The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of frankfurter sausage made with venison. The crude protein content of sausage showed a significant increase pattern in the proportion to the addition of the venison. The crude fat content showed a decrease pattern. The saturated fatty acid significantly increased in proportion to the content of the venison. The monounsaturated fatty acids and the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with increasing the venison content. The content of the free amino acids increased in proportion to the amount of the venison added. The amino acid content of the pork sausage was in the order of Alanine > glycine > glutamic acid, and was similar in the sausages made from venison. The essential amino acids were 36.4% in FSV, higher than 34.0% in the pork sausages. In the sensory test, it was confirmed that the texture, taste, and overall acceptability increased with the addition of the venison. Because the sausages made from the venison were superior to the pork sausages in all of the measured sensory characteristics, it is considered that industrialization is sufficiently feasible.
곤약의 제조 공정은 크게 분말제조과정, 응고과정 및 제 성과정으로 나눌 수 있었다. 곤약의 일반세균수는 응고제와 침지액의 농도가 높아질수록 뚜렷한 감소 경향을 나타낸 반면 용수의 온도는 유의미한 영향을 미치지 못하였다. 곤약의 저장성 실험에서 응고제[Ca(OH)2] 농도를 1.0%로 유지할 경우 인장강도는 10개월까지 큰 변화 없이 유지되는 것으로 나타났으나 0.8% 이하로 유지할 경우 급격한 감소를 나타내는 경향을 보였다. 일반세균수도 인장강도의 변화와 유사한 패턴을 보였다. 응고제 농도를 1.0%로 고정한 후 침지액에 의한 영향을 확인한 결과 시험된 모든 침지액 농도(4×10-3-1.2×10-2 N)에서 인장강도와 일반세균수 모두 저장 10개월까지 큰 변화없이 유지되는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 곤약의 저장시 응고제의 농도가 결정적 영향을 미치는 것을 의미하는 것으로 상온에서 응고제의 농도를 1.0% 이상 유지할 경우 침지액의 농도에 상관없이 상온에서 10개월 동안 물성을 유지할 수 있다는 것을 의미한다.
In this study, the quality characteristics of 30 kinds of long-term matured soy sauce collected from all over Korea classified according to ripening period were analyzed. The longer the soy sauce had to matured, the closer the pH was to neutrality. Acidity decreased as the ripening period increased. Total nitrogen and amino nitrogen content increased as the soy sauce matured. Moisture content decreased with the increasing soy sauce ripening period, and the content of pure extracts increased in proportion to the ripening period. The numbers of bacteria, fungi, and yeast increased in proportion to the maturation period. The content of P was highest in all soy sauce analyzed, followed by K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn. Mg and Ca contents decreased with maturing, whereas K increased with maturing.
In this study, 30 kinds of long-term and mature Korean soy sauce were collected and classified by the fermentation period, and the components related to taste and sensory characteristics were analyzed. A total of 4 kinds of organic acids were detected. The total organic acid content was in the range of 97.2~341.6 mg%, but did not show the tendency to increase or decrease in proportion to the aging period. The total free amino acid content was within the range of 3,001.0~3,834.7 mg% and showed a tendency to increase in proportion to the ripening period of the soy sauce. The contents of aspartic acid and glutamic acid subsequently increased in the long-term matured soy sauce. The ratio of essential amino acid to total amino acid was 31.6~35.7%, and the ratio of glutamic acid to total amino acid was 19.6~23.9%, respectively. The panel of 20~29-year-old indicated that the longer the aging period of soy sauce, the lower the preference while the panel of 30 or more years indicated that the longer the aging period of soy sauce, the higher the preference. This study was the first to investigate the quality of long-term matured soy sauce in more than one year.
The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in flavor components of cheonggugjang prepared with hazelnut. Amino nitrogen content in cheonggukjang was significantly lower in the 30~40% hazelnut group compared to the control group. The volatile basic nitrogen of hazelnut added cheongkukjang showed a similar pattern to that of amino nitrogen. The number of B. subtilis was slightly increased in relation to the amount of hazelnut added, but there was no significant difference. The content of glucose increased proportionally with increasing hazelnut. Total amino acid content decreased with increasing hazelnut. The ratio of glutamic acid to total free amino acids increased with increasing hazelnut. Oleic acid content increased proportionally with increasing hazelnut, while linoleic acid content decreased. In conclusion, the addition of hazelnut may contribute to the quality diversification of cheonggukjang by changing the taste and flavor while maintaining the amino nitrogen content of cheonggukjang.
