The levels of sanitary management procedures in university and industry foodservices, in pusan, were investigated. The questionnaires were administed to ninety three dietitians who managed university (n=21) and industry (n=72) foodservices and then the data were statistically analyzed. When sanitary management procedures were evaluated by 5 scales method of Likert, total mean scores of time-temperature management in the process of meal production, personal hygiene, equipments and facilities hygiene in university and industry foodservice operations were 3.48, 3.76 and 3.27, respectively. In time-temperature management, the scores for storage, purchasing and receiving, pre-preparation, cooking, assembly and service, and hot or cold holding were 3.77, 3.74, 3.55, 3.54, 3.28, 3.05, respectively, in descending order. The management levels for personal hygiene, equipments and facilities hygiene of foodservices had biger serving scale(over 901) were significantly higher than those of lower scaled foodservices(below 900). The scores of foodservices managed by higher aged dietitian(over 31 years) were significantly higher than those of foodservices conducted by lower aged group(below 25 years) in the management procedures of time-temperature, personal hygiene, equipments and facilities hygiene(p$lt;0.05). The dietitian group had the regular sanitary education showed significantly higher scores than irregularly educated group in the management of time-temperature and personal hygiene. The schedule table for clean and sanitation was used in fifty foodservices. Those foodservices revealed significantly higher ratings than the group without the schedule table in the management procedure for equipments and facilities hygiene(p$lt;0.01). The sanitation management level of fifty nine foodservices used daily sanitation ckecklist showed higher score on personnel hygiene, equipments and facilities hygiene than those of unused foodservices group(p$lt;0.05).
This research was carried out to improve the utilization of agar by evaluating the effect of agarooligosaccharides on the intestinal microflora. Medium containing 0.2% agarooligosaccharides remarkably enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium infantis; however, agarooligosaccharides did not influence the growth of Clostridium perJlingens. Agarooligosaccharides affected intestinal microflora to different extent by various pH and NaCl concentration. The growth of B. infantis enhancad over pH 4.5. Within 1 % NaCl concentration, addition of agarooligosaccharides enhanced the growth of B. infantis. In contract, NaCl did not affect the growth of Cl. perflingens at all concentrations tested. Therefore, agarooligosacchariedes improved the benevolent intestinal microflora and depressed to the level of bacteria causing putrefaction and food poisoning.
Microbiological and sensory evaluations of refi-igerated chicken (average weight of 500g) legs treated with acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), or citric acid (CA) during between June and August, 1998 were assessed. Chicken legs were immersed in solutions containing 1 % individual acids for 10 min. Chicken legs treated with AA for 10 min during storage of 16 days at 4℃ had a significantly (P$lt;0.05) lower levels of aerobic plate counts (APC) and gram-negative bacterial counts (APC) compared to those of LA or CA. AA had greater antimicrobial activity than LA or CA. Microbiological shelf-life of refrigerated chicken legs treated with AA increased eightadditional days compared to the controls. Sensory scores of chicken legs treated with acidulant were in the $quot;liked less$quot; to typical category during storage of 12 days at 4℃.
Risk assessment traditionally are conducted on individual chemicals; however, humans are exposed to multiple chemicals in daily life. The organophosphotus (OP) pesticides are considered in a single risk assessment because they act by a common mechanism of toxicity, and there is likely to be expose to multiple OP pesticides simultaneously or sequentially. The OP pesticides act by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and have available extensive database. AChE is widely distributed droughout the body, most importantly in the nervous system. Inhibition of AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine in the nervous system that results in clinical signs of cholinergic toxicity, including increased salivation and lacrimation, nausea and vomiting, muscle fasciculation, lethargy and fatigue, among others. To conduct an exposure assessment for pesticides in the diet, we need to know the food consumption patterns of the population, and the pesticide residue levels in the foods that are consumed. This study was conducted to identify cumulative dietary risk due to multiple OP pesticides that can be exposed through various foods. Total 22 food samples including cereals, vegetables and fruits were collected randomly two times from food markets in several sites (4 cities). The subjected foods were selected by regarding of highly consumed foods to general Korean people. The 12 OP pesticides including Acephate, Azinphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, and Diazinon were monitored. For the exposure assessment, general adult group of 60 kg body weight was regarded as target population and food consumption data suggested by Lee et al. (2000) were used as consumed value of individual food Analyses of samples for OP pesticides have been carried out according to the multiclass multiresidue analysis method and acephate and methamidophos analysis method of Korea Food Code. In general the levels of OP pesticides found in the food samples were very low or not detected. The detected highest value was 0.282 ppm as methidathion in mandarin and acephate, chlorpyrifos, methamidophos and methidathion were detected in several foods. To quantify simultaneous exposure, toxic equivalency factor of proportionately corresponding potency giving decreased AChE activity on the basis of reference dose 0.3 ㎍/kg/day to the chlorpyrifos was applied. The estimated dietary daily intake of OP pesticide was 4.52 × 10^(-2) ㎍/kg/day as mean value. The hazard index (HI) is the sum for OP pesticides being considered together was 0.15. The HI less than 1 indicates the exposure may be lower than an acceptable level.
