Staphylococcus aureus is gram positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-sporulative coccus, and positive for coagulase and DNase. The food oisoning outbrealc of Staphylococcus aureus increases in the world, and third occurnn happened in our country. Of 105 isolates (25.4%) obtained 413 fecal samples of food-poisoning suspicious patients. In those cases, the enterotoxins were detected firom a total of 45 isolates (42.9%), 9 isolates(20.0%) were A type, 33 isolates (73.3%) we H types, 2 isolates (4.4%) were G type and 1 isolate was a I type enterotoxin. Among the isolates possessing staphylococcal enterotoxins, 29 isolates had H type only(64.4%), 5 isolates had A type only and 4 isolates had both A and H type. 'Iieo isolates had G type only and 1 isolate had I type only. In the antibiotic susceptibility, 48 isolates (46%) had at least one antibiotic resistance among 105 isolates, 34 isolates (70.8%) were resistant to penicillin, 1 isolate (2.1%) to ampicillin, 3 isolates (6.3%) to erythromycin and kanamycin. Seven were resistant to more than two antibiotics and especially 1 isolate was resistant to penicillin-ampicillin-nitrofurantoin.
본 연구에서는 서울 소재 초등학교와 고등학교 급식의 위생관리 실태를 분석하므로 학교급식의 안전성을 확보하여 식중독 사고예방 및 급식품질 개선을 이루고자 하였다. 이를 위해 HACCP에 기준한 위생관리 평가도구를 설문지로 개발하여 관리자들이 자가 평가하게 하고,그 결과를 분석하여 위생관리 실태를 파악하고 취약한 부분을 규명하였다. 위생관리 평가도구는 온도 소요시간, 개인위생 및 기기 설비위생의 3영역으로 구분 하여 33문항, 5문항, 15문항씩 총 53문항으로 구성하였다. 평가문항에 대해서는 5점척도를 이용하여 표시하도록 하였다. 조사된 학교는 초등학교 98.4%(253개교), 고등학교 1.6%(19개교)였다. 세 영역중 개인위생에 관한 수행수준은 평균 4.06$\pm$0.57로 나타나 가장 잘 수행되는 것으로 조사되었다. 기기.설비위생의 수행수준은 평균 3.84$\pm$0.53로 나타났고, 온도.소요시간은 평균 3.45$\pm$0.46으로 나타나 보통정도의 수행수준으로 조사되었다. 특히 전체 문항중 수행수준이 가장 낮은 것으로 조사된 ‘조리 후 보관(2.03$\pm$0.94)’의 경우는 현행 학교급식업체들이 조리가 끝난 식품을 취급할 열장 또는 보온 기기, 냉장고를 거의 구비하지 못하고 있으며, 조리된 음식이나 차게 배식하는 음식의 적정 온도유지를 위한 온도계 사용이 전혀 이루어지지 않고 있기 때문인 것으로 사료 된다. 기기 설비위생영역에서 가장 낮은 수행정도를 보인 ‘싱크대의 용도별로 분리사용 여부(3.03$\pm$1.10)’와 ‘손 씻는 시설의 적절한 장소 위치 여부(3.07$\pm$1.13)’의 수행수준을 향상시키려면 적절한 개수의 싱크대를 구비해야 하며, 조리실내에 손 씻는 시설을 갖추어야 할 것이다. 결론적으로 학교급식 안전성 확보를 위한 위생관리 업무 향상을 위해서는 본 연구에서 가장 취약한 부분으로 드러난 시설 및 기기들을 우선 보완해야 할 것으로 사료된다.
A study has been performed to estimate the average and high (90th percentile of consumers-only) daily intakes of sorbates by age-sex groups (＞ 3 years old) in Korea. The estimation of daily intakes was based on individual-based dietary intake data in `National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998' and the contents of sorbates from samples. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of sorbates for average consumers ranged from 0.09 mg/kg bw/day to 0.51 mg/kg bw/day corresponding to 0.4-2.1% of acceptable daily intake (ADI). For high consumers, the range of EDI of sorbates was 3.42-14.65 mg/kg bw/day corresponding to 13.7-58.6% of ADI. Foods that contributed most to the daily intakes of sorbates for all age-sex groups were processed fish products, processed meat products, and salted foods. There was an inverse relationship between age and the consumption of sorbates for average and high consumers, whereas no marked pattern was emerged by sex categories. The intake levels of sorbates even among high consumers were below the ADI in Korea.
To evaluate antimicrobial activities of chongkukjang slime fermented by different strains, growth characteristics were compared using various standard microorganisms with addition of chongkukjang slime. Chongkukgang slime was prepared by fermenting cooked soybean after inoculating with Bacillus circulars K-1, Bacillus spp N-1 and Bacillus subtilis CH-1, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity was observed by chongkukjang slime on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus), gram negative bacteria(Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeast (Pichia membranaefaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans). In case of B. cereus growth inhibition of 80% was achieved by the addition of chongkukjang slime; on the contrary, to Escherichia coli O157:H7 only 20% inhibition was observed. Slime from Bacillus subtilis CH-1, in parkicular, inhibition of 40% toward bacteria and yeast, whereas slime from Bacillus circulars K-1, Bacillus spp N-1 showed only 20% inhibition.
