이 연구는 광물과 암석을 주제로 진행된 야외지질학습에 참여한 초등학생들의 학습 효과를 생소한 경험 공간 (Novelty space) 개념을 중심으로 탐색하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 방과 후 자율 동아리 활동 형식으로 서울의 한 공립 초등학교에서 진행된 본 프로그램에 6학년 학생 총 10명이 참여하였다. 학생들은 교실 학습 환경에서 광물과 암석 표 본을, 야외 학습 환경에서 노두에 노출되었거나 정원석 등으로 쓰이고 있는 광물과 암석을 각각 관찰하였다. 저자들은 각 차시별 연구 참여자들이 작성한 활동지(글, 그림), 연구자 참여 노트, 연구 참여자의 활동이 담긴 영상 및 음성 자료 와 사후 인터뷰 자료를 수집하였다. 인지적 영역에서 학생들의 학습 효과를 분석하기 위해 Remmen and Frøyland (2020)의 암석 분류를 위한 관찰 분석틀과 Oh (2020)의 암석 기술어 분석틀을 활용하였다. 또한 심리 및 지리적 영역 의 학습 효과를 탐색하기 위해 학생들의 그림과 담화 및 면담 자료를 귀납적으로 분석하였다. 연구 결과 학생들은 교 실 학습 환경에서 ‘일상적’, ‘과도기적’ 관찰 양상을 보였으며 야외 학습 환경에서(학교 운동장, 지역사회)는 ‘과도기적’ 및 ‘과학적’ 관찰 단계까지 발전하는 모습을 나타냈다. 덧붙여 과학적 관찰 단계로 갈수록 더 많은 종류의 암석 기술어 가 사용되는 것 또한 확인되었다. 심리, 지리적 측면에서 학생들은 익숙한 야외 학습 환경으로의 답사 장소 선정, 야외 지질학습에 대한 긍정적인 인식, 심미적 감상 등을 표현하였다. 끝으로 이 연구는 학생들의 학습 효과 분석을 위한 도 구로써 생소한 경험 공간 개념이 유용한 도구가 될 수 있음을 강조하며 아울러 가상야외지질학습과 같은 새로운 학습 환경을 고려하는 학술적인 접근이 필요함을 제안하는 바이다.
Hepatic diseases are divided into two types: alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Non-alcoholic liver injury finally induces fatty liver and damages liver function. Many studies have demonstrated that Ecklonia stolonifera has antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. We conducted a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to examine the efficacy of E. stolonifera extracts (ESE) on biochemical markers of hepatic function. Sixty-five subjects with mild or moderate liver injuries were randomly allocated to receive either 420 mg/d of ESE or a placebo for 12 weeks. Fifty-five participants completed the trial. No significant adverse events were observed among the subjects during the study. The primary end points were changes in plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). The secondary end points were changes in lipid profile levels, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). Compared with the baseline, AST and ALT levels decreased significantly in the ESE group compared to those in the placebo group (P<0.001). In addition, γ-GT levels in the ESE group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group (P=0.016). There were no differences in the TC, TG, HDL, and LDL levels between groups. In conclusion, ESE consumption for 12 weeks improved liver parameters in subjects with liver injury. Regular consumption of ESE could maintain liver health in individuals at risk of hepatic damage.
The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries promoted the installation of eel-ladder for the purpose of creating inland water resources. Currently, eel-ladder have been installed and operated at the Geumgang Estuary Bank (2018), Yeongam Embankment (2019), and Asanman Embankment (2020). In this study, the number of glass eels in eel-ladder in 2021 was monitored and factors affecting the rise that from ocean to river of eels were investigated. Glass eels in eel-ladder were found when the salinity was relatively low, and they started when the freshwater and seawater temperatures were above 20℃. Comparing the number of occurrences by year, the largest number of glass eels was observed in 2021, but it is judged that this is not according to the distribution of glass eels in sea, but rather as a result of the investigator’s eel-ladder repair and guidance on illegal fishing.
This study was to investigate an analytical method for determining dieckol content in Ecklonia stolonifera extract. According to the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization. Method validation was performed by measuring the specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) of dieckol using high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array. The results showed that the correlation coefficient of calibration curve (R2) for dieckol was 0.9997. The LOD and LOQ for dieckol were 0.18 and 0.56 μg/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision values of dieckol were approximately 1.58-4.39% and 1.37-4.64%, respectively. Moreover, intra- and inter-day accuracies of dieckol were approximately 96.91- 102.33% and 98.41-105.71%, respectively. Thus, we successfully validated the analytical method for estimating dieckol content in E. stolonifera extract.
