained by selfadministered questionnaires. The BQIs of the subjects were measured by Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). The subjects were divided into two groups: NSND (non-smoking and non-alcohol drinking, n=62) group and General (smoking and alcohol drinking, n=160) group. The results were analyzed using the SPSS program and were as follows: The average heights, weights, and BMIs of the two groups were 173.3 cm, 66.5 kg and 22.1 and 173.4 cm, 68.7 kg and 22.9, respectively. There were no differences between the groups regarding height, weight or BMI. SBP and DBP, however, were significantly higher in the general group than in the NSND group (p〈0.01). The BQIs, Z-scores and T-scores of the two groups were 99.83, -0.23, and -0.31 and 98.24, -0.27 and -0.39, respectively, producing no significant differences between the two groups. The percentages for normal bone status, osteopenia and osteoporosis were 83.88%, 16.12% and 0.0% and 74.37%, 25.62% and 0.01%, respectively. Mean intakes of animal protein (p〈0.05), animal fat (p〈0.05), fiber (p〈0.05), animal Ca(p〈0.05), animal Fe (p〈0.001), Zn(p〈0.05), vitamin B1 (p〈0.05) and niacin (p〈0.05) were significantly different between the two groups, and mean serum levels of SGOT (p〈0.01), SGPT (p〈0.001), γ-GTP (p〈0.001), triglycerides (p〈0.01), total cholesterol (p〈0.05) and hematocrit (p〈0.05) were also significantly different between the two groups. Overall, there were no differences in meal regularity, frequency of snacking, reasons for overeating, exercise and defecation between the groups. However, favorite foods (p〈0.05) and night-time meals (p〈0.05) were significantly different. In conclusion, the health status of the NSND group was superior compared to the general group. Thus, students who smoke and alcohol drink should receive a practical and systematically-organized education regarding the increased health benefits of quitting smoking and alcohol drinking.
This study investigated the food and dietary educational content in primary, middle and high school textbooks in order to provide fundamental data for the development of educational programs on Korean traditional food culture. The research objects consisted of 51 kinds of textbooks (15 kinds of primary school textbooks, 29 kinds of middle school home economics textbooks and 7 kinds of high school home economics textbooks), and the contents related to food and dietary education were counted and analyzed. The content analysis was performed using two categories: application method and subject matter. Application method included texts, cases, visual aids (pictures, photos, illustrations, chart, etc.) and activities, whereas subject matter consisted of seven types (well balanced nutrition and health, understanding of food and nutrition, cooking principles, cooking lessons, traditional foods and culture, others). The results of the application method in primary school textbooks show that visual aids were the most common in all six grades. For the subject matter, 'understanding of food and nutrition' was most abundant in primary school textbooks while 'well balanced nutrition and health' accounted for a large part of the contents in middle school textbooks. However, the contents regarding traditional foods and culture were insufficient in primary and middle school textbooks. These results suggest that educational contents on traditional foods and culture should be added to primary and middle school textbooks and covered in various subjects. Furthermore, high school 'home economics' contents need to emphasize comprehensive food and dietary education and adjust to 'science & technology for life'.
Banchandeungsok is a book written by a person who lived in the Cheongju area located in northern Chungcheong Province. The literature is regarded as a useful source for showing types of local food in the 1910s, so it was purchased by the National Folk Museum in 2007. The writer categorized dishes described in the recipe section of the book into side dishes, snacks, rice cakes, drinks, and miscellaneous. Following this, each category was distinguished by the name of the dish, the main material, the side material, and the cooking method is presented in tables. Thus, the food culture of Chungcheong Province was arranged based on the above categorized contents. The material from the product and the outside which grow spontaneously divided with the product which flows. The case which is a product the outside, went through what kind of process and could flow toward Sangshin village in Cheongju area probably, to observe tried. The area and time were clear Eumsikdimibang and Gyuhapchongseo Jusigui with comparisons. So tried to observe the time of 1910's Cheongju area culture Dietary life time and a regional feature.
In this study, we attempted to elucidate the cultural characteristics of Korean food based on a traditional understanding on the Korean novel. To achieve this, food characteristics related to 'rites of passage' were analyzed in the representative Korean literary work "Hon-bool", which describes the life of a first-son's wife every three generations in the going to ruin but historic 'Lee's family of Maean district' family and the life of the common 'Geomeong-gul' people who lived with farming on the Lee's land at Namwon of Junbook province in the 1930~1940s, during the Japanese Colonial rule. Every nation possesses rites of passage at important points in life, such as at birth, age of majority, wedding and death. Korean culture, in particular, has several memorial rites relating to birth, death and passage into the afterlife in which special foods are prepared. In this manner, ceremonial foods represent the Korean peoples' traditional vision of the universe and life. The book "Hon-bool" describes these traditions. Especially, the book describes the table-settings related to the main character's childbirth, first birthday, wedding and death. Therefore "Hon-bool" represents a living history of Korean traditional food and the work of storytelling through the traditional understanding is expected that perform an important role in making of cultural contents of Korean foods.