This study was designed to compare the effectiveness and applicability of the HApS (Hazard Analysis process System; HUKO, Seoul, Korea) based on Petrifilm^(TM)(3M, St. Paul, MN, USA) with the AOAC (the Association of Official Analytical Chemists) standard total aerobic count (TAC) method and coliform count (CC) method for meat products. The comparisons were carried out using 230 meat samples collected from various retailers: 80 pork samples, 80 chicken samples, and 70 beef samples. In the comparison of the correlation coefficient (r) between conventional method and HApS^(TM) method by a linear regression analysis, the correlation coefficients in total microorganism were 0.97767, 0.90712, and 0.95594 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. The correlation coefficients in coliform count were 0.82062, 0.94833, and 0.96839 in pork, beef and chicken samples, respectively. All the independent t-test on measun:ment values between conventional method and HApS^(TM) method represented no significant differences in the means between two methods at the 0.05 of significance level(α=0.05). Based on the high correlation between HApS^(TM) and the AOAC standard methods in the TAC and CC, it might be compatible to employ the HApS method to measure the microbial contamination in livestock products. HApS^(TM) method was simpler and less time-consuming in sample preparation and procedures faster than the conventional method. These results suggested that the HApS method could be substitute for the conventional methods in the analysis of microbial contamination measurement in meat products.
In this study, occurrence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in domestic milk and milk products was determined. The level of AFM₁ in market milk (0.047 ppb) was lower than that in raw milk (0.083 ppb) but this looks like that is due to dilution in collecting process rather than the effect of sterilization. In the case of nonfat dry milk, level of AFM₁ appeared high by 0.24 ppb but it is thought to be not different from market milk actually because nonfat dry milk is diluted at intake. In the case of ice cream, finished products were contaminated with AFM₁ of 0.020 ppb and also have the possibility of the contamination of AFB₁ due to secondary raw material such as nuts and alinond. On the basis of the results of this study and previous studies, Monte-Carlo simulation is conducted to estimate the contamination level of AFM₁ in domestic market milk. To consider uncertainty and variability fitting procedure was passed through. And we used beta distribution to estimate the prevalence and triangular distribution to estimate the concentration level of AFM₁ in milk. As a result, the 5%, 50% and 95% points of the distribution of the probability of AFM₁ contamination level in milk is 0.0214, 0.0946 and 0.1888 ppb, respectively. Also we estimate that AFM₁ in almost milk was low more than 0.5 ppb that is American acceptable level but 80.4% exceeded far 0.05 ppb that is European standard.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed culture with mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic fungi on mycotoxin production. For this work, Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxin producing strain), Aspergillus niger (non-mycotoxigenic strain) and Penicilhum griseofulvum (patulin producing strainvere cultured in 5 ml SLS medium for 15 days under single or mixed culture. Affatoxin was determined by direct competitive ELISA, whereas, patulin was measured by HPLC. The mycelial growth, pH and total acidity were also observed by general methods. The mycelial growth was slightly decreased in the mixed culture, meanwhile total acidity was increased and pH was shown lower than that in single culture. Aspergillus flavus produced 145 ㎍/ml of aflatoxin for 12 days single culture, but in mixed culture, aflatoxin was decreased to 93%, and was shown as 10.16 ㎍/ml level. Patulin production in mixed culture was also decreased to 69.3% and was shown only 23.72 ㎍/ml level as compared with in single culture.
To investigate the modifying effect of Kwao Kreu, Pueraria mirifica (PM), we performed two kind of studies which are the non-surgical medium-term carcinogenicity study and the modulation of gap functional intercellular communication study. The first study, a non-surgical medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay was done to investigate the modifying effect of Kwao Kent, Pueraria mirifica (PM), a rejuvenating folk medicine from Thailand, on the male F344 rat liver. Specific pathogen free, male 6-week-old F344 rats were divided into ten groups. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, those in all groups were given a single i.p. injection of DEN (200 mg/kg) and were received two i.p. injection of DGA (300 mg/kg) at the ends of weeks 2 and 5. Rats of group 3-6 were given sodium phenobarbital (PB 0.05 % in drink). A diet containing 10 mg/kg PM was given to group 2 during the post-initiation phase and to groups 4 and 5 during promotion and initiation phase, respectively. Group 6 was given the experimental diet alone throughout the experiment (8 weeks). Rats of group 7, 8, 9 and 10 were fed 1000 mg/kg PM in the same manner as group 2, 4, 5 and 6. All animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks after DEN administration. Result of the iimmunohistochemical staining of the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-p) indicated that the numbers and areas of the preneoplastic leisions were not significantly changed in all PM treatment group comparing to control group. A.Iso the numbers and areas of GST-p positive foci among group 7, 8, 9 and 10 were not significantly changed in comparing to control group. To study the effect of PM on the modulation of gap functional intercellular communication, the present study was performed scrape-loading dye transfer (SL/DT) assay in human keratinocytes. The results showed that PM could not modulate GJIC. These results indicate that Pueraria mirifzca may have no carcinogenic effects on experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and gap functional intercellular communication in human keratinocyte.