Antibiotic resistance of thirty strains of Shigella sonnei isolated from patient of Shigellosis outbreke at Young Cheon area in 1998 was tested. Twenty-seven strains were resistant to Tr(Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol) and Shigella sonnei SG-8 was resistant to Tr(Trnnethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol), Ap(Ampicillin), Cp(Cephalothin) and Pi (Piperacillin). Shigella sonnei SG-49, SG-66, and SG-73 were senstive to all tested antibiotics. Physiological characteristics of isolated Shigella sonnei SG-8, SG-49, SG-57, and SG-73 such as effect of pH, NaCl concentration and temperature on the growth, survival in adverse condition and heat resistance were investigated Growth of the strains were inhibited at pH 4 and pH 9. All strains were grown in Tryptic soy broth containing 6% of NaCl but inhibited in TSB containing 9% of NaCl except Shigella sonnei SG-73 after incubation for 18hrs at 37℃. Selected strains grew during storage at 10 but did not grow at 4.1he strains were survived in 1 % pepton solution for 15 days at 37℃. Viable cell of selected strains were decrease 45 log cycle after heat treatment for 30 miss at 60℃ but did not detect by heat treatment for 5 wins at 70℃.
V. parahaemolyticus possessed an extracellular alkaline protease activity during the stationary growth phase. Various factors such as initial pH of medium, incubation temperature and shaking rate were investigated for optimizing the production of allcaline protease from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. Maximal activity of the protease was obtained when the bacteria were grown in 2% skim milk medium in 0.1 M tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.6). Maximal activity of the protease was obtained when the bacteria were grown at initial pH of 7.6, incubation temperature of 37℃ and shaking rate of 250 rpm.
Recently, consumer's demand for natural preservatives is increasing because of residual toxicity, mutagenicity and etc. of synthetic preservatives and the study of natural preservatives is being done. In this study, antimicrobial activity of spices was investigated Fungi occurred in bread and a noodle without mustard after 3days and 4days, respectively. However, they didn't occur in bread and noodle with mustard ball. Temperature of the water used in mixing-up mustard powder didn't affect antimicrobial activity of mustard. Fungi occurred in bread with cinnamon, Japanese pepper or horseradish after 4days, 4days or 6days, respectively. However, there wasn't the occurrence of fungi in bread with mustard after 8days, yet. Mustard and horseradish of extracts by water of spices had a strong antimicrobial activity. But the extracts by ethanol had low antimicrobial activity.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of green tea catechins (GTC) on the lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD). GTC showed the high SOD activity, while significantly inhibited the peroxide value of linoleic acid (93%) and lipid petoacidation (84%) from rat liver microsomal fraction induced by Fe^(2+)/ascorbate system. The effects of GTC on the SOD and catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation after oral administration were investigated. GTC (50 mg/kg) significantly increased SOD (62%) and catalase activities (75%), while significantly inhibited the lipid peroxidation (52%) of rat liver microsome in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that GTC has the antioxidative effect which is related to the prevention of aging and cancer.
As already pointed out increasing the concentration of dried insam with gangjung becomes progressing the antioxidant effect: 1. The antioxidant effect of gangjung with undried insam increased than gangjung and above 6.0% of undried insam is same of the storage stability, 6 months 2. The more increased acid value(AV) and the peroxide value(POV) of susam gangjung the longer period of storage, but there was no significient difference with the kinds of adding methods. 3. Sensory evaluation of preference for flavor gangjung with increased according to increasing concentration of undried insam but 6.0% undried insam in maltose was the best among samples.
