Antioxidants are food additives that extend the shelf life of food products by preventing lipid rancidity caused by active oxygen. They can either be naturally-derived or manufactured synthetically via chemical synthesis. In this study, method validation of five synthetic antioxidants, namely butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, propyl gallate, and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, was performed using a high performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet visible detector, and the method applicability was evaluated by analyzing foods containing antioxidants. The coefficient of determination (R2) average was 0.9997, while the limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.02–0.53 and 0.07–1.61 mg/kg, respectively. The intra and inter-day accuracies and precisions were 83.2±0.7%–98.7±2.1% and 0.1%–5.7% RSD, respectively. Inter-laboratory validation for accuracy and precision was conducted using the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme quality control material. The results satisfied the guidelines presented by the AOAC International. In addition, the expanded uncertainty was less than 16%, as recommended by CODEX. Consequently, to enhance public health safety, the results of this study can be used as basis data for evaluating the intake of synthetic antioxidants and assessing their risks in Korea.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits onto the host when administered at adequate doses. Most widely used probiotics, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, are known to be elements of healthy gut microflora and hence are not considered a threat to the host. However, probiotics may pose a risk in certain populations with compromised immune systems or defects in gut barrier functions. Herein, we evaluated the safety of Bifidobacterium breve BB077, according to the safety evaluation guidelines for probiotics produced by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS). The results show that B. breve BB077 is both non-hemolytic and non-cytolytic. In contrast, B. breve BB077 exhibited higher streptomycin and tetracycline resistance than the suggested NIFDS standard cut-off values. Hence, a genetic analysis of the streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes was performed to determine the origin of antimicrobial resistance. Streptomycin and tetracycline resistance was shown have arisen from chromosomal mutations and considered intrinsic to the taxonomic group. In conclusion, the B. breve BB077 strain might be safe for human consumption.
In this study, we compared the microbial reduction effects of drying, hot water, and microwave sterilization in scourers and dishcloths to suggest a most suitable sterilization method. Three scourer types (silver, copper, and mesh) were used, and three dishcloth types (silver, bamboo, and cotton) were used. Drying time dependent reduction in Escherichia coli was high in silver and copper scourers, but minimal bacterial reduction was obtained against Bacillus cereus in all scourers and dishcloths. In scourers, E. coli was not detected after ≥30 s of hot water sterilization at 77oC, and B. cereus was not detected after ≥60 s of hot water sterilization at 100oC. In dishcloths, E. coli was not detected after hot water sterilization at 77oC for ≥30 s, but B. cereus was detected after hot water sterilization at 100oC for ≥60 s. In scourers, E. coli was not detected after microwave sterilization at 700 W for 3 min, but B. cereus was detected. In dishcloths, E. coli was not detected after microwave sterilization with 700 W for ≥1 min, but B. cereus was detected in the cotton dishcloth even after sterilization for 3 min. In conclusion, the use of antimicrobial scourers (silver and copper) and dishcloths (silver and bamboo) are not sufficient to reduce the microbial contamination. The guideline provided by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety suggesting dishcloth sterilization via hot water at 100oC for 30 s was also found to be insufficient. Based on our research, we suggest that the most effective methods of microbial management are submerging scourers in hot water at 100oC for ≥1 min, and sterilizing dishcloths for ≥3 min using a 700 W microwave.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a chronic contagious disease in small ruminants. The prevalence of CLA has been reported to be >50% in Korean black goats. CLA is difficult to control due to a lack of efficient vaccines and treatment methods. Effective disinfection of the farm environment may be an alternative strategy for reducing the spread of C. pseudotuberculosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of commercial disinfectants against CLA. The six commercial disinfectants, largely composed of sodium dichloroisocyanurate, sodium hypochlorite, potassium monopersulfate triple salt, quaternary ammonium, citric acid, and copper sulfate, were tested against five different genotypes of C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from goat farms in Korea. Efficacy tests were performed in accordance with the disinfectant efficacy test guidelines recommended by the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency of Korea with slight modifications. All disinfectants except for copper sulfate exhibited >99.99% killing efficacy under hard water conditions following 30 min of incubation, which is the recommended standard treatment time according to guidelines. The minimum bactericidal treatment time was evaluated by employing treatments for durations of 1, 5, and 15 min. The most effective compounds under hard water conditions were sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium monopersulfate triple salt, and sodium hypochlorite, exhibiting >99.99% killing efficacy after 1 min of treatment. In the aqueous solution forms, citric acid and the quaternary ammonium compound were the most effective, but required at least 5 min to kill >99.99% of the bacteria. The current study characterizes the killing efficacy of six commercial disinfectant active compounds against C. pseudotuberculosis. Thus, this study provides essential information regarding the efficacy of the disinfectants used to control CLA in goat farms.
