This study was to investigate purchase of women for commercial kimchi. Survey was carried out by questionnaire method that is target on 322 female over 20 age in Seoul area. The results of the study was that the way they get kimchi of women answered that they make it by themselves(63.3%). The reason of purchasing is they do not have enough time to make it at their home(43.8%) and its good taste(56.8%) result in their purchase. In the degree of preference about package material, prefer polyethylene(39.6%). Also respondents prefer purchasing poggi kimchi(63.4%) among other different types of kimchi. The promotion facts of purchasing commercial kimchi shows a high score in cold chain system package and specific kimchi development.
The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the factors which university students feel as stress in their daily life and the correlation between these and their eating habits. The subject are students enrolled at 'H' university in Asan. There are 801 students who response for this research. We surveyed and analyzed the correlation between the life stress and eating habit of university students. It is analyzed that the objects suffered stress most by 'schooling' and 'job complication.' Surveying the general eating habit of university students, it is found that they do not eat meal regularly, i.e., 'average meals (40.9%)' and 'irregular meal(35.2%).' No significant difference was observed in the regularity of meals between sexes. When it comes to overeating or voracity, male students answered 'sometimes(77.6%)' or 'often(22.5%)', but female students answered 'sometimes(66.2%)' or 'often(28.2%)', which means that female students are more frequent in overeating or voracity. The frequency of eating snack is more than once a day 60.1% in female students and 47.3% in male students, which shows that the rate of female students is much higher than that of male students. Surveying the correlation between stress that male and female university students suffer and the regular meal, we found that both of them tend to eat meal irregularly if they are stressed. Comparing the stress for its factor, male students eat meal irregularly if they are stressed by 'schooling' and female students eat meal irregularly if they are stressed by 'figure.' Checking the correlation between stress and time spent for meal, it is found that while male students eat meal in a hurry when they are stressed by 'job affair', female students do so when they are stressed by 'home economy. Analyzing the correlation between frequency of snack and stress, both male and female tend to eat snack more frequently when they are stressed more. In general, males like the oily food more than male, but when students get stresses, females want to eat oily food than male. Analyzing the correlation between stress and preferential menu, males like green vegetables, sea food in the life get less stresses than others Females like a menu of meat get higher stress than others.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the recognition and the perception for succession and development on Ge-Geol radish that has been grown in Icheon area. A total of 385 (male 118, female 267) aged over 20 years who lived in Icheon area were investigated from May to June 2006. Seventy five percent of the total subjects were recognized Ge-Geol radish, and only the 40.8% of them were recognized as regional special agriproduct exactly. And the rate of the subjects who had experience to eat Ge-Geol radish was just 40.8%. While preferences on Ge-Geol radish were relatively high among the subjects who have experience to eat. Reasons for liking were 'distinctive (43.8%)', 'eat from a child (24.5%)', 'tasty (15.1%)', and 'nutritious(8.3%)'. Reasons for disliking were 'rough texture (54.8%)', 'tasteless (9.7%)', 'unique smell (9.7%)', 'undesirable color (6.5%)', and 'indistinctive (6.5%)'. Also, most of the subjects considered the need for the succession and the development of Ge-Geol radish. Therefore, for expanding utilization of Ge-Geol radish, it should be contacted easily from a child and be developed as products suited to the consumer's needs by various cooking and processing methods.
This study was designed to investigate the correlation between perceived TQM performance and organizational culture of dietitians. The objective of the study is to help the management of foodservice by providing a direction which will elevate perceived TQM performance of dietitians and presenting plans which will ensure effective dietitians. Questionnaires handed out to 308 dietitians worked in institutional foodservice operation including elementary, middle and high schools, hospitals, business and industries. In terms of TQM importance and performance, the more important dietitians perceived, the higher their performance level rose. Data form the IPA, external and internal customer satisfaction, executive ability, communication system and technology, information technology and application ability, food process, strategy, and leadership were required further improvement by dietitians. Of present organizational culture model, human relations model and open systems model were more likely to be adopted by dietitians in middle and high schools. According to the type of foodservice management, the open systems model was more preferred by dietitians from self-operated operations rather than respondents from contracted operations. Canonical correlation analysis between TQM performance and organizational culture showed canonical correlation to be higher (canonical correlations coefficient: .66). In conclusion, TQM performance-organizational culture showed higher canonical correlation. In the organizational culture, foodservice operation is capable of improving the aims for the rational goal model and the open systems model. The results showed that TQM performance and organizational culture had significant relationship, especially positive organizational culture emphasizing on internal process and rational goal model would have influence on TQM performance of dietitians. Foodservice operation, however, should recognize importance of open and development culture to improve dietitians' TQM performance. To apply open system foodservice organization should encourage dietitian and foodservice employees to challenge and compete for the works, Moreover, organizational effort such as information exchange program and support system should be established.