In this study, viable cells, coliforms and food poisoning bacteria were identified according to the pH levels of the coagulant and immersion liquid during each stage in the production of konjac, and storage stability was confirmed for 3 months. A considerable number of bacteria were found in the raw material, or powdered konjac (Amorphophallus konjac), as well as in the processing water. However, it has been shown that the plastic package were safe from microorganisms. Due to the high pH of the added coagulant [2.0% Ca(OH)2], no contaminating bacteria were observed after konjac jelly formation. Coliforms were not detected any of the tested steps. During the molding process, the pH of konjac was adjusted to 9.5 ~ 12.5 at intervals of 0.5, and the number of bacteria was determined. As a result, no bacteria were detected in the alkaline range above pH 11.5. The pH of the immersion liquid was adjusted to 10.0 ~ 12.5, and after hardening, the konjac were stored at room temperature for 12 weeks. As a result, no bacteria, Escherichia coli or other food poisoning bacteria were detected at pH 11.5 or higher. Based on these results, it is expected that when the pH levels of the konjac and its immersion liquid are maintained at 11.5, it should be possible to keep the product for 3 months without additional sterilization process.
본 연구에서는 청국장의 제품 다양화와 고부가 가치화를 위하여 청국장 제조에 적합한 견과류인 헤이즐넛의 함량을 10~40%로 달리하여 청국장을 제조한 후 이화학적 특성과 ACE 저해활성을 확인하였다. pH의 변화를 조사한 결과, 헤이즐넛 첨가에 따른 변화는 유의적이지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 수분함량은 헤이즐넛의 첨가에 따라 유의적으로 감소하였으며(p<0.05), 색도는 헤이즐넛 첨가에 따라 밝아지는 것으로 나타났다(p<0.05). 수용성 갈색물질의 함량은 헤이즐넛 첨가에 따라 약간 감소하는 것으로 확인되었다(p<0.05). 점질물은 헤이즐넛 10% 첨가 시까지는 유의적인 변화가 없었으며, 그 이상 첨가 시 유의적으로 감소하였다(p<0.05). 헤이즐넛의 첨가량이 증가함에 따라 ACE 저해활성도 유의적으로 높아져 40% 첨가 시 대조군에 비해 10% point 이상 높은 것으로 확인되었다(p<0.05). 종합적으로 청국장 제조 시 대두에 헤이즐넛을 10% 이상 첨가하여 발효할 경우, ACE 저해활성이 우수한 청국장의 제조가 가능할 것으로 판단되었으며, 이는 청국장의 원료 다양화와 품질고급화에 기여할 것으로 판단된다. 아울러 헤이즐넛 첨가에 따른 청국장의 지방산과 아미노산 등 이화학적 성분의 변화 및 관능적 특성에 관한 연구가 추가로 진행되어야 할 것으로 사료된다.
본 연구에서는 활용도가 낮은 식자원의 부가가치 부여라는 목적으로 연구를 진행하였다. 0, 2, 4, 6 및 8%로 비지첨가량을 달리하여 제조한 국수의 수분 결합력, 색도, 국수의 표면 구조 및 물성실험을 진행하여 비지 첨가 국수의 제면특성을 확인하였다. 수분 결합력은 비지 분말의 첨가에 따라 유의하게 증가하였다. 국수의 명도(L)는 비지 분말의 농도가 증가함에 따라 유의적인 감소패턴을 보였으며, 적색도(a)와 황색도(b)는 유의적 변화가 없었다. 표면의 미세구조를 확인한 결과, 비지 분말의 농도가 증가함에 따른 공극의 특이적인 변화 확인할 수 없었다. 조리 전 생면의 물성을 확인한 결과, 경도, 부착성, 탄력성, 점착성 및 씹힘성은 비지 분말이 첨가함에 따라 상승하는 경향을 나타낸 반면, 응집성은 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 조리면의 경우, 경도, 탄력성 및 부착성은 비지분말 첨가에 따른 상승경향을 나타낸 반면, 응집성은 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 점착성과 씹힘성은 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 이러한 제면특성을 종합 판단하여 국수의 제조시 비지분말의 첨가는 4%가 가장 좋은 것으로 판단되었다.
This research was conducted to elucidate the optimum conditions for the antibacterial activity of konjak jelly using the evolutionary operation-factorial design technique. In the first set of experiments, concentration of a coagulation agent, soaking liquid, and temperature of water were set to 0.4%, 0.6×10－2 N, and 65℃ as a central point, respectively. The highest antibacterial activity was acquired at E21, in which the number of bacteria was 1.25 log cfu/g. Because the code of changes in the main effect was (-), it could be decided that the central point of the first set was not the optimum point. Although antibacterial activity in the second set was improved, the values of the main effect were higher than that of changes in the mean effect. The central point of third set was concentration of coagulation agent 0.8%, concentration of soaking liquid 1.0×10－2 N, and temperature of water 65℃. It was found that the antibacterial activity of central point in the third set was highest among all the tested set. Further, all the necessary conditions were appropriate to reach the optimum condition. The antibacterial activity of the central point in third set was more than 1,000 times higher than that of E11, in first set.