Radish kimchi is a typical side-dish in Korean traditional food and is a way of keeping vegetables for a extended period using fermentation. This study examined the classification, usage, eating history, variety, and recipes of Korean radish kimchi through ancient and modern era literature. The Korean radish kimchi were categorized into six groups: kkakttugi, seokbakji (or nabakkimchi), dongchimi, jjanji, jangachi, and jangkwa. According to the record, the eating history of radish kimchi comes from before the age of the Three Kingdom period. Radish was preserved in salt, vinegar, soybean paste or lees of fermented liquor in the early times. This pickled radish was not supposed to be watery. Radish kimchi was divided into watery kimchi (dongchimi) during the period of United Silla and the Koryo Dynasty. Kimchi was mixed with Chinese cabbage to make seokbakji or nabakkimchi. Up to the early Chosun Dynasty, the key ingredient of kimchi was radish. After the middle of the Chosun Dynasty, kimchi was mixed with red pepper powder, salted fish, soybean sauce, and various ingredients. There were many kinds of radish kimchi during the late Chosun Dynasty. In the 11 Korean recipe books published within the past 100 years, there are nine kinds of kkakttugi, three kinds of seokbakji, four kinds of dongchimi, three kinds of jjanji, nine kinds of jangachi, and five kinds of jangkwa. Kkakttugi (cubed, sliced or julienne radish) was pickled with salt, red pepper powder, garlic, green onion, oyster, sugar, salted fish, and more. Seokbakji and nabakkimchi were not as salty, so they could not be preserved as long. Dongchimi (watery radish kimchi without red pepper powder) was made of radish, water, salt, 18 side ingredients, 13 condiments, and seven garnishes. Jjanji was pickled to be very salty and was eaten during summer. Jangachi can be used as a regular side dish and is made of radish or dried radish slices pickled or seasoned with salt, soy sauce, vinegar, soybean paste, lees of fermented liquor, and spices. Jangkwa is used as a stir-fry method and has been segregated from jangachi relatively recently.
The purpose of this study was to understand the interrelationships between customers' perception of service encounter elements, customers' emotional response and customer satisfaction in a family restaurant. Based on a total of 408 samples, this study reviewed the reliability and fitness of the research model and verified a total of 4 hypotheses using the Amos program. The hypothesized relationships of the model were tested simultaneously using a structural equation model (SEM). The proposed model provided an adequate fit to the data, χ2=821.151 (df=333), CMIN/df 2.466, GFI .878, NFI .927, IFI .955, TLI .949, CFI .955, RMSEA .060. The results showed that human factor (β=.426) and physical factor (β=.266) as service encounter elements in family restaurants were indicated to have a positive (+) influence on customers' positive emotion. For influence of customers' negative emotion, human factor (β=-.157) was surveyed to have a negative (-) influence. Also, customers' positive emotion (β=.716) and negative emotion (β=-.081) had significant effects on customer satisfaction. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
This study divided consumer food-related lifestyles into five types: health-oriented, convenience-oriented, safety-oriented, economics-oriented, and taste-oriented. According to this grouping, we separated the lifestyles into low-interest, safety and economics-oriented, taste-oriented, and high-interest. The results showed that the safety and economics-oriented group was the largest, whereas the taste-oriented group was the smallest. The results also showed that Korean food consumer behavior and satisfaction differed significantly among the groups, and that the high-interest food-related life group exhibited the highest satisfaction. This study is significant because it segmented the local Korean food market, applied food-related lifestyles, and examined submarket characteristics.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Maejakgwas prepared with various concentrations of Enteromorpha intenstinalis powder (0, 1, 2, 3, 4%) substituted for flour. The pH of the Maejakgwas dough decreased significantly in response to all levels of Enteromorpha intenstinalis powder (EIP). However, there were no significant differences in dough values among the test groups. Furthermore, when the spread factor values were compared among the groups, they were found to be inversely proportional to the EIP concentration. In addition, the Hunter's color L, a and b values decreased significantly as the level of EIP increased. Moreover, the addition of 2~4% EIP resulted in increased hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and brittleness compared to those of control. Finally, the results of an acceptance test showed that Maejakgwas containing 3% EIP had the highest scores.
Taking vitamin and mineral supplements is increasingly common with the rapid economic growth. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplement use among adults aged 20 or older from the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data and to explore the effect of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors as well as nutrient intake on taking supplements. People who had participated in both a health questionnaire and a nutritional survey were selected, and 2,871 men and 3,555 women were finally included in this analysis. Both men and women with a higher level of education, those residing in a metropolitan area, and those with higher income were more likely to take supplements. Health behaviors were not significantly associated with taking supplements. Mean nutrient intake of all nutrients except energy intake was not significantly different in men or women taking supplements after adjusting for age, education, marital status, resident area, smoking, and energy intake. Compared to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for Koreans, most vitamins and minerals, except vitamin B2 and calcium, were consumed at higher than the Recommended Intake (RI) without supplements. In conclusion, taking supplements such as vitamin B2 and calcium may promote health and prevent disease. However, the type and frequency of other vitamin and mineral supplements consumed should be considered with caution.