Many community gardens in large cities worldwide grow vegetables; however, no information regarding the levels of sanitary indicator bacteria and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in vegetables grown in urban community gardens is available. To evaluate the microbiological quality of vegetables from urban community gardens in Korea, 530 samples (nine types of vegetable, including Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish leaves, spinach, mustard leaves, crown daisy, leek, Korean cabbage, and chicory) were collected at 11 urban community gardens in Seoul, Korea from September through October 2012. The levels of total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Salmonella spp. Listeria monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7 were evaluated quantitatively and/or qualitatively. The mean numbers of total aerobic bacteria and coliforms were 6.3 log CFU/g (range 3.8-8.1 log CFU/g) and 4.3 log CFU/g (range 2.1-6.4 log CFU/g), respectively. Total coliforms were detected on 67% of whole vegetables. Chicory showed the highest number of total aerobic bacteria and coliforms, whereas the lowest number of coliforms was detected on leeks. E. coli was detected on 2.3% of whole vegetables, including lettuce, radish leaves, mustard leaves, and chicory; however, foodborne pathogenic bacteria were not detected on any of the vegetable samples using this highly sensitive and validated procedure. Based on these findings, the presence of coliforms and E. coli demonstrates that opportunity for improvement of microbiological safety exists throughout the produce production chain, although no major foodborne pathogens were present in vegetables grown in urban community gardens.
This study was performed to acquire the information on the foodborne pathogen risk management programs in a couple of developed countries by the expert meeting and searching the information on the web. The backgrounds, strategies and effects related to microbial hazards of the foodborne pathogen reduction programs in fresh produce (US), Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef (US), Salmonella in chicken, pork and eggs (Denmark), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood (Japan) were investigated for case study. A comparison among the pathogen reduction programs was conducted to find advantages and disadvantages and implications of the policies to bring out implications of the programs. A model for foodborne pathogen reduction program was developed based on both the CODEX risk management scheme and the case studies as follows; 1) preliminary risk management activities, 2) planing a foodborne pathogen reduction program, 3) option identification and selection, 4) implementation (conducting the each stake-holders role and applying the intervention methods), 5) monitoring activities, 6) interim review, 7) continuation or amendment of implementation method by the interim review before achieving the goal, and 8) final review and additional cost-benefit analysis if necessary. This proposed model according to the role of the stake-holders can be used to conduct microbial risk management programs in Korea in the near future.
시중에 유통 중인 샐러드와 김밥을 각각 100종 수거하 여 B. cereus 함량을 정량분석하였다. 샐러드는 불검출이 54종이었으며 10 CFU/g 이하가 8종, 100 CFU/g 이하가 25 종, 1,000 CFU/g 이하가 11종이었으며 1,000 CFU/g 이상 인 것이 2종이었다. 샐러드의 대한 모니터링 결과 평균은 1.18 log CFU/g 이었으며 표준편차는 0.71 log CFU/g이었다. 김밥에서는 100개의 검체중 20개의 검체에서 B. cereus가 검출되었으며 평균은 1.01 log CFU/g 이었으며 표준편차는 0.71 log CFU/g이었다. 모니터링 결과를 이용하여 통계적 검체채취 방법을 수립하고자 하였다. 검체채취 방법은 국제미생물위원회에서 제공하는 검체채취프로그램인 NEW sampleplan program을 이용하였으며 검체갯수를 고정한 후 미생물 기준인 m과 M, 그리고 허용한계값인 c 값을 변화 하면서 산출되는 합격률이 0.95에 가장 근사한 값을 선정 하였다. 그 결과 샐러드, 김밥에서의 가장 적합한 검체채취 기준은 3분법을 사용하는 것으로 n = 5, c = 0, m = 1,000, M = 10,000과 n = 5, c = 2, m = 100, M = 1,000의 기준이 설정되었다. 특히 후자에 서술된 기준은 현재 뉴질랜드에서 즉석섭취식품에서의 B. cereus에 대한 규격으로 사용하고 있어 국제적인 경향에도 부합함을 알 수 있었다.
