Nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins produced by some Fusarium species known to be very frequently contaminated in feed. The study for simultaneous analysis and contamination survey in animal feed carried out. All mycotoxins were analysed by using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass with internal standard. The limits of detection (LOD) were 2.0 μg/kg,1.0 μg/kg, 1.0 μg/kg and 0.1 μg/kg for NIV, DON, T-2 and ZEN, respectively. Two hundred and thirty nine samples of feed were collected. The average concentration of DON was 212.3 μg/kg, 207.8 μg/kg and 812.1 μg/kg in chicken,pig and cattle feed, respectively. The average concentration of ZEN was 31.2 μg/kg, 35.6 μg/kg and 147.2 μg/kg for them, respectively. Especially, the levels of contamination for DON and ZEN were higher than those of NIV or T-2. And, the levels of contamination for four Fusarium mycotoxins in cattle feed appeared higher than those of pig and chicken feed. It was investigated that the high level of mycotoxin contamination in cattle feed was caused by corn gluten feed of ingredients for feed, mainly.
A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection has been developed to quantify coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in raw materials and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine linearity, selectivity, accuracy, limits of quantification (LOQ) and repeatability for CoQ10. An excellent linearity (r = 0.999) was observed for CoQ10 in the concentration range 15.625~500 μg/mL in dietary supplement. Observed recovery of CoQ10 was found to be between 98.33 and 99.38%. LOQ was found to be 250 μg/mL Repeatability precision for CoQ10 was between 0.15 and 0.21% relative standard deviation (RSD). Further, limited studies showed that some adulterants and degraded material could be satisfactorily separated from CoQ10 and identified.
A method was established for the simultaneous determinatioin of sugar alcohols, erythritol, xylitol,sorbitol, inositol, mannitol, maltitiol, lactitol and isomalt by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The sugar alcohols were converted into strong ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing derivatives with p-nitrobenzoyl chloride (PNBC). HPLC was performed on Imtakt Unison US-C18 column, using acetonitrile : water (77:23) as a mobile phase and UV detection (260 nm). The calibration curves for all sugar alcohols tested were linear in the 10~200 mg/L range. The average recoveries of the sugar alcohols from three confectioneries spiked at 100 ppm of eight sugar alcohol standards ranged from 81.2 to 123.1% with relative standard deviations ranging fromo 0.2 to 4.9%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.5~8 μg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2~17 μg/L. Reproducibility of 8 sugar alcohols was 0.28~1.97 %RSD. The results of the analysis of confectioneries showed that 89 samples of 130 were detected and the sugar alcohols content of samples investigated varied between 0.4 and 693.7 g/kg. A method for the simultaneous determination of eight sugar alcohols will be used as basic data for control of sugar alcohols in confectioneries, and qualilty control in food manufacturing.
In this study, predictive mathematical models were developed to predict the kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes growth in the mixed fresh-cut vegetables, which is the most popular ready-to-eat food in the world, as a function of temperature (4, 10, 20 and 30oC). At the specified storage temperatures, the primary growth curve fit well (r2 = 0.916~0.981) with a Gompertz and Baranyi equation to determine the specific growth rate (SGR). The Polynomial model for natural logarithm transformation of the SGR as a function of temperature was obtained by nonlinear regression (Prism, version 4.0, GraphPad Software). As the storage temperature decreased from 30oC to 4oC, the SGR decreased, respectively. Polynomial model was identified as appropriate secondary model for SGR on the basis of most statistical indices such as mean square error (MSE = 0.002718 by Gompertz, 0.055186 by Baranyi), bias factor (Bf = 1.050084 by Gompertz, 1.931472 by Baranyi) and accuracy factor (Af = 1.160767 by Gompertz, 2.137181 by Baranyi). Results indicate L. monocytogenes growth was affected by temperature mainly, and equation was developed by Gompertz model (−0.1606 + 0.0574*Temp + 0.0009*Temp*Temp) was more effective than equation was developed by Baranyi model (0.3502 − 0.0496*Temp + 0.0022*Temp* Temp) for specific growth rate prediction of L. monocytogenes in the mixed fresh-cut vegetables.