The mineral content of Tricholoma matsutake was evaluated for comparison of mineral contents according to the area of cultivation. Ten domestic and thirty Chinese (10 Yanji, 10 Yunnan and 10 Tibet) T. matsutake specimens were assessed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The Na, Mg, K, and Ca contents of domestic T. matsutake were 128.12±85.25 mg/kg, 218.52±105.35 mg/kg, 7,534.58±2,691.52 mg/kg, and 17.69±7.14 mg/kg, respectively, while those of Yanji T. matsutake were 124.89±57.24 mg/kg, 64.07±27.52 mg/kg, 1,439.18±311.04 mg/kg, and 10.88±4.52 mg/kg, respectively. The Na, Mg, K, and Ca contents of Yunnan T. matsutake were 90.78±23.23 mg/kg, 77.40±28.36 mg/kg, 1,446.29 ±126.33 mg/kg, and 28.42±5.18 mg/kg respectively, while those of Tibet T. matsutake were 143.50±41.54 mg/kg, 124.64±50.18 mg/kg, 3,530.95±2,714.99 mg/kg, and 21.05±8.71 mg/kg, respectively. The Cu contents of domestic, Yanji, Yunnan, and Tibet T. matsutake were 105.43±32.97 mg/kg, 19.92±8.95 mg/kg, 54.51±16.91 mg/kg, and 64.80±23.01 mg/kg, respectively. Both domestic and Chinese T. matsutake samples showed significantly different K, Mg, and Cu levels in this study. Therefore, a comparative evaluation of the K, Mg, and Cu contents of multiple domestic and Chinese T. matsutake varieties is needed to determine the appropriate area of cultivation in the future.
Biofilms are complexly structured communities of microorganisms composed of surface-attached microorganisms, where their effects on the host have been controversial. In this study, we investigated the potential biofilm-forming capacity of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LRH020 (DSM25568) by detecting genes known to promote biofilm formation. It was shown that the aggregation substance gene (asa 1) was presented in the LRH020 strain. Therefore, we investigated the phenotypic activities of the gene asa1 via two methods: biofilm formation and autoaggregation activity. It was shown that the strain LRH020 had significantly less ability to form biofilm compared to the positive control strain Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433. Furthermore, LRH020 exhibited biofilm-forming activity comparable to Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), widely used probiotics. The auto-aggregation activity of LRH020 was also within the safe range similar to that of LGG. In conclusion, this study shows that both biofilmforming and auto-aggregation activities of the LRH020 are comparable to one of the most studied probiotics strains, LGG.
Cereal grains are the dietary staple in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. These grains are usually consumed cooked. Korean grown raw and cooked brown non-glutinous rice (BNR), white non-glutinous rice (WNR), oats, and barley were analyzed to assess the effects of cooking on dietary fiber and free sugar content. The largest decrease in total dietary fiber (TDF) after cooking was observed in barley (11.62±1.26 to 2.96± 0.90 g/100 g), and the smallest decrease was observed in oats (8.1±0.34 to 8.1±0.32 g/100 g). Soluble dietary fiber decreased in oats (3.35±0.94 to 1.25±0.03 g/100 g) while insoluble dietary fiber increased (4.76±0.78 to 6.90±0.30 g/100 g) after cooking. TDF content was not changed. Of the six free sugars routinely assessed, only sucrose was detected in BNR and WNR. Sucrose decreased by about 0.6 g/100 g in BNR, and was not detected in WNR, after cooking. Fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were detected in oats (0.08, 0.83, and 0.19 g/100 g) and barley (0.09, 0.58, and 0.22 g/100 g) Maltose was also detected in barley (0.09 g/100 g). Total sugar content decreased in every cereal grain sample after cooking. This research reveals that dietary fiber and free sugar content can be reduced by cooking cereal grains.
