The rapid development of biotechnology has increased the importance of microorganisms or their genetic information. Thus, the Nagoya Protocol on access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization was established, and countries are working to secure industrially and academically useful bioresources to deal with the agreement. In the case of Korea, because 67% of bioresources are imported from abroad, we are required to secure domestic bioresources as well. The number of isolated foodborne illness-causing microorganisms is predicted to invrease based on the incresing number of outbreaks of foodborne illness each year. Consequently, appropriate long-term preservation methods are necessary to secure the isolated microorganisms for the purpose of research and resourcification. Therefore, the long-term preservation methods for bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa were investigated in this study, from domestic and international bioresource banks, and the functions of the cryoprotectants were reviewed and discussed. This review should be informative in the preservation of microorganisms and contribute to the development of biotechnology.
The official analytical method for the analysis of harmful heavy metals in Meju, distributed in Korea, employs a strong acid to decompose the organic components. This analysis is time consuming and harmful to the users and/or the environment. This study aimed to develop a new pre-treatment technology using laser ablation, to rapidly analyze harmful heavy metals without using strong acids. The results obtained from this method were validated by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation guideline (NIFDS, 2016). Moreover, a comparison of the two methods showed that the analytical time for 55 Meju samples was shortened by 96% or more in the new method. The results showed no significant difference in the recovery ranging from 90–120%. The proposed method proved suitable for detecting harmful heavy metals in Meju.
The research aims to develop a rapid and easy analytical method for methoprene using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A simple, highly sensitive, and specific analytical method for the determination of methoprene in livestock products (beef, pork, chicken, milk, eggs, and fat) was developed. Methoprene was effectively extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and acetone (1:1), followed by the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and anhydrous sodium acetate. Subsequently, the lipids in the livestock sample were extracted by freezing them at -20oC. The extracts were cleaned using MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), and octadecyl (C18), which were then centrifuged to separate the supernatant. Nitrogen gas was used to evaporate the supernatant, which was then dissolved in methanol. The matrix-matched calibration curves were constructed using 8 levels (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150 ng/mL) and the coefficient of determination (R2) was above 0.9964. Average recoveries spiked at three levels (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg), and ranged from 79.5-105.1%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) smaller than 14.2%, as required by the Codex guideline (CODEX CAC/GL 40). This study could be useful for residue safety management in livestock products.
This study was to investigate an analytical method for determining dieckol content in Ecklonia stolonifera extract. According to the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization. Method validation was performed by measuring the specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) of dieckol using high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array. The results showed that the correlation coefficient of calibration curve (R2) for dieckol was 0.9997. The LOD and LOQ for dieckol were 0.18 and 0.56 μg/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision values of dieckol were approximately 1.58-4.39% and 1.37-4.64%, respectively. Moreover, intra- and inter-day accuracies of dieckol were approximately 96.91- 102.33% and 98.41-105.71%, respectively. Thus, we successfully validated the analytical method for estimating dieckol content in E. stolonifera extract.
This study aimed to investigate pesticide residues in 160 stalk and stem vegetables marketed in Northern Gyeonggi-do. The QuEChERS method using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze the residues of 341 pesticides in the samples. The maximum or lower than the residue limit was recorded in 75 samples (46.9%), while 4 samples (2.5%) exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Thirty-nine kinds of residual pesticides were detected including fungicides (14), insecticides (22), herbicides (2), and plant growth regulator (1). Carbendazim and pendimethalin were the most frequelntly detected pesticides. Fenitrothion, procymidone, and diazinon exceeded MRL in garlic chives, and Welsh onion. This indicated that these vegetables along with water celery should be constantly monitored.
In this study, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and mercury) and shellfish poisoning toxins (diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins) were investigated in a total of 104 shellfishes. According to the analysis of heavy metals, lead (Pb) was detected in the range of 0.0177-0.5709 mg/kg, cadmium (Cd) was detected in the range of 0.0226-1.4602 mg/kg, and mercury (Hg) was detected in the range of 0.0015-0.0327 mg/kg. Levels of Pb, Cd, and Hg were acceptable by Korean standards. Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were investigated for monitoring of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and OA and DTX-1 were not detected. As a result of monitoring of amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins, domoic acid was detected in 5 of 104 samples and detection ratio was 4.8%. The detection period was found as follows; 1 case in January, 1 case in February, 1 case in May, 2 cases in September. These showed that continuous monitoring for the management of shellfish poisoning toxins and heavy metals is required. In addition, this study can be used as reference data to strengthen managing heavy metals in fishery products.
This study evaluated the migrant and residue tests of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) in 70 tumbler samples. The migration levels of hazardous metals in all the samples were within the migration limits outlined in the Korean standards and specifications for utensils, containers, and packages. Moreover, in all the tumbler samples, only Ni was detected in 0.5% citric acid solution of a food stimulant. The maximum level of Ni 0.0144 mg/L was 14.4% of the migrant specification (not more than 0.1 mg/L), which was relatively safe. The 0.5% citric acid solution was eluted at 4oC, 70oC, and 100oC for 30 min, and only Ni was detected while testing for migration levels according to the temperature variations; all temperature conditions conformed to the standards. The level of Ni migration increased significantly with increasing migration temperature. Regarding the residue level outside the paint-coated tumbler samples, the Pb level was found to range from N.D. to 20638.1323 mg/kg. The risk of Ni was further estimated to be at a safe level of 0.00 to 0.01% compared to the %TDI as a result.