This study analyzed the effects of consumer confusion on shopping fatigue and negative purchasing behaviors in an internet shopping environment. Further, the effects of shopping fatigue on negative purchasing behaviors were analyzed. The survey was conducted among consumers in their 20s and 40s in the Seoul metropolitan area who had experience of purchasing fashion products through internet shopping. A total of 392 questionnaire were analysis, with frequency, reliability, factor, correlation, and regression analysis completed using the SPSS statistics program. The results of the study showed that consumer confusion and shopping fatigue in internet shopping environment affected negative purchasing behaviors. First, consumer confusion comprised overload confusion, similarity confusion, and ambiguity confusion. It was found that overload confusion and similarity confusion significantly affected shopping fatigue. Second, shopping fatigue significantly affected negative purchasing behaviors, and an increased level of shopping fatigue result in, increased purchase delay and non-purchase behavior. Third, consumer confusion (overload confusion, similarity confusion, ambiguity confusion) significantly affected purchase delay behavior, while similarity confusion and ambiguity confusion significantly affected non-purchasing behavior. These results will provide useful data for e-CRM and marketing directions of internet companies and will contribute to rational decision-making of internet consumers and improve the quality of consumer life.
2020년 3월부터 10월까지 군산시의 중초산 저수지와 북초산 저수지의 어류상 및 군집분석을 하였다. 조사기간 동안 채집된 어류는 중초산 저수지에서 4목 5과 8종 1,895개체, 북초산 저수지에서 3목 5과 7종 171개체였다. 중초산 저수지의 우점종은 참붕어 (661개체, 상대풍부도: 34.7%) 아우점 종은 흰줄납줄개 (660개체, 상대풍부도: 34.7%), 북초산 저수지는 배스 (77개체, 45.0%)와 붕어 (60개체, 35.1%) 순으로 나타났다. 군집분석 결과 중초산 저수지는 우점도 0.697, 다양도 1.483, 균등도 0.713, 종 풍부도 0.928, 북초산 저수지는 우점도 0.801, 다양도 1.304, 균등도 0.670, 종 풍부도 1.167을 보였다. 본 연구 결과를 통해 생태계 교란생물인 배스의 영향으로 토착어종의 개체수와 군집의 다양도가 감소한 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 따라서 외래어종의 지속적인 제거와 유입을 막는 관리가 요구된다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of frankfurter sausage made with venison. The crude protein content of sausage showed a significant increase pattern in the proportion to the addition of the venison. The crude fat content showed a decrease pattern. The saturated fatty acid significantly increased in proportion to the content of the venison. The monounsaturated fatty acids and the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with increasing the venison content. The content of the free amino acids increased in proportion to the amount of the venison added. The amino acid content of the pork sausage was in the order of Alanine > glycine > glutamic acid, and was similar in the sausages made from venison. The essential amino acids were 36.4% in FSV, higher than 34.0% in the pork sausages. In the sensory test, it was confirmed that the texture, taste, and overall acceptability increased with the addition of the venison. Because the sausages made from the venison were superior to the pork sausages in all of the measured sensory characteristics, it is considered that industrialization is sufficiently feasible.
미국가재는 멕시코 북동부 및 미국 중남부가 원산지로, 전 세계에 유입되어 서식처 파괴와 토착종과의 경쟁 등 많은 문제를 야기하고 있다. 본 조사에서 영산강 6개 지점, 만경강 5개 지점, 섬진강 2개 지점 금강 1개 지점에서 확인되었으며, 주요 수계에서 정착 서식하는 것으로 나타났다. 완주군 서봉리와 함평군 모산리는 20개체 이상이 확인 되어 비교적 큰 개체군을 형성하고 있을 것으로 추정된다. 높은 이동성과 환경적응력으로 보아 확인된 지점에서 타 수계로의 유입 가능성이 매우 높을 것으로 생각되며, 이에 지속적인 확산 현황 파악과 생태계 피해 예방을 위한 지속적 제거 노력이 필요하다.
In this study, the effects of anticipated regret and perceived uncertainty on price sensitivity or purchase hesitation in overseas purchasing are analyzed along with the effects of price sensitivity on purchase hesitation. The survey was conducted among internet fashion consumers with experience in overseas purchasing and 480 responses were used in the data analysis. The results showed the psychosocial anticipated regret positively influenced the price importance, and the service, product and psychosocial anticipated regret positively influenced the price search. The preference and psychology uncertainty positively influenced the price importance, and the information and psychology uncertainty positively influenced the price search. The price importance positively influenced payment stage hesitation and shopping cart abandonment, and the price search positively influenced purchase hesitation in overseas purchasing. The functional, service and psychosocial anticipated regret positively influenced payment stage hesitation, and the service and psychosocial anticipated regret positively influenced shopping cart abandonment and overall purchase hesitation. In addition, the perceived uncertainty positively influenced the payment stage hesitation, and the information and psychology uncertainty positively influenced the shopping cart abandonment and overall purchase hesitation. The results of this study will be helpful for developing the marketing strategy for customer relationship management for overseas internet shopping web-sites.