Formaldehyde and phenol used in the production of melamine-wares may be intended to come into foodstuffs. So this study investigated the migration of formaldehyde and phenol from 222 articles Articles were cups(14), bowls(75), plates(85), spoons(10), chopsticks(4), food trays(8), rice paddles(4), spatulas(9) and scoops(12). The food stimulants were 4% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, distilled water and n-heptane. Korea regulation (Standards and specifications for food utensils, containers and package) specifies migration limits for formaldehyde and phenol in food stimulants. Formaldehyde and phenol are restricted by 4 mg/L, 5 mg/L respectively. In all cases the migration of formaldehyde and phenol were below the limit set in Korea regulation. The level of formaldehyde and phenol migrated to food simulants were in the range of N.D~2.949 mg/L, N.D~0.078 mg/L respectively. These migration results of formaldehyde and phenol will provide a scientific basis for the safety management of melamine-wares.
Listeria monocytogenes continues to be a important food safety concern. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes. A total of 1,042 samples was collected from 2010 to 2011 in Seoul and twelve L. monocytogenes were isolated. Isolation rate was Gimbap (0.8%), Beef (yukhoe) (2.6%), Pork (cooked) (5.9%), Fish(cooked) (6.3%), and Salmon (11.1%), respectively. In this study, most of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics. The most common resistance was cefotetan on 11 isolates, followed by cefotaxime on 7 isolates, cepefime on 6 isolates and tetracyclin on 3 isolates.
Norovirus causes acute gastroenteritis in all age groups and its food poisoning outbreaks are rapidly increasing in Korea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is most widely used for the rapid detection of foodborne viruses due to high sensitivity. However, the false positive results of RT-PCR obtained against already inactivated viruses could be a serious drawbacks in food safety area. In this study, we investigated a method to yield true positive RT-PCR results only with alive viruses. To decompose the RNA genes from dead viruses, the enzymatic treatments composed of proteinse K and Ribonuclease A were applied to the sanitized and inactivated virus particles. Another aim of this study was to quantify the efficiencies of several major sanitizing treatments using realtime RT-PCR. Feline calicivirus (FCV) that belongs to the same Caliciviridae family with norovirus was used as a surrogate model for norovirus. The initial level of virus in control suspension was approximately 104 PFU/mL. Most of inactivated viruses treated with the enzymatic treatment for 30 min at 37oC were not detected in RT-PCR, Quantification results to verify the inactivation efficiencies of sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR showed no false positive in most cases. We could successfully develope a numerical quantification process for the inactivated viruses after major sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR. The results obtained in this study could provide a novel basis of rapid virus quantification in food safety area.
We have screened Bacillus strains suitable for the fermentation of soybean products with respect to the control of Bacillus cereus and the reduction of biogenic amines. Of 26 isolates, a strain named as the SCK A08 carried antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, major food poisoning species in soybean products. PCR analysis revealed that the SCK A08 strain did not contain genes for Bacillus cereus toxins including nonhemolytic enterotoxin, hemolytic enterotoxin, cytotoxin K, cereulide and certrax. The SCK A08 strain could degrade histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine by 67.41%, 76.59%, 57.32%, and 50.69%, respectively, during fermentation in cooked soybeans containing 0.5% (w/w) of each biogenic amine. The morphological and biochemical properties and phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis. Use of the strain SCK A08 would be a potential measure to overcome two hygienic problems that were frequently faced during manufacture of traditionally fermented soybean products.