The purpose of this study was to analyze usage frequency and importance of competencies which are required to restaurant industry professionals. For this purpose, opinions of restaurant industry professionals on the competency were surveyed using questionnaires. To develop a questionnaire, a total of 27 competency variables which are required to restaurant industry professionals were drawn through literature review. Questionnaires were distributed to 300 professionals in restaurant industry with different positions using random sampling. Out of 300 questionnaires, 221 questionnaires were used for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 10.0, including descriptive analysis, ANOVA and t-test. Reliability test and factor analysis were also conducted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. As a result, 'attitude and personality' factor was recognized as the most frequently used and the most important competency factor of restaurant industry professionals. Therefore, the competency such as 'sincerity', 'responsibility', 'sense of honesty', 'positive attitude', 'tolerance and justice', should be more emphasized in restaurant management education. The level of current usage and importance of each competency were different according to age, education level, working experience, position, number of employees, type of restaurant and type of management.
The purpose of this study was to elicit types of food-related lifestyle of undergraduates and to examine the relationship between each ape of food-related lifestyle and an attribute of selecting a restaurant. Self-administrated questionnaires were completed by 368 students and data were analysed by frequency, factor, reliability and canonical correlation. Five factors were obtained from factor analysis of food-related lifestyle ; Factor1 'health seeking type', Factor2 'taste seeking type', Factor3 'Popularity seeking type', Factor4 'safety seeking type', Factor5 'mood seeking type'. Restaurant selection attribute were extracted into six factors, Factor1 'taste and service', Factor2 'interior‘, Factor3 'convenient for approach', Factor4 'marketing strategy', Factor5 'food quality', Factor6 ’menu and price‘ Canonical correlation analysis showed two significant functions. Canonical function1 showed that food-related lifestyles of taste seeking type and safety seeking type were indicated to have significant positive relationships with the food qualify, taste and service in the restaurant selection attributes. Canonical function2 also showed that a significant positive relationships between health seeking type and accessibility, and a significant negative relationships between health seeking type and taste & service and between health seeking type and menu & price. Finally the result of the study provide some insight into the types of marketing stratagem that can be effectively used by operator who manage restaurant.
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of value and satisfaction moderating the relationship between foodservice quality and behavioral intention. A total of 273 questionnaires were completed. Moderated regression analysis was used to measure the relationships between variables. Results of the study demonstrated that the analysis result for the data also indicated excellent model fit. The main effects of foodservice quality, value, and satisfaction on behavioral intention were statistically significant. The interaction effect of quality and satisfaction on behavioral intention was not statistically significant. The interaction effect of value and satisfaction on behavioral intention was not statistically significant. As expected, the interaction effect of quality and value on behavioral intention was statistically significant. Moreover, foodservice quality on behavioral intention was statistically significant at all levels of value and satisfaction, except for when value level was low, and satisfaction level was high. The results of this study indicated that restaurant marketers should attach importance to the interaction effect of service quality and customer value to understand the elements of market demand and customer loyalty.