This study was carried out to investigate the changes in the antioxidant activity of Cheonggukjang with the addition of hazelnut. The number of Bacillus subtilis and the content of crude fat were increased with the addition of hazelnut. The addition of hazelnut made the color of Cheonggukjang lighter. The flavonoid and polyphenol content were sharply increased in proportion to the addition of hazelnut. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of Cheonggukjang was also increased with the addition of hazelnut. Taken together, it was found that the addition of hazelnut had a positive influence on Cheonggukjang by increasing the antioxidant activity.
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activities of extracts from various parts of the pine tree, which is known as a good source of functional food material. While ethanol extraction yields of pine bud and cone were higher than water extraction yields of pine bud and cone, water extraction yield of pine needle was higher than ethanol extraction yield of the pine needle. The content of polyphenols in the pine cone ethanol extract was 5 times higher than that in the pine bud and needle. Further, the content of flavonoids in the pine cone ethanol extract was 8 times higher than that in the pine bud and needle. DPPH radical scavenging effect of the pine cone ethanol extract was 3~5 times higher that of the pine bud and needle extract. Regardless of the extraction solvents, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the pine cone were stronger than those of the other parts of the pine tree. Taken together, it can be expected that the pine cone can be practically used as an antioxidant substance in food and beauty industries.
This study was conducted to investigate changes in organoleptic properties and taste components including free sugar, organic acid and free amino acid with addition of walnut. Changes in total nitrogen were insignificantly different with addition of walnut. Amino type nitrogen content was decreased in proportion to supplemental level of walnut. Content of organic acids, of which three kinds were detected, such as citric acid, malic acid and lactic acid increased more than two times with addition of walnut. Contents of free sugar and amino acid were decreased with addition of walnut. The proportion of essential amino acid was 40.6~41.4 percent. Glutamic acid in total amino acid was increased in proportion with addition of walnut. The highest sensory evaluation score was recorded in soy sauce with addition of 2 percent walnut. Together, it was expected that 2 percent addition of walnut to soy sauce has a positive effect on the taste of soy sauce.
This study was conducted to assess effects of addition of walnuts on soy sauce quality. The pH was significantly increased by adding more than 4 percent of walnuts. As the addition of walnuts increased, Hunter’s color values and brown color increased. Total solid of soy sauce did not change significantly with the addition of walnuts. Crude fat content increased by two times in the 2 percent added walnuts group compared to the control group, but it was not dependent on the addition of walnuts. DPPH radical scavenging activity was significantly increased with the addition of walnuts. The addition of walnuts decrease saturated fatty acids and increased unsaturated fatty acids. Composition ratio of linoleic acid was highest in the control group and all the additions. These results revealed that soy sauce made with walnuts have a positive effect on functionality and preference.
This purpose of this study was to investigate cooking characteristics of noodles prepared by adding 0, 2, 4 or 6 percent of Capsosiphon fulvescens to wheat flour containing konjac powder. Water binding capacity was significantly increased with increasing amounts of Capsosiphon fulvescens. Weight and volume of cooked noodles increased significantly in proportion with the amount of Capsosiphon fulvescens. Turbidity of the soup after cooking also increased with the addition of Capsosiphon fulvescens. Brightness(L) and redness(a) were decreased with addition of Capsosiphon fulvescens. Yellowness( b) increased. The color value of cooked noodles was decreased compared with that of wet noodles. Sensory evaluation scores revealed that cooked noodles with 4 percent addition group were highest in terms of color, flavor and overall acceptability. This study validates that addition of Amorphophallus konjac and 4 percent Capsosiphon fulvescens may improve functionality and preference of noodles.
This study was conducted to investigate the noodle-making characteristics of a noodle dough with konjac powder added. The water-binding capacity was significantly increased by increasing amounts of the konjac powder. When the weight and volume of the noodles were measured after cooking, there was no difference between the control and konjac powder groups. Turbidity was significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Chromaticity, in the case of raw noodle lightness (L), decreased significantly, while redness (a) and yellowness (b) significantly increased. Cooked noodles also showed the same pattern of results, however, as a whole, the results were lower when compared to wet noodles. The texture characteristics of hardness and chewiness significantly increased by increasing concentrations of the konjac powder. Cohesiveness was determined to not be significantly different by observing the surface of the noodle with a scanning electron microscope. In a sensory evaluation of the cooked noodle, no significant differences in gloss, taste, hardness, springiness or overall acceptability were observed between the control and konjac powder groups. This study indicates the that addition of 1.5% konjac powder to noodle dough may improve the functionality and preference of noodles
This study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the rheological characteristics of noodle flour dough supplementary konjac powder comprising 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% of the total mixture. In farinograph analysis, water absorption increased with the increased content of konjac powder. Both the arrival times and the development times of the dough with added konjac powder were longer than original wheat flour dough. Dough stability was found to be increased as compared to the control, but decreased as konjac powder content was increased. As konjac powder content increased, the resistance of the dough as shown by farinograph data was highest in the original wheat flour dough as 130 BU. Starting temperature, maximum viscosity temperature and maximum viscosity were decreased as shown in amylograph analysis. In extensograph analysis, the dough's extensibility and resistance to extension of the dough decreased as the amount of konjac powder was increased. The ratio of resistance to extensibility (R/E) decreased with the an increase in the amount of konjac powder included in the dough. The dough’s tensile strength after cooking was increased in proportion to the additional amount of konjac powder used.