The purpose of this study was to compare dietary self-efficacy for sodium intake reduction and dietary behaviors by eating areas. Subjects (797 males and 767 females) were classified according to perceived dietary habit levels related to sodium intake (lowest: ≤10 (n=434), low: 11~≤13 (n=471), high: 14~≤15 (n=360), highest: 16≤ (n=299)) using an online survey with a sample that was geographically representative of the population. The highest group was significantly younger and had a higher student proportion than the lowest group. Dining contexts regarding home led to a significantly higher sodium intake in the highest group, but it was eating out for the lowest group. The highest group had a significantly lower intention to reduce sodium intake compared to the lowest group. In the home cooked meals, the highest group displayed a significantly lower cooking frequency, less effort with respect to a low sodium diet and cooking habits related to sodium intake as compared to the lowest group. Also, regarding eating out and food service, the highest group exhibited significantly lower efforts and dietary behaviors to reduce sodium intake than the lowest group. The dietary score for sodium reduction behavior in the highest group was significantly lower compared to the lowest group, for home cooked meals, eating out, as well as food service. Thus, dietary guidelines and nutrition education for the reduction of sodium intake by eating areas need to be developed and provided.
IPS(Ideal Production System) is a strategic cost management establishing ideal target cost, innovating cost structure and reduction. However, IPS was commonly used in assembly industry acquiring components and using them to assemble vehicles etc. Applying IPS to steel industry is a new try and not easy because cost elements in flow manufacturing are clustered and obfuscated in a complicated way. This paper proposes ICM (Ideal Cost Management) method adaptive to steel industry. One of the biggest advantages is that ICM could classify and categorize costs in detail according to accounts and manufacturing machines. Based on ICM information, steps of extracting and maximizing ideas are followed effectively. From 2013, ICM was applied successfully to POSCO Pohang Steel Works 38 factories.
This study was to investigate the association among satisfaction of nutrition labeling, change of purchase behaviors, and dietary life care, based on the awareness of nutrition labeling at expressway rest areas. The subjects (n=903) were divided into two groups, according to the awareness of nutrition labeling: Awareness of Nutrition Labeling (ANL) group, n=367; Non Awareness of Nutrition Labeling (NANL) group, n=536. Effort of health care and identification of nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. As for the main reason for not identifying nutrition labeling, ‘not interested in nutrition labeling’ was the highest in the ANL group, and ‘Don't know nutrition labeling is provided’ in the NANL group. Identification ratio of nutrition labeling in future was significantly higher in the NANL group, compared with the ANL group among the subjects who didn't identify nutrition labeling before. After their becoming aware, a change of food purchase after reading the nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. Health beliefs on the nutrition labeling were significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. Satisfaction of nutrition labeling was also significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. The ANL group also expressed a necessity of expansion of nutrition labeling, compared with the NANL group. In the ANL group, identification of nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the hard effort group, compared with the little effort group of dietary life care. Therefore, improvement and campaign of nutrition labeling for consumers at expressway rest areas, especially for the NANL group, will be effective in identifying nutrition labeling for their health care.
Serratia marcescens는 그람음성균이며 곤충병원성 박테리아다. 이 균은 인간을 포함하여 넓은 범위의 숙주에게 영향을 끼치며 특히 병원에 입원하거나 면역이 약 해진 환자에게 기회주의적 감염을 일으키는 병원균이다. 본 연구에서는 Serratia marcescens의 Db11이라는 균주를 이용하여 Riptortus pedestris 모델에서의 감염 경로에 따라 나타나는 독성의 차이에 대하여 연구하였다. Db11 균주를 Riptortus pedestris의 체액 안으로 직접 주사하여 감염시킨 경우에는 5일 안에 곤충이 죽는 결과를 보였으나, 경구를 통해 감염 시켰을 경우에는 Riptortus pedestris의 생존률 이 매우 높은 양상을 보였다. 경구를 통한 감염에서 나타나는 높은 생존률은 아마도 경구로 들어간 Db11 균주가 장내에서 없어졌을 것이라고 추측하여, 경구를 통해 감염시킨 후 장내의 CFU(colony forming unit) 를 측정해보았다. Riptortus pedestris의 장은 총 5개의 장으로 M1, M2, M3, M4B, M4로 이루어져있으며 Db11 균주는 M3에서 많이 colonization 된 것을 확인했다. 흥미롭게도 M3에서 colonization된 Db11 균주는 예상과는 다르게 계속하여 그 수가 증가하는 것을 확 인했다. 뿐만 아니라, M3에서 증가한 Db11 균은 체액으로 빠져나온다는 사실도 알 게 되었다. 흥미로운 것은 주사감염과 경구감염을 통해 다른 경로로 감염이 되더라 도 Db11 균주는 체액 안으로 들어가지만, 체액 안의 Db11 균주가 나타내는 독성은 감염 경로에 따라 커다란 차이가 있다는 것이다. 본 연구진은 감염경로에 따라 독성 의 차이가 나타나는 원인이 무엇인지에 대한 연구를 수행 중에 있다.