This study was performed to investigate the preference and perception on fruits especially, focusing on apples and pears served in elementary school lunch programs. The subjects of this study were 1,106 students (504 female and 595 male students)from seven elementary schools in Seoul. The survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaire from July 10 to July 20, 2006. Based on the frequency analysis results, 45% of respondents ate fruits every day and 42% had fruits 2-3 times per week. Approximately, 53% of respondents indicated their usual time to eat fruits was after dinner and secondly 27% had fruits between lunch and dinner. Majority of respondents chose a watermelon as the most preferred fruits and the first chosen among nine fruits (apple, pear, madarin, strawberry, cherry tomato, watermelon, grape, melon, and peach). Cherry tomato was found as the least preferred fruits by 30% of students, however cherry tomato was most frequently offered fruits in elementary school lunch menu. About 50% students were satisfied with the served fruits in their school lunch program. In addition, most students said that they would have fruits more frequently in their lunch menu. However, one fifth of students addressed that they were not satisfied with the fruits in school lunch program because of kinds of fruits, freshness of fruits, taste of fruits, and quantity of fruits. Almost 71% of students preferred apples. Seventy three percents of students preferred eating apples without peel and 78% of students ate apples as slices of apples. In addition, 61% of students indicated their preference of apple salads. Many students responded they did not eat apples and pears frequently since they do not have a chance to eat them. The implications to increase the chance to eat fruits and promote elementary children's fruits consumption were discussed.
This study was undertaken to develop web-based nutrition information contents for the older adults. Twenty six domestic web-sites were analyzed and then 12 foreign web-sites and 4 education materials for the elderly of foreign university were benchmarked. Also a lot of literatures on elderly education program were reviewed. A card-sorting task was performed with 8 older adults to ascertain how the target audience organized information about nutrition. The results were as fellows. Among 26 domestic web-sites, 2 sites(7.7%) were only for the elderly. Main topics of information contents for the elderly included 'Importance of Healthy Eating', 'DRI', 'Dietary Guidelines'. Four of twelve foreign web-sites were for the elderly nutrition education. Topics of 'Dietary Guideline', 'Meal Program' were found in 4 sites and 'Importance of Healthy Eating', 'Diet & Disease', 'DRI, 'Food Guide Pyramid', 'Nutrition Fact Labels' were found in 3 sites. Education materials of foreign university dealt with basic information on 'nutrient needs changes related with aging', 'Heart & Bone Healthy Eating Plan', 'Food Guide Pyramid'. Also topics on 'Eating on a budget', 'Eating Out Guideline' were included for practical use for the elderly. Based on card-sorting process, contents framework for web-site was developed and 4 main menus for framework were respectively named as 'Nutrition', 'Meals', 'Foods'. 'Check up Nutritional Health' by panel discussion. Finally we developed nutrition information contents for 4 main menus. We focused on helping older adults recognize the importance of healthy eating and apply the nutrition information to practical use. We expect that the developed framework of contents can be a guideline for indentifying the information needs of older adults in developing effective nutrition intervention program. And we suggest that the survey for target people should be peformed for the web-site to be user-friendly designed and the developed contents be evaluated and revised in the near future.
참나물의 잎과 줄기부위에서 가장 많이 함유하고 있는 무기 성분은 K, P, Ca, Mg 순이었으며 잎 부위가 줄기부위보다 Ca, P, Mg함유량이 약 4배 정도 많았다 전자코를 이용한 휘발성 향기성분 패턴은 신선한 참나물의 경우 제1주성분 값이 +값을, 음건한 건조 참나물은 - 값을 나타내어서 신선한 참나물과 건조한 참나물 사이에는 뚜렷한 차이를 보였고 건조방법에 따른 시료간의 구별이 가능하였다. SDE법에 의해 신선한 참나물은 aldehydes 3종, alcohols 9종, ester 4종, hydrocarbons 5종, terpen hydrocarbons 34종, ketone 1종, 기타 2종의 총 58 종이 확인되었고, 음건한 참나물은 aldehydes 4종, alcohols 7종, hydrocarbon 1종, terpen hydrocarbons 17종, ketone 1종, 기타 1종의 총 31종이 확인되었다. SDE법에 의한 신선, 음건한 참나물 모두 α-selinene(37.89%, 12.59%)가 가장 많이 확인되었는데 신선할 때보다 음건한 경우 휘발성향기성분의 peak수와 peak area%가 적었다. CAR/PDMS fiber HS-SPME법에 의해 34종이 확인되었는데 aldehydes 2종, alcohols 2종, hydrocarbons 7종, terpen hydrocarbons 23종이며 myrcene(15.50%)가 가장 많이 확인되었다. PDMS fiber HS-SPME법에 의해 aldehydes 1종, alcohols 1종, hydrocarbons 2종, terpen hydrocarbons 17종으로 총 21종이 확인되었고 germacrene D(16.84%)가 가장 많았다. SDE법에 의한 경우가 SPME법보다 향기성분의 종류와 양이 많았고 HS-SPME법의 경우 CAR/PDMS fiber가 PDMS fiber 보다 더 많은 종류의 향기가 확인되었다.