The aim of this study was to determine the changes in fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of cheonggukjang containing walnuts at 0, 10, 20, or 30%. Amino nitrogen content was decreased with increasing content of walnuts. However, cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts met the standard of food sanitation act. Volatile basic nitrogen contents of cheonggukjang containing walnuts was lower than that of cheonggukjang containing no walnut. There was no significant difference in total amino acid content for cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. However, total amino acid content in cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts was significantly lower than that in cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. The content of essential amino acid in cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts was also significantly lower than that in cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. Saturated fatty acid content was decreased significantly from 16.7% to 3.6% when the content of was increased from 0% to 30%. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents was increased with increasing amounts of walnut added to cheonggukjang. Result of sensory evaluation revealed that the taste and overall quality of cheonggukjang made with 10~20% walnuts were significantly higher compared to those of ordinary cheonggukjang. These results suggest that cheonggukjang made with 10~20% walnuts could be developed as a novel fermented food.
This study was conducted to investigate the changes in the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of cheonggukjang with the addition of walnuts. The pH of cheonggukjang did not change significantly with the addition of walnut. But the water content decreased significantly. Walnut addition to the soybean was expected to have a positive effect because the number of Bacillus subtilis was not reduced. The viscous substance content was significantly decreased when more than 20% of walnut was added to cheonggukjang. The addition of walnut made the color darker. The flavonoid and polyphenol content was sharply increased in proportion to the walnut addition and the DPPH radical scavenging activity of cheonggukjang also increased. Altogether, it was found that the addition of walnut had a positive influence on the cheonggukjang by increasing the antioxidant activity.
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the taste components of cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans, which is produced by the addition of a smoking process. The total organic acid content of smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans (SCGS) was four times higher than that of non-smoked cheonggukjang made with non-germinated soybeans (NCNS). The total organic acid content of SCGS was lower than that of non-smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans (NCGS). The total free sugar content of NCGS and SCGS was approximately three times higher than that of NCNS. The total free amino acid content of NCGS was significantly decreased compared with that of NCNS, whereas the total free amino acid content of SCGS was 1.2 times higher than that of NCGS. The essential amino acid content of SCGS was significantly increased compared with that of NCGS. The ratio of glutamic acid to the total free amino acid in NCNS and SCGS was 19.6%. Similarly, the ratio of glutamic acid to the total free amino acid in NCGS was 19.1%. There were no significant differences in the total fatty acid content of NCNS, NCGS, and SCGS. The sensory evaluation of appearance, aroma, taste, and overall quality of SCGS was significantly increased compared with that of NCNS and NCGS. These results suggest that smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans could be utilized for the development of a novel fermented food.
The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the quality characteristics of cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans, which is produced by the addition of a smoking process. The L value of smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans (SCGS) was higher than that of non-smoked cheonggukjang made with non-germinated soybeans (NCNS) and non-smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans (NCGS). The a value of NCNS was the highest, followed by NCGS and SCGS. The b and △T values had a similar tendency compared with the L value. The amino acids in NCGS were significantly decreased compared with NCNS, whereas no remarkable difference in amino acid content was observed between NCGS and SCGS. The moisture content of NCGS (61.9±0.9%) was increased by more than 8% compared with that of NCNS (53.3±0.7%). The moisture content of SCGS was significantly decreased compared with NCGS, whereas the moisture content of SCGS was higher than that of NCNS. The pH of SCGS was significantly the highest, followed by NCGS and NCNS. The viscous substance content of NCGS was significantly increased compared with that of NCNS. No remarkable difference in viscous substance content was observed between NCGS and SCGS. The number of aerobic bacteria in SCGS was significantly decreased compared with NCGS. The levels of total isoflavone in NCNS, NCGS, and SCGS were 1,573.9±62.5, 1,759.1±65.8, 1,738.0±68.1 mg%, respectively.