Various sterilization methods were applied to the powder of ginseng for the improving hygienic quality. Ultra-violet (UV) and Infrared ray (IR) treatments could not inhibit highly growth of bacteria in ginseng powder. However, high hydrostatic pressure treatment showed high inhibition rate against bacterial growth in ginseng powder. Changes of viable cell count by the pressure showed positive relationship between growth inhibition rates and the pressures applied. When powder was treated with 2,000 kg/㎠ for 10 min at 25℃, initial viable cell count of the powder, 2.0 × 10⁴ CFU/g, was decreased to 1.0 × 10⁴ CFU/g. When it treated with 3,000, 4,000 and s,000 kg/㎠ of pressures under the same condition, viable cell counts were 8.0 × 10³, 7.0 × 10³ and 1.8 × 10³ CFU/g, respectively. Ginseng saponins of the powders were all detected when analyzed by TLC chromatography after treatment with the pressures. Therefore, it was considered that saponin of ginseng powder was stable under the condition of 5,000 kg/㎠ of pressure, even though the treatment induced coagulation of the powder.
Basic materials for various making gangjung, various concentration 0-25.0%(w/v) of coating agent and 0-20.0% of substitutional materials carried out an experiment in sensory evaluation, expansion rate and hardness of substitutional materials. The results are as follows: 1. Added coating agent for improvement of decreasing aroma, arabic gum and dextrin signiffcant from 20.0% to 25.0% compared with others. A good results flavor strength score and hedonic score of added 20.0% arabic gum are highest. 2. Expansion rate is caused by substitutional waxy rice, expansion rate decreased above 20.0% as tapioca above 5.0%, rice above 10.0%, brown waxy rice and wheat flour 15.0%. 3. After flying gangjung of substitutional materials, hardness increase concentration of substitutional materials. Therefore substitutional materials added to tapioca below 5.0%, rice and wheat flour 10.0%, brown waxy rice 15.0% is thought of good.
One hundred twenty five bacterial isolates were obtained from the brown blotch-diseased oyster mushrooms collected from markets. Among them, 45 were determined as pathogenic bacteria and white line foaming organisms(WLFO) were 6 strains and white line reaction organisms (WLRO) were 6 strains. All of the white line forming isolates were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii which is a known pathogen of brown blotch disease of oyster mushroom by GC-MIS(Gas chromatography-microbial identification system). Six of the white line reacting organisms were identified as P. chlornraphis, P. fluorescens biotype A and type C. The rest of them were P. gingeri, P. agarici, P. fluorescens biotype B, P. chlororaphis, non-pathogenic P. tolaasii, P. putida biotype A and B etc. For spectnun of activity of tolaasin, culture filtrates from pathogenic isolates were examined by browning of mushroom tissue and pitting of mushroom caps. The weak pathogenic bacteria didn't induce browning or pitting of mushroom tissue. On the other hand, strong pathogenic isolates showed browning and pitting reaction on mushroom. An extracellular toxin produced by P. tolaasii, was investigated. The hemolysis activity test of 6 strains identified as P. tolaasii were 0.80.9 at 600 nm and 3 strains of WLRO were 0.9-1.0 and Pseudomonas spp. were 1.0-1.2. Observation of fresh mushroom tissue using confocal laser scanning microscopy was carried out for images of optical sectioning and vertical sectioning. Also images of brown blotch diseased oyster mushroom tissue after contamination P. tolaasii was obtained by CLSM.
Distribution of pathogenic vibrios in the seawater of live fish tank and effect of environmental factors an their existence were investigated by collecting samples from fish markets and restaurants in 6 different cities. Pathogenic vibrios and coliforms were determined by using the most probable number (MPN) procedure, and aerobic plate count was enumerated by the standard pour plate method. No Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected in all the samples tested. Detection rates of Y. cholerae non-Ol, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in all the samples tested were 7.7%, 69.2% and 23.1%, respectively. Water temperature and turbidity of the seawaber measured were higher in the pathogenic vibrios positive samples than in those negative samples. However, higher salinity and pH were shown in the pathogenic vibrios negative samples than in positive samples. The aerobic plate counts and MPN of total and fecal coliforms in the seawater were higher in the presence of pathogenic vibrios than in the absence of pathogenic vibrios. In this study, the presence of pathogenic vibrios in the seawater tested was closely related with other physiochemical parameters and populations of coliforms, indicators for food safety.
In order to investigate the distribution of paralytic shellfish poison, we examined the toxicity during from February to October in 2000. Of 591 shellfish samples, 17(2.88%) samples were detected. Scapgarca broughtonii was highest collected 14.29%(2/14). In the monthly detection rate of PSP, April was highest 13.3%(8/60), in the regional collecting rate, Cheon-nam coastal area was highest 3.82%(10/262), and in cases of imported area, China was 8.3%(1/12). Imported area as well as domestic area samples should be strengthen to examine enduringly.