There are a number of methods to evaluate the quality of squid. However, when purchasing the fish, consumers and retails rely only on the sensory test and flavor in the field. Therefore, this study was aimed to prove relationship between scientific indicator and sensory test. Total viable cell count (TVC), viable cell count of Pseudomonas spp., pH and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) were selected as scientific indicators and mesured during the storage of squid at different temperature. The squid was storaged at 3 different temperature (5oC, 15oC, 20oC). Off flavor determination time was measured by R-index, and kinetic modeling was conducted. Activation energies of offflavor determination time, TVC, Pseudomonas spp, VBN, and pH were 51.210 kJ/mol, 42.88 kJ/mol, 50.283 kJ/mol, 72.594 kJ/mol and 41.99 kJ/mol respectively. Activation energy of off-flavor determination time was approximated to viable cell count of Pseudomonas spp., TVC, pH and VBN as an order. Especially, viable cell count of Pseudomonas spp. had best match of the activation energy. Therefore, it was judged that indicator of off-flavor determine time was viable cell count of Pseudomonas spp..
Despite the recent increase in the consumption level of the processed meat-byproducts, the health and safety issue has consistently been raised in the processes of production, distribution and consumption. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the microbiological hazard elements in the Korean sausage, “Sundae,” to present not only the safety standard of meat by-product vendors based on HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point), but also the quality control criteria and sanitary arrangements of small manufacturers. For the study, the microbiological hazards in 24 raw materials, 7 manufacturing processes, 40 facilities and tools, 17 workplace environment, and 12 workers were analyzed. The analysis revealed the hazardous elements in the initial stages with 6.28 and 4.07 log CFU/g of total aerobic count and coliforms, respectively, detected from the porcine blood and 3.23 log CFU/g of coliforms from the porcine small intestines. The result also showed that the total aerobic counts and coliforms in the process of mixing and filling process exceeds the standards in the hygiene guidelines by Natick with the total aerobic counts of 5.23, 5.45 log CFU/g, and the coliforms of 3.25, and 3.31 log CFU/g, respectively. Although the detected total aerobic count and the coliforms in the filling and washing rooms exceeded the standards, it was found that the total aerobic count was significantly reduced by 98% after cleaning and disinfecting and no coliforms was detected in any process thereafter. In order to achieve high level of safety in the manufacturing processes of Sundae, the separation of washing and disinfection room from the other sections and the sanitation control of the workers must be preceded, along with strict monitoring in the storage and distribution processes. The study raises necessity for additional studies for the safety evaluation of the processed meat-byproducts and further researches on the validity of the critical limits.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by recurring symptoms, airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. The onset of asthma for most patients begins early in life, and current asthma treatment with anti-inflammatory agents can have adverse effects, eventually leading to impaired quality of life. In the pathogenesis of asthma, macrophages and basophils play a vital role during progression. Macrophages not only induce inflammation by secreting inflammatory cytokines but also promote DNA damage and mucus production through nitric oxide (NO) production. Basophils enhance eosinophil recruitment and aggravate asthma through the FcεRIα receptor with high affinity for histamine and IgE. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether the activation of macrophages and basophils is suppressed by the individual extracts of 28 natural products. RAW 264.7 cells (mouse macrophages) were treated with the natural products in LPS, and 4 natural product extracts resulted in decreased NO production. In β-hexosaminidase assay using RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophils), 19 natural product extracts decreased β-hexosaminidase production. In NO production and β-hexosaminidase assay using macrophages and basophils, 3 natural product extracts (Plantago asiatica, Centella asiatica, and Perilla frutescens var. japonica) significantly inhibited NO production and β-hexosaminidase release. Overall, we examined the inhibitory effects of 28 natural product extracts on macrophage and basophil activity, and the findings demonstrated the potential of natural product extracts for treating asthma and macrophage- and basophil-related diseases.
Hepatic diseases are divided into two types: alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Non-alcoholic liver injury finally induces fatty liver and damages liver function. Many studies have demonstrated that Ecklonia stolonifera has antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. We conducted a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to examine the efficacy of E. stolonifera extracts (ESE) on biochemical markers of hepatic function. Sixty-five subjects with mild or moderate liver injuries were randomly allocated to receive either 420 mg/d of ESE or a placebo for 12 weeks. Fifty-five participants completed the trial. No significant adverse events were observed among the subjects during the study. The primary end points were changes in plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). The secondary end points were changes in lipid profile levels, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). Compared with the baseline, AST and ALT levels decreased significantly in the ESE group compared to those in the placebo group (P<0.001). In addition, γ-GT levels in the ESE group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group (P=0.016). There were no differences in the TC, TG, HDL, and LDL levels between groups. In conclusion, ESE consumption for 12 weeks improved liver parameters in subjects with liver injury. Regular consumption of ESE could maintain liver health in individuals at risk of hepatic damage.