This study has been performed for about 270 days at analyzing biologically hazardous factors in order to develop HACCP system for the non heat-frozen carrot juice. A process chart was prepared by manufacturing process of raw agricultural products of non heat-frozen carrot juice, which was contained water and packing material, storage, washing, cutting, extraction of the juice, internal packing, metal detection, external packing, storage and consignment (delivery). As a result of measuring Coliform group, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Listeria Monocytogenes, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli before and after washing raw carrot, Standard plate count was 4.7 × 104 CFU/g before washing but it was 1.2 × 102 CFU/g detected after washing. As a result of testing airborne bacteria (Standard plate count, Coliform group, Yeast and Fungal) depending on each workplace, number of microorganism of in packaging room, shower room and juice extraction room was detected to be 10 CFU/Plate, 60 CFU/Plate, 20 CFU/Plate, respectively. As a result of testing palm condition of workers, as number of Standard plate count, Coliform group and Staphylococcus aureus was represented to be high as 6 × 104 CFU/cm2, 0 CFU/cm2 and 0 CFU/cm2, respectively, an education and training for individual sanitation control was considered to be required. As a result of inspecting surface pollution level of manufacturing facility and devices, Coliform group was not detected in all the specimen but Standard plate count was most dominantly detected in scouring kier, scouring kier tray, cooling tank, grinding extractor, storage tank and packaging machine-nozzle as 8.00×10 CFU/cm2, 3.0 × 10 CFU/cm2, 4.3 × 102 CFU/cm2, 7.5 × 102 CFU/cm2, 6.0 × 10 CFU/cm2, 8.5 × 102 CFU/cm2, respectively. As a result of analyzing above hazardous factors, processing process of ultraviolet ray sterilizing where pathogenic bacteria may be prevented, reduced or removed is required to be controlled by CCP-B (Biological) and critical level (critical control point) was set at flow speed is 4L/min. Therefore, it is considered that thorough HACCP control plan including control criteria (point) of seasoning fluid processing process, countermeasures in case of its deviation, its verification method, education/training and record control would be required.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and related trichothecene mycotoxins are extensively distributed in the cereal-based food and feed stuffs worldwide. Recent climate changes and global grain trade increased chance of exposure to more DON and related toxic metabolites in poorly managed production systems. Monitoring the biological and environmental exposures to the toxins are crucial in protecting human and animals from toxicities of the hazardous contaminants in food or feeds. Exposure biomarkers including urine DON itself are prone to shift to less harmful metabolites by intestinal microbiota and liver metabolic enzymes. De-epoxyfication of DON by gut microbes such as Eubacterium strain BBSH 797 and Eubacterium sp. DSM 11798 leads to more fecal secretion of DOM-1. By contrast, most of plant-derived DON-glucoside is also easily catabolized to free DON by gut microbes, which produces more burden to body. Phase 2 hepatic metabolism also contributes to the glucuronidation of DON, which can be useful urine biomarkers. However, chemical modification could be very typical depending on the anthropologic or genetic background, luminal bacteria, and hepatic metabolic enzyme susceptibility to the toxins in the diet. After toxin exposure, effect biomarkers are also important in estimating the linkage and mechanisms of foodborne diseases in human and animal population. Most prominent adverse effects are demonstrated in the DON-induced immunological and behavioral disorders. For instance, acutely elevated interleukin-8 from insulted gut exposed to dietaty DON is a dominant clinical biomarker in human and animals. Moreover, subchronic exposure to the toxins is associated with high levels of serum IgA, a biological mediator of IgA nephritis. In particular, anorexia monitoring using mouse models are recently developed to monitor the biological activities of DON-induced feed refusal. It is also mechanistically linked to alteration of serotoin and peptide YY, which are promising biomarkers of neurological disorders by the toxins. As animalalternative biomonitoring, huamn enterocyte-based assay has been developed and more realistic gut mimetic models would be useful in monitoring the effect biomarkers in resposne to toxic contaminants in the future investigations.
The safety of fake anti-impotence drugs (fake Viagra : 26 samples, fake Cialis : 25 samples) distributed in Gyeonggi province was studied by monitoring the concentrations of anti-impotence pharmaceutical ingredient and their analogues. The concentrations of anti-impotence pharmaceutical ingredient 4 specis and their analogues 17 specis were estimated using by HPLC/PDA, LC-MS/MS. The range of concentration of sildenafil in fake viagra was 40~199 mg/tablet, among them the portion of the concentrations of sildenafil over 150 mg/tablet exceeded 65%. 3 cases in tested samples contained sildenafil and tadalafil. The range of concentration of sildenafil in fake cialis was 102~249 mg/tablet, among them the portion of the concentrations of sildenafil over 150 mg/tablet exceeded 88%. One case in tested samples contained demethylhongdenafil (90 mg/tablet). These results indicate that there were many fake anti-impotence drug contained high level of anti-impotence pharmaceutical ingredients, a sustainable monitoring and the blocked distribution of fake anti-impotence drugs recommended.