This study was performed to evaluate antimicrobial resistance of food-borne pathogens isolated from retail meat in Korea. A total of 157 samples of beef, pork, and chicken were collected and analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter. Resistances to tetracycline were declined in accord with reduced usage of tetracycline in live stock production. E. coli stains from chicken meat had higher multi-drug resistance ratio than strains from other meat. One extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli and two ESBL producing Salmonella were identified in this study. ESBL producing Salmonella strains were confirmed to carry CTX-M-1 type genes.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect on the growth and antioxidant activities of Cichorium intybus L.(CLE), Cichorium intybus L. var. folisum ‘treviso’ (CLET), Cichorium intybus L. var. folisum ‘rosaitaliana’ (CLER) in hydroponics added with Cr3+ or Selenium (Se) for 4 weeks. Total polyphenol, total flavonoids contents and FRAP values of three species of chicory were grown hydroponically with Cr3+ or Se were increased. These extracts were also showed stronger DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity than chicory extracts. In particular, chicories added with Cr3+ had higher antioxidant activities than chicories added with Se. CLER and CLE extracts added with Cr3+ were also showed α-glucosidase inhibition activities. These results indicate that chicories were cultivated in culture fluid added with Cr3+ or Se could be used as high functional vegetables.
This test was performed to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of a fumigation disinfectant containing 20% ortho-phenylphenol against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Enterococcus hirae (E. hirae). In preliminary tests, P. aeruginosa and E. hirae working culture suspension number (N value) were 2.8 × 108 and 4.0 × 108CFU/mL, respectively. And all the colony numbers on the carriers exposed to the fumigant (n1, n2, n3) were higher than 0.5N1 (the number of bacterial test suspentions by pour plate method), 0.5N2 (the number of bacterial test suspentions by filter membrane method) and 0.5N1, respectively. In addition, the mean number of P. aeruginosa and E. hirae recovered on the control-carriers (T value) was 2.8 × 108 and 3.4 × 106 CFU/mL, respectively. In the bactericidal effect of the fumigant, the reduction number of 2.8 × 108 (d value) was 6.46 and 5.19 logCFU/mL, respectively. According to the French standard for the fumigant, the d value for the effective bactericidal fumigant should be over than 5 logCFU/mL. With the results from this study, the fumigation disinfectant containing 20% ortho-phenylphenol has an effective bactericidal activity, then the fumigant can be applied to disinfect food materials and kitchen appliances contaminated with the pathogenic bacteria.
This study investigated the antibacterial effects of GR ethanol extracts (GRE), sodium chlorate (SC) and a combination of GRE and SC (GS) on Brucella abortus (B. abortus). The antibacterial activities of GRE, SC and GS towards B. abortus were evaluated by incubating B. abortus with GRE, SC and GS. Following treatment with GRE, SC and GS, B. abortus survival and intracellular proliferation in macrophages were monitored. In the cellular cytotoxicity assay, GRE, SC and GS are not cytotoxic at concentrations less than 400 μg/ml, 15 mM and 0.6GS (1 of GS, GRE 1,000 μg/ml + SC 30 mM), respectively. The viability of B. abortus was markedly decreased in a dosedependent manner in all treatment groups. In addition, B. abortus intracellular proliferation within macrophages was significantly reduced in cells treated with GRE (400 μg/mL), SC (15 mM) and 0.5GS (GRE 500 μg/mL + SC 15 mM) after 48 hr-incubation (GRE, p < 0.01; SC and 0.5GS, p < 0.001). Especially, in the treatment of GS, the synergistic effect of GRE and SC treatment on B. abortus in macrophage was observed. In conclusion, GS is useful as an antibacterial candidate against B. abortus, and can be applied in the field of meat and milk hygiene.
Black fermented garlic includes many pharmacological components. Therefore, in this study, black fermented garlic wine was manufactured and its flavor compounds were investigated difference of aging chips from America and France. The fermented wine was stored at 10oC for 6 months. GC/MS was used for the flavor components analysis. Wine using American chip contained 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1- butanol, acetaldehyde, butanoic acid, octanoic acid, 1,1-diethoxyethane, and allyl methyl sulfide. 1-Propanol, 2- methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, octanoic acid, 2- heptanone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, N-amino32-hydroxypropanamidate, n-butylamine, and chloroacetonitrile were detected as major flavor compounds using France chips. Especially, the wine contained allyl methyl sulfide that was resulted from black fermented garlic. There were more compounds that smell like fruit in the wine using American chips relatively. And allyl methyl sulfide was detected only in the wine using America chips. Whereas acetic acid was detected only in the wine using France chips