The present study was evaluated the antibacterial effect of the combination of Coptidis rhizoma,Lonicerae Flos, and Paeonia japonica (1:1:1) extracts (CLP1000). Also, the effectiveness of CLP1000, dioctahedral smectite (DHS), and the combination of CLP1000 and DHS (CLPS1000) against E. coli O157:H7 infection was studied using ICR female mice. During the incubation period, the dose of 10% and 20% CLP1000 were inhibited the growth of E. coli O157:H7 by 30% and 47%, respectively. For 7 days after single challenge with E. coli O157:H7, forty female ICR mice were divided into four experimental groups which were orally administered with saline, 10% CLP1000, 10% DHS, and 10% CLPS1000, respectively. On the 3rd day, the number of E. coli O157:H7 in mouse feces was significantly decreased by administration of CLP1000 (p < 0.05), DHS (p < 0.05) and CLPS1000 (p < 0.001). On the 7th day, CLP1000 (p < 0.05) and CLPS1000 (p < 0.001) administration significantly decreased the number of E. coli O157:H7. According to the results of the present study, administration of CLPS1000 to mice can reduce the severity of E. coli O157:H7 infection. Also, it is suggested that CLPS100 represents a good candidate for the treatment of enteric infections in domestic animals.
The present study was undertaken to estimate the antibacterial effect of a combination of C. rhizoma,L. Flos, and P. japonica (1:1:1) extracts (CLP1000) and a combination of the herbal extract mixture and dioctahedral smectite (CLPS1000) against murine salmonellosis. At the concentration of CLP1000 and CLPS10000.5 mg/ml, the antibacterial effect was not showed on Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). On the other hand,the antibacterial effect against S. typhimurium was observed at the concentration of CLP1000 and CLPS1000 1.0 mg/ml. Oral administration of Smectite, CLP1000, and CLPS1000 at the dose of 10 mg/ml showed a therapeutic effect for S. typhimurium infected BALB/c mice. The mortality of Smectite, CLP1000 and CLPS1000-treated mice was 90%,90%, and 70% at 12 days, respectively, while that of untreated mice was 100% at 9 days after a lethal dose of S. typhimurium infection. The results of our study strongly indicate that CLPS1000 has potential as an effective of salmonellosis.
This study was practiced to survey food-borne bacterial aspects of Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus etc. from 210 processed seasoned marine products in Garak fishery wholesale market in Seoul, 2009. Distributions of these bacterial isolates were 28 coliforms, 32 Bacillus spp., 71 Staphylococcus spp., 11 Listeria spp, and 10Enterococcus spp. in 157 dried squids, 23 dried file fishes, and 20 dried pollacks etc. respectively. Results in 16 kinds of antibiotics susceptibility test by disc diffusion method, special multiple drugs resistance patterns were NOR + LVX + CIP + SAM+ VA + S + TE + CF, SAM + C + VA, VA + S + TE, and VA + S in 9 E. coli strains, also,AMC + SAM + CF, SAM + CF, and VA + CF in 21 Bacillus cereus strains respectively. On the basis of the results above, many seasoned dried fishes had multiple drugs resistances, conclusively, we suggest limited guideline and special management on use of antibiotics in floating net cages of fishery farms.
Although concerns about Arsenic (As) contamination in agricultural foods have currently increased, there in on adequate international risk management standards for As particularly on agricultural commodities and processed agricultural products. This scenario holds true also in Korea. Australia, and New Zealand has determined the As maximum level (ML) but only on cereals grains which is based on total As contents. In addition,Japan has regulated the ML based on trivalent As contents in agricultural commodities, which do not have legal restrictions. On the other hand, China has developed a systemic risk management to restrict the As contamination above MLs in agricultural commodities and processed agricultural products based on inorganic and total As contents.
The establishment of an adequate analytical method for As specification in agricultural foods is essential to determine the acceptable level of As in agricultural food. Probabilistic approach may remove some uncertainties in calculating human risk assessment from As. It should be reviewed in terms of maximum levels to set the best scenario based on a realiability and availability to achieve effective As management on agricultural foods in Korea.