This study was done to analyze the contents of minerals and to investigate the ratio of measured values to labeled values and to analyze the ratio of calcium to other minerals in 68 specimen with minerals - fortified commercial beverages, noodles, cereals and grain products. Content of calcium, iron and zinc in samples after microwave digestion was analyzed with an ICP-OES. The measured values of calcium were ranged 82.2~293.1% of the labeled values in 38 samples composed calcium - fortified commercial beverages, noodles, cereals and grain products. The measured values of iron and zinc were ranged 83.3~301.0%, 90.1~314.1% of the labeled values in minerals - fortified commercial beverages, noodles, cereals and grain products, 42, 24 samples. The Ca : Fe ratios were 90.55 (50.55~220.64) in fruit & vegetable juice, 850.41 in fruit & vegetable beverage, 553.49 in blended beverage, 179.07 (118.37~238.01) in soy milk, 204.39(41.64~397.52) in noodle, 296.97(121.64~868.88) in fried noodle, 30.89(15.69~ 62.05) in cereal and 7.73(0.22~49.92) in grain product. The Ca : P ratios were 1.44(0.96~1.98) in fruit & vegetable juice, 1.92 in fruit & vegetable beverage, 1.66 in blended beverage, 4.23(2.25~7.72) in soy milk, 1.14(0.28~1.97) in noodle, 1.88(1.17~2.42) in fried noodle, 1.29(0.87~2.92) in cereal and 0.30(0.06~1.57) in grain product. The Ca : Mg ratios were 1.85(0.87~5.04) in fruit & vegetable juice, 28.72 in fruit & vegetable beverage, 2.97 in blended beverage, 5.27(2.93~9.36) in soy milk, 3.97(1.34~7.57) in noodle, 6.77(4.63~10.78) in fried noodle, 4.40(2.30~12.55) in cereal and 1.17(0.23~7.48) in grain product. These results suggest calcium contents and the ratio of calcium contents to other minerals in calcium-fortified food products should be strictly controlled. Moreover, to avoid problems with Excessive nutrition, there must be initiatives for better understanding on food labelling and nutrition for fortified food.
Surveys on the consumption of caffeinated beverages by high school students (n=886) were performed. Of the students, 97.0% consumed a variety of caffeinated beverages, including carbonated drinks (90.0%), processed milk and cocoa (79.0%), coffee (63.0), teas (52.1), energy drinks (16.4%) and nourishment drinks (15.5%). The frequency of intake per student was 8.2 times per week. Caffeine intake through the caffeinated beverages was 41.53 mg/day, which was accounted for by coffee (51.5%), carbonated drinks (19.6%), processed milk and cocoa (11.5%), teas (11.4%), energy drinks (5.0%) and nourishment drinks (1.1%). Students with high levels of stress, those who consumed snacks twice a day, and those who used a computer (or smart phone) for more than 3 hours per day showed significantly higher caffeine intake. The groups with high caffeine intake experienced heart palpitations, insomnia and pollakiuria. Students indicated that they consumed the caffeinated beverages for the taste (57.9%), waking up (18.0%), thirst (13.2%), etc. (10.9%). They tended to consume drinks with a high content of caffeine to sleep less. In addition, they rarely checked the label, and showed a lack of awareness of the caffeine contents in the beverages, which calls for education.
Rice can be the contaminating with soil-borne bacteria. Furthermore, the contaminated bacteria can be grown during immersion process for produce wet-milled rice flour. Therefore, disinfectants can be added during the immersion process. Antibacterial activities of the natural disinfectant, fermented rice spent water (FRSW), and the chemical disinfectants, chlorine dioxide (CD) and sodium benzoate (SB), were respectively determined when added in pure cultures of target bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus or when added to immersion water in the immersion process. In addition, rinsing effects for removing bacteria were determined when rice was rinsed with water before and after the immersion process. Antibacterial activities were rapidly increased as increasing amounts of the disinfectants are added to the pure cultures of the target bacteria. Antibacterial activity of CD was the most effective among the three tested disinfectants when added to the pure cultures of the target bacteria, respectively. Those of the same disinfectants were increased when they were increasingly added to the immersion water. However those of the disinfectants were less effective when added to the immersion water. On the other hand, rinsing effects for removing bacteria were the most effective when rice was rinsed only with water without the immersion process. Collectively, rinsing rice with water only was more effective than using disinfectants in the immersion water during rice flour production.
A simultaneous determination was developed for 9 aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin, apramycin, dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, hygromycin B, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin, and streptomycin) in meat by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Each parameter was established by multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision based on CODEX validation guideline. Linearity was over 0.98 with calibration curves of the mixed standards. Recovery of 9 aminoglycosides ranged on 60.5~114% for beef, 60.1~112% for pork and 63.8~131% for chicken. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.001~0.009 mg/kg and 0.006~ 0.03 mg/kg, respectively in livestock products including beef, pork and chicken. This study also performed survey of residual aminoglycoside antibiotics for 193 samples of beef, pork and chicken collected from 9 cities in Korea. Aminoglycosides were not found in any of the samples.
