Mycotoxins produced by molds isolated from discolored sun-dried red pepper fruits were determined and the toxicity to animals was also tested by feeding mold-grown unpolished rice to rats. Among the mold species tested, only Alternaria alternata was toxic to experimental animals, while other mold species belonging to the genera of Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Diaporthopsis, Botryosphereia, Aspergillus and Fusarium were not. Rats fed Alternaria-grown rice lost weight and died within two weeks of feeding period. Succumbed rats during the process of feeding study showed extreme cases of enlargements of stomach, small intestine and liver. Among the 17 Alternaria isolates, 8 species produced considerable amount of tenuazonic acid along with small amounts of other toxins including alternariol and monomethyl ether derivative of alternariol in both red pepper homogenate and unpolished rice. It is therefore advised that red pepper fruits infested by molds during the sun-drying process be discarded to avoid unnoticeable health hazards.
A survey on consumer’s awareness and perception toward genetically-modified (GM) foods was conducted on 2110 random samples of Korean consumers. More than 65% of the respondents were exposed to some information related to GM foods. The respondents answered that the greatest benefit of the development of GM foods is remedy of potential food shortages in the future. More than 90% of Korean consumers wanted GM foods to be labeled as such. More than 50% of the respondents would not buy until they know more about GM foods. Only 35.8% of Korean consumers were found to know that food items originating from plants contained genes. More consumers responded that they would not buy herbicide-resistant GM soybean but buy vitamin-enriched GM soybean. Many Korean consumers' decision of acceptance or rejection of GM foods depend not on the basis of biotechnology, but on the basis of the degree of benefit to the consumers. Only 6.4% of Korean consumers responded that GM foods were the greatest threat to the safety of Korean foods. The perception of Korean consumers on GM foods has not changed significantly during the past 5 years.
This work was intended for the identification of markers that are found only in the spoiled red pepper powder. When analyzed by GC/MASS, the spoiled red pepper powder contains characteristic naphthalene derivatives, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8α-octahydro-1, 8α-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-naphthalene and 2-isopropenyl-4α,8-dimethyl- 1, 2, 3, 4, 4α, 5, 6, 8α-octahydronaphthalene,which have not found in the normal red pepper powder. In addition, microscopic observation and microbial enumeration of the red pepper powder had been performed. Images by scanning electron microscopy showed that the surfaces of spoiled pepper powder were rough with many kinds of microbes, compared with those of normal red pepper powder. A good correlation between the bacterial and fungal counts in the same sample was observed and could be clearly classified into two groups, the normal and the spoiled group, by difference in the microbial counts. These results suggest that the spoiled red pepper powder can be identified by a combination of GC/MASS, microbial counts, and scanning electron microscopy.
In this study, microbial investigation is accomplished for 554 Jeot-kal samples (102 of Jeot-kal, 448 of Seasoned Jeot-kal and 4 of Sik-khe, respectively) that corresponds with Coliform-bacteria, Escherichia coli, Aerobic live bacteria as hygienic indicator microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus as Food-borne pathogenic microorganisms. Based on the methods in Korea Food Code, reliable data are obtained as follows; in 31.9% rate of the samples, Coliform bacteria are verified in the extent of 0~20,000 CFU/g as 2.3 logCFU/g. Especially, Seasoned Jeot-kal (37.7%, 2.3 logCFU/g) are detected to 6 and 2 folds higher than those of Jeot-kal, 5.9% and 1.4 logCFU/g. Likewise, Escherichia coli is detected from 9 samples only in Seasoned Jeot-kal, that includes seasoned squid, seasoned octopus, seasoned roe of pollack, seasoned large-eyed herring and seasoned hairtail. Aerobic live bacteria are also detected in the range of 0~8.9 × 108 CFU/g. Against salinity, E. coli are detected in samples only less than 10% salinity. Concomitantly, aerobic live bacteria count is decreased to 5.5~3.6 log CFU/g upon the salinity is increased up to 25%. However, S. aureus and V. parahaemolyticus are not detected in 554 samples, presumptively referring Jeot-kal products are somehow free from such food-borne pathogens. As the results above, we deliberately consider that the sanitary control in Jeot-kal, which be necessarily fermented- as well as non-microbially inactivated should be ensured in near future and also suggest an effectual microbial standard corresponding to the Negativity in E. coli for Jeot-kal products.