This study was examined closely physiological activation and intended to present the possibility of developing food low-fat food. Developing carbohydrate fat replacer as materials for low-fat food made of Korean potato starch, it is expected that the new demand of fat replacer will be created. Potato starch was modified by chemical modification. The calorie of starch of GPS was measured to be 3.0 kcal/g, those of chemically modified starch, HPR showed 2.5 kcal/g respectively, suggesting that calorie is decreased by modified treatment. The appropriateness of processing food was experimented by substituting the existing oil and fat containing food with gel of starch and modified starch in constant rate through utilization of modified starch. When producing mayonnaise by substituting edible oil with gel of modified starch in 10-50%, calorie was reduced by 44~45% when substituted by 50%, suggesting the potential of low-fat food. Measuring viscosity of mayonnaise by Brookfield viscometer, the mayonnaise with HPR showed high viscosity and the chemical modified starch group of EZ also showed high viscosity. Generally, the material property of mayonnaise tended to reduce in all measured items when oil and fat are substituted by starch substituting materials and the substituting materials increase. When it comes to the emulsification stability of mayonnaise with starch substituting materials, emulsification stability of all mayonnaise with starch substituting materials is lower than that of compared group. While the group with NL as commercial fat replacer showed emulsification stability which was slightly higher than group with modified starch and the substitution group of HPR showed higher emulsification stability. Sensory evaluation for low-fat mayonnaise by substituting oil the products substituted by modified starch was more preferred than general starch substituting products such as GPS. While NL as commercially fat replacer showed the hight preference, products with H40, EZ were also highly preferred.
우리나라에 자생하는 엉겅퀴를 대상으로 식물부위, 건조방법에 따른 총플라보노이드와 apigenin 함량 분석 및 엉겅퀴차의 소비자 기호도 검사를 수행한 결과, 잎에서 추출된 총플라보노이드 함량이 가장 높았으며, 꽃 및 줄기의 순서로 나타났다. 건조 방법에 따른 총플라보노이드의 함량은 잎과 꽃에서는 유의적인 차이가 나타나지 않았으나, 줄기에서는 동결건조와 오븐건조가 자연건조보다 높게 나타났다. Apigenin함량도 잎에서 가장 많이 확인되었으며 꽃, 줄기의 순서로 나타났다. 건조방법에 따른 apigenin함량 변화는 엉겅퀴의 잎과 줄기에서는 나타나지 않았으나, 꽃에서는 동결건조와 자연건조보다 오븐건조에서 그 함량이 높게 나타났다. 소비자 기호도 검사에서는 엉겅퀴꽃잎혼합차의 선호도가 엉겅퀴잎차 보다 높았으며, 이러한 제품이 시판될 때의 구매의향도 엉겅퀴꽃잎혼합차가 엉겅퀴잎차보다 높게 나타났다.