Arcobacter butzleri is one of the aerotolerant Campylobacter species which cause persistent diarrhea,abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting in human. The aim of this study was to determine the growth and survival of A. butzleri under the heat treatment or freezing storage condition. In heat treatment, two Korean isolates of A. butzleri were treated at 40 to 80℃ for various times. In freeze treatment, two Korean isolates of A. butzleri were kept at 4, −20 and −70℃ from 1 to 15 d. The survivability of the A. butzleri Korean isolates significantly decreased at higher than 60℃ heating condition but it didn't show any significant difference in 40℃ treated group. Under the cold stress condition, survivability of A. butzleri were significantly decreased at −20℃ storage. Like other foodborne pathogens,survivability of A. butzleri was controlled by heat and freezing treatment.
In order to optimize the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) conditions of ginger oleoresin (GO), we conducted an evaluation of quality properties such as yield (%), color, volatile flavor compounds and gingerol components. The extraction yield gained by SFE increased as extraction pressure and temperature increased. The highest yield was 8.96 ± 0.68% at 500 bar 65℃ extraction condition. The total color difference (ΔE) values decreased at high pressure. In case of the 100 bar pressure conditions, ΔE-values increased as the temperature went up. The analysis of the 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol and curcumin contents decreased at high temperature conditions of identical pressure and increased at high pressure conditions. The volatile flavor compounds were detected in zingiberene,β-sesquiphellandre, β-phellandre, αγ-curcumene, 2,3-butandiol, β-bisabolene and so on. Also volatile component contents showed difference in each of extraction conditions.
For the application of nano-sized material in various fields, the evaluation of nano-sized material toxicity is important. In the present study, various concentrations of 200 nm-sized silicon dioxide nanoparticle suspension were intraperitonially injected into mice to identify the toxicity of silicon dioxide nanoparticle in vivo. In the hematological analysis of group II treated with silicon dioxide nanoparticle 100 mg/kg body weight, lymphocytes and monocytes were significantly different compared to the control group. In group III treated with silicon dioxide nanoparticle 200 mg/kg body weight, lymphocytes, monocytes and hemoglobin were significantly different compared to the control group. In blood biochemical analysis of group III, the concentration of AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine were significantly different compared to the control group. Histopathologic examination of the kidney indicated a mild injury only in mice received 200 mg/kg silicon dioxide nanoparticle. According to the results of the present study, the significant differences in the hematological and blood biochemical analyses and abnormal histopathological findings in the mouse kidney may have been related to exposure to silicon dioxide nanoparticle.
To investigate the toxicological effects of β-glucan, we performed basic studying on β-glucan in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Standard endpoints in this study included mortality, clinical observations, changes of body weights, analysis on food consumption, ophthalmoscopic examination, hematologic examination, serum biochemistry,analysis of organ weights, gross anatomic pathology and histopathology. No clinical signs and mortality were observed in animals treated with beta-glucan throughout the experimental period. The average body weight of each treatment groups showed similar levels at end of experiment. There were no treatment-related changes in mortality,body weights changes, food consumption, ophthalmoscopic examination. Although there were statistically significant differences between the control and treated groups in some relative and absolute organ weights, and hematological and biochemical analysis, the data were in biologically normal ranges and did not show a dose-dependent manner. In the morphological change, hepatic tissue were not showed ballooning degeneration and irregular arrangement of hepatic cell in β-glucan treatment groups with control group. Also, organs weights (liver, heart, kidney and stomach) and hematological indices (WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct and Platelet) did not show statistically significant differences among the experimental groups. In summary of these results, there were no changes in mortality, mean body weight, clinical signs, food consumption. There were no changes in ophthalmological examination, hematology, blood chemistry,necropsy and histopathology. In conclusion, although further investigation of glucan should be performed in the functions registered in many ancient literatures, β-glucan is physiologically safe and may have potential as candidate food for human health.
This survey was conducted to develop an appropriate management for safety of children snacks. In this study, monitorings of food additives such as nine kinds of tar colors (tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, indigo carmine, new coccine, amaranth, erythrosine, allura red and fast green FCF) which are sold at stationary store around the school, were performed. Eighty two samples (3 snacks, 71 candies, 4 chocolates and 4 beverages)were analyzed for tar colors. Results of risk assessment for tar colors were expressed as EDI (Estimated Daily Intake) comparing with ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake). The ratio of high risk group for tar color intake (95th) were 0-3.56%. The consumptions of tar colors from domestic and imported products for nine kinds of tar colors in candies were not significantly different. The results of this study indicated that each EDI of nine kinds of tar colors sold at stationary store around the school is much lower than each ADI in general. Consequently, the children snacks are thought to be safe for consumption.