Photostimulated luminescence (PSL)-Thermoluminescence (TL) combined analysis was applied to detect whether composite seasoning products and spices were irradiated or not. Samples were irradiated with 60Co at 0~7 kGy. A total of 12 different samples (6 of composite seasoning products and 6 of spices) was examined. Depending on the PSL results, TL analysis was performed. In case of both PSL positive ( ≥ 5,000 counts) and intermediate (700~5000 counts), TL analysis had to be performed to confirm the result of PSL. Using TL, the shape of the glow curve (Glow 1) made it possible to identify the irradiated samples. In addition, The TL glow ratio (Glow 1/Glow 2) obtained by normalization was less than 0.1 for the non-irradiated samples and ≥ 0.29 for irradiated ones, respectively.
This survey was conducted to monitor the adulteration of sesame oil circulated in Gwangju, 2007. A total of 60 samples was tested by analysis of fatty acid composition. Of these samples, 22 were from large-scale manufacturer, 25 were from small-scale manufacturer and 13 from Bangagan. First of all, in goods manufactured by large-scale company, there are no sesame oils where linolenic acid (C18:3) exceed regulatory guidance (0.5%). 5 samples from small-scale manufacturer contained linolenic acid from 0.90% to 8.38%, which means that they have other cooking oil, such as corn oil, soybean oil and rape seed oil. Among Bangagan goods, only one sample have 1.20% of linolenic acid. On the other hand erucic acid (C22:1) was not detected in 60 samples at all, which means that they were not adulterated with rape seed oil. And among 6 samples of exceeding 0.5% of linolenic acid and 12 samples from Bangagan, 13 of them had benzo(a)pyrene from 0.2 μg/kg to 0.7 μg/kg and the other 5 samples did not.
The levels of sulfites in wooden chopsticks were analyzed using two different methods, distillation- alkali titration and ion chromatography. According to the two methods, Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) was validated by 0.6 and 0.2 μg/ml of limit of detection (LOD), 1.8 and 0.5 μg/ml of limit of quantification, (LOQ) and a R² > 0.998 for linearity, respectively. The recoveries of SO₂ from food simulants spiked ar levels of 100 ppm were 70.2-100.2%. 158 samples of wooden chopsticks were monitored the migrated amounts of sulfites. Sulfites were detected in 30 samples in ranged of 0.6 to 15.5 ppm. Maximum migration level, 15.5 ppm of sulfites was considered giving no harmful effect to human since it was reached 5.5% of estimated SML.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of Paeoniae Radix Extract (PRE) against the acute hepatotoxicity-inducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the liver. PRE of 100 mg/kg concentration was intraperitoneally administered into rats at dose of 1.5 ml/kg for 20 days. On day 21, 5 mg/kg of LPS dissolved in saline was injected 4 hours before anesthetization. We examined the levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mitochondrial fractions, and malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver homogenates. LPS-treatment markedly increased the levels of GOT, GPT, LDH and MDA, and significantly decreased those of SOD, CAT and GPx. But PRE-pretreatment decreased the levels of GOT, GPT, LDH and MDA, by 59.7%, 43.6%, 59.6% and 63.5%, respectively and increased those of SOD, CAT and GPx, by 85.5%, 57.8% and 62.9%, respectively. These results showed that the PRE had the preventive effects against the acute hepatotoxicityinducing LPS in the liver .
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of films on shelf-life and microbiological Safety of pork meat. Effects of antimicrobial films against total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus in pork meat were evaluated during storage of 14 days at 5℃, 10℃ and 15℃. Antimicrobial films were developed with addition of a natural substance, wasabi extracts (Wasabia japonica). At 5℃ storage, growth of total aerobic bacteria, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes were inhibited higher than at 10 and 15℃. Especially, the numbers of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were increased gradually at 5℃ even in the control sample, and it takes more than 14 days to increase in every sample upto 6 log10 cfu/g. The higher antimicrobial effects of the films were observed at storage of 5℃ than at 10oC and 15℃. There was a limit of a single treatment of antimicrobial film to prolong shelf-life of pork meat. The synergistic effect of antimicrobial film were observed with addition of refrigeration at 5℃.
