Due to the continuous change of socio-economic circumstances and dietary pattern, the need to change recommended dietary allowances and the basic food groups has been required. Consequently, there have been six revisions of the Korea RDAs, the national recommanded dietary allowances. I reviewed the six sequences of revisions concerning the basic food groups. Up to the fifth revision, the ranks of the basic food groups were based upon the dietary needs of the people of the perspective era. However, in the sixth revision, there was no rank associated with the food groups, but the food groups were portrayed in a food composition tower that explained their importance and their necessary consumption amounts. I could indirectly observe the dietary pattern of each era by analyzing the basic food groups and the representative foods of each food group. I also studied information of pictorial representations of the basic food groups and compared the items of the representative foods with nutrient analysis table. By observing nutrient analysis table, I analyzed whether the clarified representative foods of the basic food groups are indeed foods that were eaten frequently by people daily.
The establishment of optimal producing condition for rice-based infant foods using modified rice powder was attempted. The modification of rice powder was prepared by microwave heating as well as partial enzymatic hydrolysis. Not only thermal treatment but also enzymatic hydrolysis on rice powder increased D.E. value from 1.25 to 3.81. The water binding capacity, swelling power, solubility, digestibility by α-amylase, light transparency, and paste clarity of the modified rice powder compared to unmodified rice powder were increased from 107% to 249%, from 7.80 to 42.52, from 0.04% to 0.89ft, from 9.19% to 23.01, from 33% to 42%, and from 2.2% to 3.9%, respectively. On the other hand, gelatinization temperature, apparent viscosity, and degree of retrogradation of modified rice powder showed negative correlation with D.E. value. The 「results suggested that the thermal and enzymatic treatment on rice powder improved the physicochemical properties of rice based infant food by enhancing carbohydrate absorptionability and lowering the viscosity and opacity.
This study was carried out in order to analyze the changes in nitrogen containing taste compounds of traditional Korean soy sauce with varying Meju concentrations (Meju-water ratios of 1:4 and 1.3:4) and ripening periods (up to 2 years), and to investigate correlation between sensory characteristics and taste compound contents via contents assay and sensory evaluation of soy sauce samples. Nitrogen compound contents were higher in 1.3:4 than in 1:4 for all nitrogen compounds. Free amino acid contents were highest in soy sauce ripened for 210 days. Among amino acids, glutamic acid was highest concentration. Nucleotides and their related compound contents did not vary with concentrations and were highest in the sample ripened for 210 days. In direct sensory evaluation of soy sauce, overall taste preference showed positive correlation to sweet taste. Likewise, overall taste preference showed positive correlation to umami, nutty, sweet taste in the sensory evaluation of seaweed soup seasoned with soy sauce. Sensory evaluation score was higher in 1.3:4 than in 1:4. According to the correlation assay of taste compound contents and sensory evaluations, nitrogen compounds (such as amino type nitrogen), amino acids (such as glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and lysine, and etc.), nucleotides (such as AMP, IMP, and etc) had significant influence on the sensory characteristics of soy sauce, and therefore we can conclude that these compounds affect the taste and quality of soy sauce.
To provide basic information for the development of refrigerated convenience foods for Koreans, 492 house-wives residing in Seoul and Kyunggi Province were surveyed concerning satisfaction of buying precooked convenience foods, frequency of using them, preferred Korean dishes, and willingness to buy the convenience foods if they are developed. Statistical data analysis was completed using SAS package program. The satisfaction mean score of the marketed precooked convenience foods was 2.73 out of 5 and the housewives were least satisfied with feed additives and sanitation factors. The factors affecting satisfaction in purchasing were sanitation, taste, variety of type, nutrition, price, and food additives for side-dishes sold refrigerated or at room temperature, and taste, sanitation, variety of type, price, nutrition, and food additives for frozen prepared foods in order respectively. The frequency of using the precooked convenience foods was generally low but that of using the pickled dishes, Jokbal Soondae, and frozen prepared foods was relatively high. The answer of 'the thought that meals should be prepared in households' was the primary reason for avoiding using the precooked convenience foods and 'no time to cook' was the most frequent answer among the reasons for using them. Currently, the precooked convenience foods were used for snacks mainly, but the usages to be expected to increase were for lunchbox, main dishes, snacks, side dishes, special occasions foods, and leisure foods in order. Based on preference and buying priority, the dishes needed to be developed as refrigerated convenience foods among Korean dishes were identified. The result showed that 'preference' was not consistent with buying priority and the housewives perceived the factor of 'convenience' more importantly than 'preference' in purchasing the convenience foods.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the current foodservice management practices of children care social welfare facilities. Questionnaire were sent to the directors of all 275 children welfare facilities in Korea and 107 returned facilities in korea and 107 returned the complete answers. These questionnaire were answered by manager. Equipments were evaluated by investigators using the evaluation form. staffing structure revealed that most of the facilities had a director, a secretary, nurse, but only 15% of the system hired a dietitian. It showed the shortage of nurse, physical therapists, and dietitian. Therefore, food purchasing, menu planning, food delivery, and the other food service management processes are handled by non-professionals, such as director, secretary, or cooks. Food purchasing money of total budget is 10~20%. Food purchasing place in most facilities was market place. Foodstuffs were almost purchased 2~3 per weeks. 90% of the welfare facilities were used the menu. Modified food frequency questionnaire were used to get the frequencies of each food items used in menu. The results showed relatively satisfactory in food frequencies, however, this was about what was used in menu, not vat was eaten by the residents. conditions of most equipments in the kitchen were defective specially in dishwashing and sterilization step.
A survey of 28 school foodservice establishments in Seoul and Kangnung was undertaken and detailed information was collected from 3,590 elementary school students. Childrert's satisfaction with the quality of school food was evaluated by questionnaires. It was measured by assessing 15 variables. Statistical data analysis was using SAS package program for descriptive analysis and T-test. Elementary schools in Seoul were all located in urban areas, whereas elementary schools in Kangnung were in urban areas (40.4%), provincial areas (40.0%) and in isolated areas (20.0%). Children seemed to be generally satisfied with the food served, with the lowest score of milk. Mean wastes for soups and Kimchi were found to be larger than those for milk and side dishes. The major reasons for leaving leftover were 'dislike the food (27.4%)'>'too big portion size (23.6%)'>'food is not tasty (19.2%)'>'low appetite (17.6%)'>'food is too overcooked or undercooked (3.9%)'>'food is not hot enough (3.2%)' in order.
Washing water volume of rice for cooking and rice weight for one person per meal in one household were surveyed for confirming pollution by the washing water and total losses by rice washing procedures. The mean size of a family was 4.64 persons and the mean consumption weight of rice per capital per meal was 138.43g. It is used 0.782 L of water for washing the rice per capital share. The washing water of rice was composed of 0.32% of total solid, 0.11% of soluble solid and 1.65% of solid loss to rice, and COD and BOD of it were 2.400 and 3.564 ppm respectively. Based on total population in Korea, 41 miliion, excepting age below 4, total cost for washing water of rice summed up about 1,495 billion won including 8.8 billion won for tap water cost, 11.7 billion won for waste water treatment, and 129 billion for solid loss of rice.