Consumers are very concerned about food safety as the risk with food increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the perceptions and practices of consumers on food safety in order to collect some information for the development of consumer education program. Total 500 consumers were asked to answer for survey constituted with 6 questions of generic information, 4 of food safety perceptions and 8 of food safety practices from June to July, 2006. More than half of respondents (51.8%) were unsatisfied with the food safety management of government while the individual practices on food safety were satisfactory. Especially, most respondents (98.7%) checked the expiration date of food when they purchased and 97% of respondents were washed hands before food preparation. The higher food safety perception, the better food safety practices of consumers. These results suggest that the systematic and continuous educations on food safety hazards and the principles of sanitation management are necessary for safe food handling and perception on food safety.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of wa-song (Orostachys japonicus A. Berger) extracts on the oxidative stability of edible oil. Wa-song was dried from hot air (HWE) and freeze (FWE), and then they were extracted by hot water. The different levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/100 mL) of HWE and FWE were added to soybean oil and lard. The chromaticity of edible oils was generally increased with prolonged heating time and HWE was higher than FWE. The anisidine value showed significant increase during heating for 48 hrs. After heating for 48 hrs, it was lower than control, except for HWE added sample of 0.5 and 1.0 g/100 mL, FWE added sample of 1.0 g/ 100 mL. In lard, it was lower in sample added wa-song extract than control. The acid value was not significant by added amount of wa-song. Its value in HWE added sample was lower than FWE, after heating for 48 hrs. POV was lower HWE than FWE, also. After heating for 24 hrs, TBA values in soybean oil containing HWE and FWE added sample was lower than control. In lard, its value in HWE and FWE added sample was lower than control during heating for 12~48 hrs. Therefore, those results suggested that HWE has higher antioxidant activity than FWE added sample, and then oxidative stability of HWE in edible oil was more potential for lard during its heating.
This study was undertaken to analyze the hygienic problems of group food services and to predict the outbreak patterns of future food-borne diseases. A delphi survey with 20 experts identified the main causes of food-borne outbreaks in group food services as improper hygienic management of raw food materials, washing of worker's hands, dividing the spaces and unsanitary retail storage. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli (EPEC), non-typhoid Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (ETEC), norovirus, and the hepatitis A virus all have potential to cause outbreaks of food-borne disease. We analyzed the daily food use and the possibility of food-borne outbreaks in school food services for fruits, milk, fish, pork, eggs, and meat as raw food materials, and bibimbab, soybean sprouts muchim, spinach namul , cucumber sengchae, jabchae, and pork bulgogi as prepared food items. Frozen ( ≤ -20℃) and refrigerated (0~10℃) processed foods are popular items in group food services. Their storage, heating, and chemical sanitization methods are potential sources of food disease outbreaks. Our results can be applied to a well-organized hygiene control system and can be used to develop menus for preventing food-borne outbreaks.
In an effort to evaluate the currents in pesticide residues, 3,020 agricultural products were tested by multiresidue method with 260 pesticides, obtained from the circulation market of in the Gangbuk province in 2007.20.4%(616/3020) of the products were determined to contain pesticides residues, but only 4.1%(124/3020) of these were deemed to be unsuitable by the korea Food Code. Unsuitably products were spinach(21.0%), perilla leaf(17.3%), ulgari(13.6%), leek(12.4%), crowndaisy(12.4%), asterscaber(12.4%), chard(11.1%). Detected pesticides were procymidone(3.9%), endosulfan(2.6%), chlorfenapyr(2.2%), bifenthrin (1.3%), cypermethrin(0.7%), metalaxyl( 0.9%), azoxystrobin(0.3%) and chlorothalonil(0.7%). Sixty-four pesticides were detected and 11 pesticides were newly detected in 2007. Thirty-one pesticides in agricultural products exceeded their MRLs.
The differentiation of leukemia cells into mature cells is a major target of the human leukemia therapy. As differentiated leukemia cells lose their proliferative and tumor-forming abilities, differentiation inducers may be useful for the treatment of leukemia. In this study, the experiments were designed to determine whether diallyl disulfide (DADS) regulates expressions of tumor suppressor protein PTEN (phosphatase and tension homologue) in HL- 60 cells. DADS causes upregulation of PTEN in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was correlated with decrease of phospho-Akt level. These results suggest that DADS induces upregulation of PTEN in human leukemia cells. These results suggest that DADS may be a useful anticancer agent for management of human leukemia.