To evaluate biochemical safety of gejang distributed in Korea, 33 samples were collected and analyzed for indicator microorganisms, pathogen, parasite, pH, volatile basic nitrogen(VBN), salinity, 3-MCPD, histamine, and synthetic food colors. Total plate counts of gejang were the range of 3 to 7 log cfu/g and coliform were the range of ND to 4 log cfu/g. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was detected from 4 samples, and Escherichia coli (1 log cfu/g) and copepoda were detected from 1 sample among those. pH and VBN value of samples were the range of 6.69 to 8.10 and 21.99 to 94.55 mg%, respectively. The ranges of salinity concentration for ganjang chamgejang, ganjang ggokgejang, and ganjang dolgejang were 11.6~32.6%, 2.8~20.5%, and 11.6~13.3%, respectively. But, the range of salinity concentration of yangnum gejang was 2.6~9.4%, which was lower than ganjang gejang. Besides, 3-MCPD, histamine and synthetic food colors were not detected. From the results, most of gejang was appropriate for Korea national standard for food regulation, but still biological hygiene control for raw materials, processing, and distribution should be improved.
Objective of this study was to investigate residual the levels of heavy metals in rice grain and soils of “Top-Rice” and common rice cultivation areas from 2005 to 2007. Soil and rice grain samples were taken from 33 “Top-rice” areas and neighboring paddies, and analyzed for the elements using ICP-OES and ICP-TOF-MS after acid digestion. A concentration of arsenic in paddy soil was 1.33 mg/kg which was below 1/5-1/11 fold of the threshold levels (concern: 4 mg/kg, action: 10 mg/kg), and paddy soil was 0.06 mg/kg of Cd (cadmium) being below 1/25-1/67 fold of the limits (concern: 1.5 mg/kg, action: 4 mg/kg). A level of Cu (copper) in paddy soil was 4.57 mg/kg which was below 1/11-1/27 fold of the threshold levels (concern: 50 mg/kg, action: 125 mg/kg), and Pb (lead) concentration in paddy soil was found to be a 4.68 mg/kg. In addition, Hg (mercury) concentration in paddy soil was to be a 0.03 mg/ kg, which was below 1/131-1/328 fold of the threshold levels (concern: 4 mg/kg, action: 10 mg/kg). The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg in the polished rice samples were 0.037, 0.043, 0.280, 0.048 and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. These levels are lower than those of other countries in rice grains. Assuming the rice consumption of 205.7 g/day by total dietary supplements in Korea, the amount of total weekly metal intake of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg by polished rice were estimated to be 0.0892, 1.035, 6.712, 1.161 and 0.054 μg/kg body weigh/week, respectively. The PTWI(%) of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg were 5.95 (inorganic arsenic), 0.26 (total arsenic), 14.79, 0.19, 4.65 and 1.07% estimated to be 0.0892, 1.035, 6.712, 1.161 and 0.054 μg/kg body weigh/week, respectively. In conclusion, it was appeared that the heavy metals contamination in the brown and polished rice should not be worried in Korea.
To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of 68 Listeria monocytogenes isolates, including 11 reference strains and 57 isolates from imported US beef, domestic meats (beef, pork, chicken meat), raw milk, and milk plants. L. monocytogenes was to evaluate the production of virulence proteins, such as hemolysin (LLO) and lecithinase (LCP), the adsorption of Congo red (CRA), and to detect virulence genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the study of virulence protein production, 68(100%), 62(91.2%), and 54(79.4%) of the 68 L. monocytogenes strains were positive for LLO production, the LCP test, and the CRA test, respectively, while strains of other species, such as L. innocua, L. gray, L. murrayi, and L. welshimeri, were not. There were no significant differences between L. monocytogenes serotypes and the ability to produce LLO or LCP. L. monocytogenesstrains had very high hemolytic titers (2 to 16 fold), while the other Listeria species, other than L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, did not. The hemolysin activities of L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, and L. seeligeri usually exceeded 1.0 HU/mg, while those of other Listeria spp. were less than 0.04 HU/mg. In the PCR assay, all of the L. monocytogenes strains contained the hlyA, plcA, plcB, inlA, and inlB virulence genes and produced a product of the expected size. In the PCR of the actA gene, the expected 385-bp product was seen in 39(57.4%) L. monocytogenesstrains, while an unexpected 268-bp product was seen in 29(42.6%) strains. Most L. monocytogenes strains isolated from Hanwoo beef produced the 385- bp actA gene product, while strains of imported US beef usually produced the 268-bp actA gene product. By contrast, no virulence gene products were amplified in the other Listeria spp.