차조기의 30, 50, 70, 95% 에탄올 추출물과 물추출물의 식품 관련 미생물에 대한 항균 활성과 이들 추출물의 분획물에 대한 항균 활성을 살펴보았다. 본 실험에 사용한 차조기의 무기질은 Ca와 Mg 함량이 각각 595.75 mg%와 467.0 mg%으로 가장 많았다. 에탄올 혼합 추출물과 물추출물의 추출 수율은 에탄올 농도가 낮을수록 증가하여 95%에탄올 추출물은 9.3%, 70% 추출물은 16.5%, 50% 추출물은 18.9%, 30% 추출물은 19.4%, 물추출물(0%)에서는 20.8%이었다. 추출용매의 에탄올 농도가 낮아질수록 hexane 층으로 용출되어 나오는 성분은 감소하고 ethyl acetate 층 분획성분은 점차 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 에탄올 추출물과 물 추출물의 항균력은 95%, 70%와 50% 에탄올 추출물이 Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis 및 Pseudomonas areuginosa에 대하여 clear zone을 나타내었다. 추출물을 단계별 계통 분획하여 얻은 분획물의 항균력 실험에서는 ethyl acetate층이 실험 대상 미생물 모두에 대하여 항균 활성을 나타내었으며 에탄올 혼합율이 낮을수록 즉, 30% 에탄올과 물추출물의 ethyl acetate분획물의 저해환이 가장 크게 나타났다. 물 추출물의 ethyl acetate 분획물을 첨가한 액체배양에서 500 ppm의 농도에서는 S. aureus, B. subtilis와 P. aeruginosa에 대하여 대조구의 뚜렷한 증가와 대조적으로 낮은 생균수를 보였으며, 1,000 ppm의 농도에서는 실험 균주 모두에 대하여 배양 24시간 내내 생육이 저해되는 것으로 나타났다. 물 추출과 에탄올 추출의 농도와 항균 활성, 폴리페놀 함량 및 플라보노이드 함량이 비례적인 상관관계에 있는 것으로 나타나지는 않으나 30% 에탄올 추출물과 물 추출물의 ethyl acetate분획물이 폴리페놀 함량이 높고 항균력이 가장 강한 것으로 나타났다.
This study was performed to make new products rising Pimpinella brachycarpa N., one of the Korean aromatic medicinal plant called chamnamul, which is a perennial plant of the Umbelliferae family. New products were natural chamnamul spice, chamnamul soup, chamnamul tea, and chamnamul mook as functional foods. The masking effect of Pimpinella brachvcarpa N., on fishy and meaty odor were investigated to test the usefulness of chamnamul as a natural spice. It could be concluded that the effect of added amounts of chamnamul on the cream soup increases the taste and appearance, and improves the flavor and color by the sensory evaluation. The chamnamul tea prepared by a filtration method is better than that by a leaching method on the preference test. In the texture properties of chamnamul mooks by a texture analyzer (XT-RA, Texturometer), the cohessiveness of them was higher than that of the white one.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how users' perceived benefits of hotel F&B loyalty program affected their relationship quality(trust and satisfaction) and loyalty on hotel products and services(hotel food & beverage products/services) and how their relationship quality(trust and satisfaction) influenced their loyalty. The model was tested in the settings of five-star hotels using a sample of current members of food & beverage membership program. Empirical results confirmed that not only perceived benefits of hotel F&B loyalty program affects users' perceived relationship quality(trust and satisfaction) and loyalty on hotel products and services(hotel food & beverage products/services) but that their perceived relationship quality influences loyalty on hotel products and services(hotel food & beverage products/services). According to the results, complimentary dining coupon and food discount strongly affected relationship quality(trust and satisfaction) and loyalty on hotel products and services(hotel food & beverage products/services). Strategically, it is recommended to appeal those benefits to current and potential members to maximize the loyalty. Also, it should be considered as major factors to re-package hotel F&B loyalty program.
The purpose of this study is to examine the Americans' perception on Korean food by analyzing the articles of the New York Times which is the best quality newspaper in America. The number of articles of the New York Times on Korean food were 111 from 1980 to 2005. The average yearly articles was 1.3 form 1980 to 1989, 4.1 from 1990 to 1999, and 9.5 from 2000 to 2005. A large number of articles(54.1%) concerning Korean foods were restaurant reviews based on the experiences in dining at Korean restaurant in America. Main authors of restaurant reviews were Eric Asimo(14), Florence Fabricant(11), and Mark Bittman(8). The kinds of Korean foods reported in the New York Times were 111 which included staple food(21), subsidiary food(82) dessert(4) and Japanese Food(4). There were 15 recipes on Korean food reported in the New York Times including 3 items on Kimchi and 3 items on Bulgogi. The New York Times said Kimchi, Buigogi, Galbi, Pajeon, and Bibimbop were popular among Americans. The New York Times described Korean foods as exhilarating, robust, bold, rustic, healthful, incendiary, assertive, lusty, and exuberant. There were many favorable comments on Korean foods in the New York Times.