The objective of this study was to develop a simultaneous method of 8 penicillin antibiotics including amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G and penicillin V in meat using LC-MS/MS. The procedure involves solid phase extraction with HLB cartridge and subsequent analysis by LC-MS/ MS. To optimize MS analytical condition of 8 compounds, each parameter was established by multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid and 0.05% formic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 20 min with a gradient elution. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in beef, pork and chicken. The recoveries were 71.0~106%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) were 4.0~11.2%. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003~0.008 mg/kg and 0.01~0.03 mg/kg, respectively, that are below maximum residue limit (MRL) of the penicillins. This study also performed survey of residual penicillin antibiotics for 193 samples of beef, pork and chicken collected from 9 cities in Korea. Penicillins were not found in all the samples except a sample of pork which contained cloxacillin (concentration of 0.08 mg/kg) below the MRL (0.3 mg/kg).
To assess the health risk for benzo(a)pyrene by the intake of edible oils, 288 cases of edible oils collected from food markets were analysed using the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The levels of benzo(a)pyrene were from non-detection to 4.78 μg/kg, and the average was 0.11 μg/kg. The chronic daily exposures of benzo(a)pyrene for total population group and consumer-only group were estimated using the food consumption data in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011. The estimated daily intake of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.26 × 10−3 ng/kg b.w./day for total population group and 7.64 × 10−3 ng/kg b.w./day for consumer-only group. The MOE (margin of exposure) of benzo(a)pyrene for total population group and consumer-only group was 7.28 × 107~1.74 × 108 and 3.95 × 107~9.42 × 107, respectively. Accordingly, the health risk from benzo(a)pyrene caused by the intake of edible oils was considered as a very low level.
This study was conducted to estimate the contents of heavy metals in salted vegetable foods from diverse origin in Korea which were sold in Korea. The levels of heavy metals were determined using an ICP-MS. The values of metals [minimum~maximum (mean), mg/kg] in kimchi were as follows; Pb 0.0~0.074(0.018), Cd 0.0~0.027 (0.004), As 0.0~0.024(0.002), Hg 0~0.002(0.0). The weekly average intakes of lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury from kimchi take 0.06~0.13% PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes) that the FAO/WHO Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee has set to evaluate their safeties.
This study was carried out to investigate the residual sulfur dioxide residues (SO2) in commercial medicinal herbs in Korea in 2013. Among a total of 116 samples of 11 different kinds of herbs, 71 samples (11 Kinds) were domestic, and 45 samples (10 Kinds) were imported. The residual contents of SO2 in the samples were determinated by a modified Monier-Williams method. Of the 116 samples, 6 samples (5.2%, 4 Kinds) failed to meet the regulations for sulfur dioxide residues of KFDA in medicinal herbs. Among 6 unsuitable samples, 1 samples (1.4%) were domestic, and 5 samples (11.1%, 3 Kinds) were imported. The highest amount of sulfur dioxide residues was 1546.3 mg/kg (Lycii Fructus) in the domestic samples. Regardless of region, SO2 contents were not found at Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Citri Unshius Pericarpium, Eucommiae Cortex, Forsythiae Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus, Leonuri Herba and Lonicerae Folium et caulis. These data will be used as a basic data for the future legislation on the regulation and control of sulfur dioxide of herbal medicines.
In this study, two commercial PCR and ELISA test kits were examined for identification of eight animal species (beef, pork, chicken, duck, turkey, goat, lamb, and horse) from raw meat and meat products in Korea. The detection limit in RAW meat ELISA kit® on three types of meat samples blended with beef, pork and chicken, demonstrated that all meat species were differentiable down to 0.2%. RAW meat ELISA kit® on animal species resulted in differentiation rate of 94.5% for beef, 93.3% for pork, 90% for lamb, and 100% for chicken, duck, turkey, goat, and horse. In contrast, Powercheck Animal Species ID PCR kitTM resulted in 100% specificity at 0.05% limit of detection for all meat species. The detection limit of Cooked Meat ELISA kit® on mixed meat samples heat-treated with different temperatures and times, resulted in 0.1% for all heat-treated mixed meat except for chicken at 1.0%. Additionally, ELISA kit on sixty meat products resulted in specificity of 31.8% for ham, 13.6% for sausages, and 12.5% for ground processed products, and relatively low rate for more than 2 types of mixed meats. On the contrary, meat species differentiation using PCR kit showed higher percentage than that using ELISA kit®: 50.0% for ham, 41.7% for sausages, and 28.6% for ground processed meat. Futhermore, PCR kit on 54 dried beef meats detected pork genes in 13 products whereas ELISA kit showed negative results for all products. Hence, the possibility of cross-contamination during manufacturing process was investigated, and it was found that identical tumblers, straining trays, cutters and dryers were used in both beef and pork jerky production line, suggesting the inclusion of pork genes in beef products due to cross-contamination. In this study, PCR and ELISA test kits were found to be excellent methods for meat species differentiation in raw meat and heat-processed mixed meat. However, lower differentiation rate demonstrated in case of meat processed products raised the possibility of inclusion of other species due to cross-contamination during manufacturing process.