The desmutagenic activity of the water extract of Cassia tora L on the mutagenicity induced by 4- nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) and N-methyl-N-nitro-N'-nitrosoguani-dine (MNNG) was studied using the SOS Chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The inhibition rates of water extract of Cassia tora L. at concentration of 100 μg/assay were 27.5% and 40% against 4-NQO and MNNG. The water extract of Cassia tora L. was separated into methanol soluble and methanol insoluble parts. The methanol soluble part exhibited higher inhibition effects than the methanol insoluble part against the mutagenic activities of 4-NQO and MNNG. Step-wise fractionation of methanol soluble part was done to obtain methanol, ethyl acetate and water fractions. Among these fractions, water fraction had the strongest inhibitory effects of 23.0 and 19.0% against mutagenicities of MNNG and 4NQO, repectively. The results clearly indicated that the water fraction showed much stronger antimutagenicity against MNNG than 4NQO. The inhibition rates of aqueous fraction of methanol-soluble from water extracted Cassia tora L. at concentrations of 1.0 10, 100 and 250 μg/assay were 8.0%, 12.0%, 25.5% and 43.0%, respectively. The water fraction showed the inhibitory effects with dose response against the mutagenic activities induced by MNNG.
Ready-to-eats fresh cut-vegetables that may be consumed without further cooking or reheating can be grouped as potentially high risk foods. The foodborne disease outbreaks associated with consumption of the fresh cut-vegetables have been related with the contamination of Listeria monocytogenes. The food survey and consumption data sets for fresh cut-vegetables and also the published dose-response models for L. monocytogenes, was used to estimate the risk of L. monocytogenes for fresh cut-vegetables in Korea. Also, the simulation model and formulas with Microsoft@ Excel spreadsheet program using these data sets and chose dose-response model was developed. The mean case of listeriosis by consumption of the fresh cut-vegetables per 10 million per year was estimated as 3.23 × 10-6. Results suggest that additional studies were needed to allow for a more realistic and accurate microbial risk assessment (MRA) in the future.
Patulin, a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus, is found in various foods. In the present, a maximum acceptable level for patulin is established at 50 μg/kg(ppb) in apple juices and apple concentrates in Korea. But patulin may be detected in foods produced with other fruits. In the present study, patulin contamination was analyzed in 520 samples of fruit juices and beverages, and 50 samples of fruit juice concentrates. High performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was applied to quantitatively analyze patulin levels in samples and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC/MS/MS) was used to remove false positive results. The results showed that three samples of 520 fruit juices and beverages and five samples of 50 fruit juice concentrates were contaminated by patulin, 9.8 - 18.0 μg/kg and 4.7 - 18.2 μg/kg respectively. Contaminated samples were produced with apple, orange or pear. This indicates that it is necessary to extend the regulatory range of patulin. In the other hands, the present study confirmed the effectiveness of LC/MS/MS analytical method to remove false positive results.
The statistics probability approach for microbial risk assessment (MRA) has been recognized as an efficient method because this probability approach, which can be presented the diversity, variability, and uncertainty for the environmental factors of food processing, provide better realistic results than point estimate. This study was conducted to determine of probability statistics for the environmental factors of the pork-cutting processing i.e. the processing time, the pork meat temperature, and processing room temperature etc. As the input parameters for the MRA, triangular distribution and normal distribution were selected as an efficient probability distribution model, these distributions were analyzed by the simulation. The simulation results showed the processing time estimated 53 min as mean (5% - 22 min and 95% - 98 min), pork meat temperature estimated 4.83 ℃ as mean (5% - 2.25 ℃ and 95% - 7.12 ℃, 48.78% exceed 5 ℃), and processing room temperature estimated 17 ℃ as mean (5% - 10.92 ℃ and 95% - 22.56 ℃, 71.178% exceed 15 ℃).