This study was conducted to estimate the contents of heavy metals including lead, cadmium,arsenic and total mercury in alcoholic beverages in Korea. Concentration of Hg was analyzed by gold amalgamation method, using mercury analyzer, while concentration of Pb, Cd and As was analyzed by ICP-MS. Concentration (μg/kg) of heavy metal in fermented liquors were ; for Pb 9.9 ± 8.4(0~38.0), Cd 5.8 ± 4.9(0~5.4), As 28.6 ± 19.4(1~96.4),Hg 0.7 ± 1.2(0~10.6). Concentration (μg/kg) of distilled liquors were : for Pb 4.4 ± 5.7(0~29.3), Cd 2.0 ± 2.5(0~10.3),As 12.0 ± 17.0(0~95.6), Hg 0.2 ± 0.3(0~2.3). Concentration(μg/kg) of other liquors were ; for Pb 7.5 ± 5.1(0~13.7),Cd 5.8 ± 3.9(0.6~11.2), As 25.2 ± 39.0(0.5~103.3), Hg 0.3 ± 0.1(0.1~0.5). The present study showed that difference of the amount of constituent in a same category of food are not affect to the content of heavy metals among them. The residual levels of takju, yakju, sake, beer, fruit wine, soju, whiskey, brandy, general distilled liquor, liquor, other liquors are within the maximum levels, prescribed by Korea food code. It is given that heavy metal exposure of Pb,Cd, As, Hg from consumption of alcoholic beverages (takju, yakju, sake, beer, fruit wine, soju, whiskey, brandy, general distilled liquor, liquor, other liquors) are less than 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.01%, 0.01% (mean) in provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) respectively, indicated by FAO/WHO.
It has been elucidated desmethylsibutramine in food, that is an analogue of sibutramine used for anti-obesity drug. After separating and purifying in food samples, it was analyzed and identified by the instrument such as HPLC/PDA, HPLC/MS, HPLC/MS/MS and NMR. To analyze sibutamine and desmathylsibutramine in foods, they were analyzed and identified by HPLC/PDA after extracting in dichloromethane, filtering, concentration and diluting in methanol. The overall recoveries were ranged from 87% to 91% and the limit of quantitation was 2.5 μg/kg. As results, sibutramine and desmethylsibutramine was not detected in all the selected 54 food samples.
The method for the determination of ethylenediamine (EDA) and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) in food simulants was developed, and migration amounts of these compounds was monitored for 124 polyamide (PA) utensils. The diurethane derivatives of EDA and HMDA, which produced by reaction with ethyl chloroformate,were analyzed by using gas chromatograph (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/mass spectrometer (MS). The developed method was validated with 0.3 μg/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for EDA and 0.1 μg/mL of LOD for HMDA, > 0.999 of linearity(r2) and > 88% of recovery. The EDA was detected 1.31 and 2.06 μg/mL for 2samples in water. The HMDA was detected 0.29 - 0.93 μg/mL for 3 samples in 20% ethanol and 0.26 - 0.44 μg/mL for 10 samples in n-heptane. These migration levels were below the specific migration limits (SML) of 12 μg/mL and 2.4 μg/mL for EDA and HMDA established in EU.
This research was conducted to know application of Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and Thermoluminescence (TL) methods by irradiation dose for leaching tea, sauces and starch approved in Korea. Leaching tea, sauces and starch powder were treated with 60Co gamma ray at dose 0~10 kGy for detection trial whether they are irradiated or not by measuring PSL and TL for whole samples. PSL values were less than threshold value 700 and were negative for non-irradiated samples but more than 5,000 and were positive for irradiated ones. PSL results of leaching tea and sauces showed the correct identification for non-irradiated and irradiated samples, respectively except starch samples. To enhance the reliability of the TL result, the first glow curve (TL1) was compared with the second glove curve (TL2) obtained after a re-irradiation step at 1 kGy. The TL ratio (TL₁/TL₂) was in good agreement with the reported TL threshold for both the non-irradiated (< 0.1) and irradiated (> 0.1) samples. TL results of leaching tea, sauces, starch showed the correct identification for non-irradiated and irradiated samples, respectively. This study was performed to know application of PSL and TL methods for leaching tea, sauces and starch, and the methods were able to detect the irradiation products.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the microbial contamination levels on food service in university and to provide the information of microbial contamination to improve food safety. A total of 288 samples were collected during summer and winter season between 2006 and 2008 from 4 food services located in the university in Western Gyeongnam and were used to detect sanitary indicator bacteria [aerobic plate count (APC), coliform,and Escherichia coli] and pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp.). As a result, APC and coliform for hand and kitchen utensils which are used often by the employee were detected at high levels of 1.1~5.5and 1.3~5.3 log CFU/(100 cm2, hand), respectively. The contamination levels of APC and coliform in cooked foods and drinking water were 0.8~6.4 and 1.3~5.0 log CFU/(g, mL), respectively. Especially, the cooked foods showed the highest contamination for APC (2.1~6.4 log CFU/g) and coliform (1.0~5.0 log CFU/g). We think the reason that the cooked foods may be contaminated with APC and coliform on cooking process by using employee’s hand and kitchen utensils. Moreover, S. aureus for hand and kitchen utensils was detected at levels of 2.8~3.0 and 2.0~2.3 log CFU/(g,hand), but Salmonella spp. was not detected. According to the above results, contamination levels of the samples were mostly decreased irrespective of summer and winter season. The results obtained indicated that it is necessary to periodic monitoring for microorganism contamination and education about personal and environmental hygiene to employee for ensuring food safety of food service in university.