Steamed rice is usually used as an essential ingredient when Takju or Yakju is brewed in Korea. Alternatively, non-steamed rice can be used to keep thermolabile nutrients and fresh tastes richer in Takju or Yakju. In this study, therefore, the physicochemical properties (ethanol and sugar contents, pH, total acidities, and turbidities)and the fermentative microbial profiles (aerobic mesophillic bacteria (AMB), fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and Escherichia coli and coliforms) have been compared among 4 Takju and 1 Yakju samples brewed using steamed or non-steamed rice. Yakju brewed using non-steamed rice has approximately 2-3 times higher ethanol and sugar contents than other 4 Takjus brewed using steamed or non-steamed rice. The pH and total acidity values of all the 5 samples ranged 3.77-4.30 and 0.12-0.35, respectively. As for turbidities, Yakju brewed using nonsteamed rice was transparent, but other 4 Takjus were not. The AMB and fungal counts for Yakju brewed using nonsteamed rice were approximately 104-fold less than those for 4 Takjus. The LAB counts for Takju and Yakju brewed using non-steamed rice were 103-fold less than those for Takjus brewed using steamed rice. The AAB counts ranged 2-6 log10CFU/mL for all the 5 samples. E.coli and coliforms were not detected. Overall, there was no significant difference in microbial counts among 4 Takjus brewed using steamed or non-steamed rice, but Takju has higher microbial counts than Yakju. All the 5 samples were conclusively considered to be hygienically brewed and processed containing plenty of beneficial microorganisms.
A new and improved analytical method involving alkaline pyridine extraction was proposed to quantity chlorophyll contents in syrup and candy type chlorella products. The performance of analytical method was compared with the conventional Korea food standard method which involves acetone extraction. The application of sonication chlorophyll extraction form alkaline pyridine sample was also explored. The analytical procedure was validated by evaluating accuracy, precision and reproducibility. For liquid samples, the pyridine extraction method showed higher accuracy and precision compared to acetone extraction method. The CV values of pyridine extract method and the acetone extraction method were 18.82 and 40.0, and the accuracy to theoretical values were 106.3%and 78.1%, respectively. When sonication extraction method was applied to the pyridine extraction, the precision was improved as indicated by reduced CV values from 18.82 to 11.36. The improved performance of pyridine-sonication extraction was also validated by recovery test of chlorophyll that was previously spiked into the sample matrix. For solid matrix, the pyridine extraction method showed better performance in analysis of chlorophyll in solid food matrix (CV = 7.05) compared to conventional acetone extraction method (CV = 30.0). However, the accuracy to theoretical values of pyridine and acetone extraction methods only showed only 62.7% an 40%, respectively. The relatively low accuracy of pyridine extraction method (62.7%) was improved to 99.4% by applying additional sonication extraction method. The improved performance of applying additional sonication extraction was validated by standard deviation,CV values and accuracy to theoretical values.
The protease produced by a Bacillus pumilus CN8 strain was purified by DEAE-Cellulose-52 ion exchange. It has a molecular weight of approximately 96,920 Dalton. In the present study, this protease showed strong activity over a broad range of pH (6.5-9.5) and temperature from 40℃ to 60℃, and the protease performed the maximal activity at pH 7.3 at 42℃. The effect of metal ions on protease activity showed that K+ could slightly increase the protease activity, and other ions such as Zn²+, Fe²+, Na+, Ca²+, Mg²+ had no significant activation or inhibition to the protease (P > 0.05), and the more important is that Cu²+, Mn²+, Sn²+, Cd²+ had a strong inhibitory effect on the protease activity.
The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total sugar and sodium in 129 different kinds of bakery products, breads and cookies, sold at bakeshops in Seoul metropolitan area. The bakery products produced by bakeshops on a small scale were not applied by clauses of mandatory nutrition label for children's taste food. All types of free sugars -fructose, glucose, sucrose, lactose and maltose- were detected in breads, but only fructose and sucrose were detected in cookies. The average amount of sucrose per 100 g of breads was 6.24 g, of cookies was 30.03 g. Breads and cookies amounting to 100 g of sample contained total sugar of 11.19 g and 30.38 g, respectively. The average amounts of sodium in breads and cookies were 120.71 mg/100 g, 70.76 mg/100 g, respectively. When the contents of total sugar in breads and cookies per one serving size were compared to WHO guidelines, the percentages were 15.7% and 18.2% about recommended daily intake of total sugar of 50 g. When it come to sodium, the bakery products had range of 1.1~6.5% to 2000 mg of daily intake of sodium recommended by WHO.