This study was performed to investigate the effect of dried powder of chestnut on lipid metabolism, anti-thrombotic effect in rats. Thirty 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly allocated into five groups and used for experiment. We examined the lipid metabolism and antithrombotic capacity of SD rats administered for 5 weeks with 0.16 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg chestnut flesh powder and 0.16 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg chestnut inner shell and flesh powder mixture, respectively. Food intake, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio were also checked. The levels of serum triglyceride and free fatty acid were not statistically significant between the all experimental groups. However, the antithrombotic capacity and total lipid levels of the treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the negative control group. These results suggest that the supplementation of chestnut on diet lower the total lipid level in SD rats.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract mixture(IPGE) drink from Inonotus Obliquus, Phellinus Linteus and Ganoderma Lucidum on hematopoietic stem cells and lymphocyte subset[lymphocyte, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, Natural Killer(NK) cells] of blood in 37 participants who were healthy and about 40~70 years old. They were divided into two groups; extract mixture drink administration group(n=27) and placebo administration group(n=12). They were given the test drink daily for 4 weeks. Blood was obtained from the subjects every two week in the beginning of administration day to evaluate the CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells. As results, CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were significanly increased after taking IPGE drink for 4 weeks compared to that before taking the drink (p < 0.001). There was no significant changes in number of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, NK cells and in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ cell after taking the test drink. From these results, it was suggested that IPGE have a good health effect by promoting the proliferation of the hematopoietic stem cells.
This study was conducted to determine microbiological assessment on edible ices, which is one of mandatory items for HACCP application, and to provide basic scientific data for the improvement of HACCP system. In HACCP applied edible ice companies, the contamination levels of total counts, yeast and mold, and coliform from raw materials, mixed samples before sterilization, mixed samples after sterilization, and final products of edible ices were lower than those of non-HACCP applied edible ice companies. Foodborne pathogens, such as L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., B. cereus, S. aureus, Y. enterocoliticawere not detected in all samples of edible ices from HACCP applied edible ice companies, but S. aureus was isolated from 1 raw material, 1 mixed samples before sterilization and 1 final product of edible ices from non-HACCP applied edible ice companies, respectively.
This study was carried out to analyse the biological activity in soybean pastes with the sword beans and general soybean pastes. The electron donating activity of soybean pastes with the sword beans(J2, J4) was higher than other soybean pastes with value of 81.5 ± 2.2% and 88.3 ± 0.7%, respectively. And the content of total phenol compounds was higher in J2 and J4 compared to the others with value of 1773.8 ± 2.9 mg/kg and 1785.7 ± 3.9 mg/kg respectively. ACE inhibitory effect was higher in J2 and J4 than other soybean pastes with value of 63.1 ± 1.0%, 62.1 ± 1.4%, respectively. And aglycone type(daidzein, genistein) isoflavone content was higher than glucoside type(daidzin, genistin). But tyrosinase inhibitory effect was not different among test samples. From the results, soybean pastes with the sword beans(J2, J4) have higher anti-oxidant activity and ACE inhibitory effect than other soybean pastes, therefore, it may have potential to prevent hypertension.
This study was carried out to analyse the microbiological contamination and biogenic amines(BA) content in Korea traditional soybean paste and commercial soybean paste. The results of microbiological anaylsis through Korean traditional soybean pastes(L1~L4) were 7.8 ± 0.1 log CFU/g ~ 7.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g, commercial soybean pastes(H1~H6) were 6.2 ± 0.1 log CFU/g ~ 7.4 ± 0.1 log CFU/g for APC (Aerobic Plate Count), and L1~L4, H5, H6 soybean pastes were 2.3 ± 0.4 log CFU/g ~ 2.6 ± 0.1 log CFU/g for Bacillus cereus. But other microorganism was not dectected. Among biogenic amines, PUT(putrescine), TYR(tyramine), HIS(histamine), PHE(2-Phenylethylamine) were dectected high level and CAD(cadaverine), TRY(tryptamine), AGM(agmatine) were dectected medium level and SPD(spermidine), SPM(spermine), NOR(noradrenaline), SER(serotonin) were dectected low level. Dectected contents of biogenic amines were higher in commercial soybean paste compared to the traditional soybean paste.