Biofilms are complexly structured communities of microorganisms composed of surface-attached microorganisms, where their effects on the host have been controversial. In this study, we investigated the potential biofilm-forming capacity of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LRH020 (DSM25568) by detecting genes known to promote biofilm formation. It was shown that the aggregation substance gene (asa 1) was presented in the LRH020 strain. Therefore, we investigated the phenotypic activities of the gene asa1 via two methods: biofilm formation and autoaggregation activity. It was shown that the strain LRH020 had significantly less ability to form biofilm compared to the positive control strain Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433. Furthermore, LRH020 exhibited biofilm-forming activity comparable to Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), widely used probiotics. The auto-aggregation activity of LRH020 was also within the safe range similar to that of LGG. In conclusion, this study shows that both biofilmforming and auto-aggregation activities of the LRH020 are comparable to one of the most studied probiotics strains, LGG.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits onto the host when administered at adequate doses. Most widely used probiotics, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, are known to be elements of healthy gut microflora and hence are not considered a threat to the host. However, probiotics may pose a risk in certain populations with compromised immune systems or defects in gut barrier functions. Herein, we evaluated the safety of Bifidobacterium breve BB077, according to the safety evaluation guidelines for probiotics produced by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS). The results show that B. breve BB077 is both non-hemolytic and non-cytolytic. In contrast, B. breve BB077 exhibited higher streptomycin and tetracycline resistance than the suggested NIFDS standard cut-off values. Hence, a genetic analysis of the streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes was performed to determine the origin of antimicrobial resistance. Streptomycin and tetracycline resistance was shown have arisen from chromosomal mutations and considered intrinsic to the taxonomic group. In conclusion, the B. breve BB077 strain might be safe for human consumption.
Probiotic strain is known to regulate the immune system by colonizing in the intestine and interact with intestinal cell receptors of lymphoid tissue. In this study, safety of Streptococcus thermophilus KCTC14471BP and silk fibroin coating effects was evaluated with respect to mucin binding abilities and immune system modulation. S. thermophilus KCTC14471BP was coated with silk fibroin by adding 1% water-soluble calcium and 0.1% silk fibroin. S. thermophilus KCTC14471BP showed the high activities of leucine arylamidase and β-galactosidase. Regarding the antibiotic resistance tests, S. thermophilus KCTC14471BP was susceptible to ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. S. thermophilus KCTC14471BP coated with silk fibroin showed the improved mucin binding ability from 16.1% to 71.3% and was confirmed to have no cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophage. S. thermophilus KCTC14471BP coated with silk fibroin showed dose-dependently significant increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These results suggested that S. thermophilus KCTC14471BP can be expected as a promising probiotic bacteria for applications to food industries such as fermentation or functional foods.
The detection of the genome-based antibiotic resistance gene is an essential analysis process for the purpose of verifying the safety of probiotic strains, including lactic acid bacteria. In this study, 4 analysis platforms (AMRFinderPlus, staramr, rgi, ABRicate) were used for cross-comparison of 782 genomes corresponding to 19 kinds of probiotic species notified as functional foods. As a result of the analysis, the relatively fewest number of antibiotic resistance genes were detected in strains belonging to the order Lactobacillales, and antibiotic resistance genes were detected in 322 genomes used in the case of 2 types of Enterococcus genus. In addition, the presence and type of antibiotic resistance gene detection showed a lot of difference even for the same genome sequence depending on the database and analysis algorithm used by the analysis platform. These results can be confused in evaluating the potential for transmission of antibiotic resistance genes inherent in specific lactic acid bacteria and predicting potential risks that may occur in the future. Accordingly, it is judged that the antibiotic resistance gene-related analysis criteria need to be established more clearly and specifically in the safety evaluation of probiotic bacteria.
포스트바이오틱스(postbiotics)는 프로바이오틱스(probiotics)가 발효과정 중 생산하는 유용한 대사산물과 미생물의 구성성분을 포 함하는 개념이다. 포스트바이오틱스는 기존 프로바이오틱스 소재가 갖는 안전성(safety), 기능성(function), 안정성(stability)의 한계를 극복할 수 있는 새로운 대안 소재로 주목받고 있다. 사균화 처리과정으로, 특정 대사물질의 복합물 형태로 제조되고 있기에 기존 생균제보다 가공, 포장, 유통, 섭취가 용이하다. 면역력이 낮은 환자나 건강 취약 계층의 소비자들도 안전하게 섭취할 수 있는 것도 장점이다. 뿐만 아니라, 체내에서 면역 조절, 감염 방지, 지질 및 콜레스테롤 대사, 항산화 기능을 보이고 있어, 앞으로 건강기능 식품 우수 소재로 활용될 가능성은 더 커질 것이다. 다만, 대부분의 연구들이 아직은 세포실험과 동물시험인 단계이기에 실제 인체적용 시험을 마친 소재들은 적은 편이다. 향후 꾸준한 연구성과를 바탕으로 다양한 기능을 가진 포스트바이오틱스 소재와 제품들이 개발된다면 건강기능식품 산업에 새로운 성장동력이 될 것으로 예상 된다.
Probiotics have been shown to benefit human health through their role in improving the health of our body, especially gastrointestinal tracts. Probiotic bacteria are commonly incorporated into a variety of functional foods or drug formulations. Despite the extensive commercial exploitation of probiotic bacteria, there are still major knowledge gaps regarding the precise molecular composition and labeling of products. Several studies have reported issues concerning the accuracy of labeling of commercial probiotic products, including inaccurate taxonomy and cell counting. The study of microbiology and genomics has been accelerated by the invention of new technologies such as next generation sequencing (NGS) and flow cytometry (FACS). Recent many studies showed that NGS and FACS technology can be also applied for quality control of commercial probiotics. Here, we review advantages and limitations of current technologies for quality control of commercial probiotics. Principles and applications of new technologies are also introduced as alternative tools for the same purposes.
The rate of salt and sugar into pickled cabbages was determined, and physicochemical characteristics, such as sensory, texture, and pH, of vinegar pickled cabbages during storage were examined at different storage temperatures and vinegar concentrations. The rate of salt and sugar penetration was faster in smaller size and on leaves rather than the stem of cabbage. Also, higher salt and sugar concentration and higher storage temperatures led to increase in salt and sugar permeation rate. As a result of sensory test, lower storage temperature is the most suitable, and 6% vinegar concentration was the mostly appropriate. Hardness and cohesiveness were decreased significantly at the initial 1st week storage time, but storage temperature did not show any significant effect. Addition of vinegar contents enhanced the hardness, but decreased cohesiveness. The pH was lowered with increasing vinegar content, indicated most significant factor on pickled cabbage. In general, salt and sugar contents rather than storage temperature have greater influence on permeation rate, and especially, addition of vinegar affects the texture of pickled cabbage.