As Standards and Specifications of the Saengsik-classes has been established since 2005 by KFDA. The microbial Standards and Specifications of the Saengsik-classes is as follows; no detection in Escherichia coli, colony forming unit less then 1,000/g in Bacillus cereus, colony forming unit less then 100/g in Clostridium perfringens respectively. Contamination levels of Total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli,, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens in Saengsik-classes were monitored. Total aerobic bacteria counts in Saengsik-classes was 1×10¹~5.3×107 cfu/g, for Bacillus cereus 1×10²~9×10² cfu/g, for Clostridium perfringens 1×10¹ cfu/g. Escherichia coli, was not isolated from all Saengsik-classes. Thess results will provide information for introduction of HACCP system to ensure microbial safety of Saengsik-classes.
Phytic acid (PA) (Inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in substantial amounts in almost all plants and mammalian cells. Recently PA has received much attention for its role in anticancer activity. In the present study, the preventive effects of PA on colon carcinogenesis were investigated. Six-week old Fisher 344 male rats were fed a AIN-93G purified diet and PA (0.5% or 2% PA in water) for 8 weeks. The animals received two (1st and 2nd week) injections of azoxymethane (AOM, 15 mg/kg b.w.) to induce colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). After sacrifice, the total numbers of aberrant crypts (AC) and ACF in colonic mucosa were examined after staining with methylene blue. Blood and serum were analyzed with a blood cell differential counter and an automatic serum analyzer. AOM induced the total numbers of 142.3 ± 22.3 ACF/colon and 336.6 ± 55.1 AC/colon. PA at the doses of 0.5 and 2% decreased the numbers of ACF and AC/colon in a dosedependent manner. The numbers of ACF/colon and AC/colon by PA at the dose of 0.5% were 124.4 ± 28.5 and 302.7 ± 67.3, respectively. PA at the dose of 2% significantly decreased the ACF and AC numbers to 109 ± 18.1 and 254.8 ± 50.6, respectively (p < 0.01). Especially, 2% PA significantly reduced the number of large ACF ( ≥ 4 AC/ ACF) from 26.8 ± 6.2 ACF/colon to 15 ± 6.7 ACF/colon (p < 0.01). Although some parameters in blood counts and serum chemistry were changed compared with the control, no specific toxicity was found. These findings suggest that phytic acid can be a chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis resulting from inhibition of the development of ACF in the F344 rat.
Choline is important an organic compound for normal membrane function, acetylcholine synthesis, lipid transport, and methyl metabolism. In biological tissues and foods, there are multiple choline compounds that contribute to choline content. There are so many analytical methods for choline determination, such as radioisotopic, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. However, these existing methods are expensive, unmanageable, and time-consuming. In this study, we modified enzymatic method, which is applicable for the determination of choline in milk and infant formulas, and applied to bovine serum and muscle. The calibration curves were linear with higher correlation coefficients than 0.994 . Recoveries obtained by calibration curves from the spiked bovine serum and muscle samples varied between 70.6 and 85.2%. The method may be suitable for use as a routine method in the determination of choline for biological tissue and food samples.
To provide the research strategy for protection of children’s health from hazardous chemical, we reviewed the hazardous chemicals can be exposed through maternity, children's life style and living environment. Recently, diseases related with children’s living condition were focused as asthma, atopy, childhood developmental disability, congenital malformations and obesity. Children can be exposed to hazardous chemicals through an ambient air, water, soil, food, toys and other factors such as floor dust. Also children’s health was deeply related with a wrong life style and neglectful caring by a lack of knowledge and information of harmful ones at parents and child care center’s nursers. According to the previous study, the chemical risk factor of children’s health were identified as inorganic arsenic, bisphenol A, 2,4-D, dichlorvos, methylmercury, PCBs, pesticide, phthalates, PFOA/PFOS, vinyl chloride, et al. Domestic studies for identification of causality between children exposure to chemicals and resulted hazardous effects were not implemented. The confirmation of chemical risk factors through simultaneously performing toxicological analysis, human effect study, environmental/human monitoring, and risk assessment is needed for good risk management. And also, inter-agency collaboration and sharing information can support confirming scientific evidence and good decision making.