This study examined the understanding and use of information on nutrition labels based on one serving size among female consumers above the age of 20 in Seoul area. According to the survey, 69.9% of respondents were aware of the current system of nutrition labeling based on one serving size, and 51.8% of the respondents expressed their dissatisfaction with the system because the nutrition labels were difficult to understand or appeared unreliable. The nutrition label literacy of the consumers varied with respect to different packaging units. The respondents were likely to be less accurate in calculating the expected caloric intake when only portions of a multi-serving package were used. Initially 69.0% of respondents reported that they had read the nutrition label before purchasing a product but 91.9% of respondents said that they would check the label after learning how to read the label properly. It is very important to make consumers aware that the labels are very reliable sources of nutrition information. A public education campaign on the use of nutrition labels should focus on developing the consumers' ability and skills in using the label information when choosing foods.
It is well understood that developing new drugs is one of the highest value-added businesses in a country; however, the current governments' spending in pharmaceutical research and development(R&D) is minimal in Korea. This paper suggests that different governmental bodies should take in charge of different stages of the R&D process in order to maximize the use of limited government research funding. First, during the initial phase of the drug development, including clinical trials, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology is the most appropriate governmental organization to support the research. For later procedures such as supporting the industries for exporting developed drugs, legislative approvals, and building infrastructure for future clinical trials should be supported by the Ministry of Knowledge and Economy and the Ministry of Health and Welfare along with the Korea Food and Drug Administration(KFDA). The KFDA, which is the main governmental agency approving newly developed drugs in the market, will need to take a crucial responsibility in the initial phase of the pharmaceutical R&D by guiding the industries with timely and proper information. As a first step, it is recommended to set up and operate a center for supporting new drugs, so that the industries can facilitate the development of marketable drugs which meet customers' needs. Later, in order to expedite the process of exporting and getting approvals of the newly developed drugs from foreign countries, it is necessary to develop new approval system, which includes introduction of the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), mandatory validation system, and education program for supporting expertise. Lastly, the KFDA needs to take an active role in developing Korean pharmaceutical industries by communicating with other foreign governments with regards to the globalization of the Korean pharmaceutical industries. For example, as a follow up after the Free Trade Agreement(FTA), active discussion on GLP of Mutual Recognition Agreement(MRA) with the United States of America, should be seriously considered.
The general composition like moisture content, and the physical and sensory characteristics of the steamed rice cake added with powder of roots of balloonflowers were as follows. The moisture content in the roots was 4.13±0.01%, crude protein 9.24±0.11%, crude fat 3.07±0.04%, crude fiber 33.82±0.01%, and crude ash 8.16±0.02%. The moisture content of the cake was decreased with increase of the root’s powder added. In physical characteristic, the hardness of the cake was increased with increase of the powder. The control cake was the highest in the cohesiveness. The springiness tended to be increased with increase of the powder. The gumminess was higher with increase of the powder, being 530.33% in the control and 284.44% in the sample with 12.0% powder added. The adhesiveness was decreased with increase of the powder. The color change was significantly decreased with increase of the powder. With increase of the powder, the value a was decreased, while the value b showed to be increased. In a sensory test, the favorite degree to color, flavor, bitter taste, moistness, soft-ness and overall acceptability was measured to get the follow result. To color, the lot with 6% of the balloonflower powder added showed the highest accept-ability with the same highest result also to flavor and bitter taste. The moistness and the softness were revealed as the highest at the control, and the chewiness was also highest at the lot with 3% of the powder added. The overall acceptability was highest as 5.75 at the lot with 6% of the powder added, coming out to be higher in order of the 3% added-lot, the control, the 9%-lot and the 12%-lot.