The effects of vinegar, alcohol and ascorbic acid on the color, microorganism, sensory properties and flavor pattern of minced ginger (MG) were investigated during storage for 28 days at 30℃. The values of L (lightness),a (redness) and b (yellowness) of the control (T-0) and all the treatments changed slightly at the initial stage of storage, however the elapse of time accelerated the changes. The total bacterial counts of T-0 showed 5.37 × 107CFU/g at the initial stage, but the MG-treatments decreased the bacteria above 4 log compared to T-0. It was showed that the additives were effective for inhibition of the growth of microorganism. Sensory properties of flavor intensity test showed no significant difference between T-0 and MG-treatments (p < 0.05). The result of volatile flavor contents of electronic nose analyzer (ENZ) showed that MG-treatments (T-I, T-II, T-III) was recognized stronger than non-treatment at the initial stage, but the change of flavor compound were stabilized soon regardless of type or quantity of additives during total storage period at 30℃.
We used fluorescence detector to analyse total aflatoxins (G1, G2, B1, B2) with TFA (Trifluoroacetic acid) derivation method and PHRED (Photochemical reactor enhanced detection) method. PHRED method was superior in reproduction and convenience, but TFA derivation method was superior in selectivity and sensitivity. The recovery rate of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 were more than 80%, and G2 was more than 70%. The detection limit of B1,B2, G1 and G2 were respectively 0.05, 0.05, 0.2 and 0.1 μg/kg. Confirmed method was used to analyse total aflatoxins in total 316 items as 9 kinds 137 dried fruits and 10 kinds 179 spices. By the result, Aflatoxins were detected in 27dried fruits (19.7%) and in 87 spices (48.6%).
This research was conducted to assess applicability of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and Thermoluminescence (TL) methods for investigation of infant and young children products, nut, seasoned dried fish,spice, dried fruits, fruit & vegetable, grain and marine products, which are not approved for irradiation in Korea. PSL results show that the photon counts of non-irradiated samples were lower than 700, while those of irradiated samples were higher than 700. In TL measurement, TL ratio of irradiated samples were higher than 0.1 or ones can decrease below 0.1 whereas the temperature range of TL Glow curve was between 150-250℃. Monitoring result about 8 class of 325 not approved to irradiated foods, photon counts of samples were less than 700, and after re-irradiation TL Ratio (TL₁/TL₂) through re-irradiation step at 1 kGy were higher than 0.1 for the all samples. Therefore, these results suggested that PSL and TL measurements were useful detection methods for 8 class food products not approved to irradiation in Korea and all sample (325 cases) were not irradiated when we analysed by PSL and TL methods.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum), especially its fruit, possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medical value. The tree and fruit can be divided into several anatomical compartments, and the fruit juice, peel and oil are known to be weakly estrogenic and heuristically of interest for treatment of menopausal symptoms and sequellae. In this study, analysis of estrogen in pomegranate extract was carried out with LC/MS/MS. Three batches of pomegranate extract samples were used to analysis the target compounds (estrogen). The contents of estrogen derivatives in the samples were 38.6 ppb of estriol, 83.5 ppb of estrone,and 10.9 ppb of estradiol. This result suggests that the pomegranate extract can used for treatment of menopause symptoms in the woman.