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of black soybean Sunsik product with functional food ingredients and functional labeling system. We prepared black soybean Sunsik (BS) containing black beans, cereals, and vegetables. Black soybean Sunsik with nondigestible maltodextrin and calcium lactate (BSN) was prepared by adding non-digestible maltodextrin and calcium lactate to the base recipe to apply a functional labeling system. The particle size in BS was 118.00 μm, whereas BSN was 127.00 μm. The respective L, a, and b color values of BS were 73.25, 2.36, and 14.21. The respective L, a, and b values of BSN were 73.21, 2.36, and 14.31. The respective water retention capacities of BS and BSN were 241.67% and 216.33%. No significant difference was observed between BS and BSN in the three physicochemical properties described above. However, the pH of BSN was 5.45, which was significantly lower than that of BS. The total respective phenolic contents of BS and BSN were 1.75 mg GAE/g and 1.61 mg GAE/g, and total respective flavonoid contents of BS and BSN were 6.36 mg RE/g and 5.95 mg RE/g. The antioxidant capacities of BS and BSN were compared via assays of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, FRAP, and reducing power. The antioxidant activities of BS and BSN increased in a dose-dependant manner. No significant difference between BS and BSN was observed in any measure of antioxidant capacity. These results suggested that the addition of functional food ingredients (non-digestible maltodextrin and calcium lactate) did not affect the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of black soybean Sunsik.
Levels of beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs: ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) were examined in fresh ginger (n = 43) and ginger powder (n = 31) samples from Korea. In the ginger samples, incidence of BEA contamination was highest, at 62.79%, with a maximum detected BEA level of 640.07 μg/kg. ENNs in were found in up to 11.63% (ENB, ENB1) of ginger samples, with a maximum detected level of 91.02 μg/kg (ENA). In the ginger powders, ENB contamination displayed the highest rate of incidence (70.97%), but the highest level of BEA (1,344.18 μg/kg) exceeded that of ENB (413.99 μg/kg). The incidences of ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1 presence in ginger powders were 29.03%, 22.58%, 70.97%, and 35.48%, respectively, and their highest detected levels were 220.45, 156.61, 413.99, and 70.29 μg/kg, respectively. The incidence of BEA and ENN contamination was higher in ginger powder than in ginger. Respective co-occurrence rates of BEA and ENNs in ginger and ginger powder samples were 16.28% and 64.52%, indicating that the BEA and ENN co-contamination rate was highest in ginger powder as well. This is the first report on the presence and co-occurrence of BEA and ENNs in Korean ginger and ginger powder.
To investigate the functional activity of different citrus fruit peels, antioxidant compounds in 70% ethanol extracts of mandarin, lemon, orange, and grapefruit peel powders were identified, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities were quantitated. Mandarin peel contained the highest content of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid substances (21.46±0.12 mg GAE/g and 11.57±0.05 mg RE/g, respectively). The total phenolic compound content of the three other citrus fruits was 14.16±0.18-18.44±0.07, and their total flavonoid content was 5.51±0.10-7.46±0.09 mg RE/g. DPPH radical scavenging activity was the highest in lemon peel (87.64±0.21%), and mandarin peel displayed the best antioxidant activity with respective ABTS radical scavenging activity and FRAP measurements of 43.20±0.61% and 78.82±1.06 mM TE/g. Grapefruit peel antimicrobial activity increased with treatment time, and was the most potent among the four tested citrus species, inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus by about 4.05 log cycle. These findings demonstrate that mandarin and grapefruit peel can be used to prevent oxidation, improve food storage capabilities, and potentially preserve food quality.
The bones of the human body support the structures of the body and provide protection for a person’s internal organs. Bone metabolic diseases are on the rise due to a significant increase in life expectancy over a short period of time. Therefore, we investigated the osteoblast differentiation promoting and osteoclastogenesis inhibitory activities of fermented Benincasa hispida cong. (HR1901-BS, HR1901-BSaf). We evaluated the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 mouse calvarial-derived osteoblasts. We also evaluated expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which regulate osteoblast differentiation. To assess effects on osteoclast formation, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in RAW264.7 cells was analyzed. ALP activity increased by 121-136% and 140-156%, respectively in the presence of HR1901-BS and HR1901- BSaf. Expression of osteoblast differentiation factor also increased significantly. We also confirmed that HR1901-BS and HR1901-BSaf decreased TRAP activity in osteoclasts by 35-47% and 23-39%, respectively. Our results showed that fermented Benincasa hispida cong. (HR1901-BS, HR1901-BSaf) increase bone mineralization and osteoblast differentiation activity in MC3T3-E1 cells, and inhibit bone resorption activity in RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, fermented Benincasa hispida cong. (HR1901-BS, HR1901-BSaf) can be used as an effective natural resource for preventing and treating bone-related diseases.