A study has been carried out to estimate the average daily intakes of sorbates, benzoates, and esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid commonly used in Korea. The estimation of daily intakes was based on individual dietary intakes in $quot;National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998$quot; and the the contents of preservatives from 264 samples. Estimated daily intakes(EDI) of sorbates, benzoates, esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid were 0.22, 0.015, and 0.004 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. When assuming the standard body weight of 55 kg for Korean, ratios to acceptable daily intake(ADI) of sorbates, benzoates, and esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid were 0.88, 0.30, and 0.04%, respectively.
To investigate the optimum condition of 3-monochloro-l,2-propanediol(MCPD) analysis, gas chromatography with electron capture detector was-used. Determination of MCPD derivatized with phenylboric acid was more effective than that of underivatized MCPD. In derivatization of MCPD with phenyl boric acid, there were no significantly different between boiling for 2min at 90℃ and vortexing for Smin at room temperature. Extrelut column was suitable for extraction of MCPD diluted in 20% NaCl solution and recovery rates were higher than direct extraction of MCPD with ethyl acetate. But, the method of direct extraction of MCPD with ethyl acetate was useful for rapid and qualitative analysis. The sample extracted in soysauce(ganjang) was derivatized with phenylboric acid and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector. That was confirmed as MCPD-phenylboronate.
A survey was conducted to investigate consumers' attitudes toward the foods developed by gene recombination techniques from December, 1999 to April, 2000. The questionnaires were mailed to 1,500 people, and the 1,101 people responded. The consumers were asked about knowledge, acceptance, intention of purchasing, and labeling information. Although the portion of the consumers (88.8%) knowing the genetically modified foods (GMF) was lower than that of the food expert group (98.7%), many consumers had some knowledge on the GMF, which may be influenced by news released from mass media. Seventy-nine percent of the consumers responded that gene recombination technology is necessary in food production, which is similar to the findings on the survey of the expert group. The portion of the consumers responding that these foods are potentially hazard was 88.1 %, which is a little higher than the data (80.9%) from the expert group. The consumers having greater knowledge less worried about a potential hazard of the gene recombinant foods (p＜0.01). Although 62.9% of the consumers responded to be willing to purchase those foods, only 16.2% of them responded to purchase the foods with no conditions, which is lower to that from the expert group (23.5%). There was no statistically significant relationship between the knowledge and the intention of purchasing. The ninety point three percent of the consumers wanted the information on gene recombination to be labeled on the foods. The data from this survey suggest that knowledge of the consumers on the GMF are not accurate, so proper strategy for consumer education may need to be developed. In addition, it is necessary to improve safety assessment sys0etn and analytical techniques for genetically modified foods (GMF) and to build pre- and post-market surveillance system for efficient implementation of the GMF labeling.
The germination test was used to detect biological changes in irradiated rice and glutenous rice at low doses. Grains were irradiated at below 0.5 kGy, husked and placed on distilled water moistend filter paper in a covered petri-dish. A germination test of 20 grains was carried out at room temperature for 5 days. The shoots and roots of non-irradiated rites grew well in comparison with those of irradiated rites above 0.3 kGy. The roots of rites were more sensitive to irradiation than the shoots, and the growth of roots was significantly decreased with the increasing doses. In glutinous rites, the growth of shoots and roots was retarded by irradiation at 0.2 kGy or more after 3rd days. We concluded that if the shoot or root length is 10 mm or longer within 5 day, the rites and glutinous rites are identified as non-irradiated.
A study was performed to establish detection methods by viscometric and pulsed photostimulated huminescence (PPSL) methods for irradiated com powder. Viscosity was determined using a Brookfield DV-rotation viscometer at 30℃ and operated at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 rpm. All irradiated samples showed a decrease in viscosity with increasing stirring speeds (rpm) and irradiation doses. Treatments at 1-3 kGy significantly decreased the viscosity. The photon counts of iffadiated corn powder were measured by PPSL immediately after irradiation and exhibited an increase with increasing irradiation dose. The photon counts of irradiated com powder almost disappeared with lapse of time in room conditions, but detection of irradiation was still possible after one month at darkroom conditions. Consequently, these results suggest that the detection of irradiated com powder is possible ty both viscometric and PPSL methods.