Recently, it is continuously rising to concern about the health risk being induced by microorganisms in food such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Various organizations and regulatory agencies including U.S.EPA, U.S.DA and FAO/WHO are preparing the methodology building to apply microbial quantitative risk assessment to risk-based food safety program. Microbial risks are primarily the result of single exposure and its health impacts are immediate and serious. Therefore, the methodology of risk assessment differs from that of chemical risk assessment. Microbial quantitative risk assessment consists of four steps; hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification is accomplished by observing and defining the types of adverse health effects in humans associated with exposure to foodborne agents. Epidemiological evidence which links the various disease with the particular exposure route is an important component of this identification. Exposure assessment includes the quantification of microbial exposure regarding the dynamics of microbial growth in food processing, transport, packaging and specific time-temperature conditions at various points from animal production to consumption. Dose-response assessment is the process characterizing dose-response correlation between microbial exposure and disease incidence. Unlike chemical carcinogens, the dose-response assessment for microbial pathogens has not focused on animal models for extrapolation to humans. Risk characterization links the exposure assessment and dose-response assessment and involve uncertainty analysis. The methodology of microbial dose-response assessment is classified as nonthreshold and threshold approach. The nonthreshold model have assumption that one organism is capable of producing an infection if it arrives at an appropriate site and organism have independence. Recently, the Exponential, Beta-poission, Gompertz, and Gamma-weibull models are using as nonthreshold model. The Log-normal and Log-logistic models are using as threshold model. The threshold has the assumption that a toxicant is produce by interaction of organisms. In this study, it was reviewed detailed process including risk value using model parameter and microbial exposure dose. Also this study suggested model application methodology in field of exposure assessment using assumed food microbial data(NaCl, water activity, temperature, pH, etc.) and the commercially used Food MicroModel^ⓡ. We recognized that human volunteer data to the healthy man are preferred rather than epidemiological data for obtaining exact dose-response data. But, the foreign agencies are studying the characterization of correlation between human and animal. For the comparison of differences to the population sensitivity; it must be executed domestic study such as the establishment of dose-response data to the Korean volunteer by each microbial and microbial exposure assessment in food.
The prevalence and serotype of food-borne pathogens was investigated from 888 samples of chilled meat, 222 samples of packed frozen meat and 117 samples of imported frozen meat during the period from March 1996 to October 1998. Isolation rates of pathogens associated with food poisoning were revealed in order of Staphyloccus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp, but Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not isolated in all of the meat samples. Amusingly, Cczmpylobacter jejuni/coli were isolated highly in refrigerated meat, but was not isolated in packed frozen meat. L. monocytogenes was encounted higher isolation frequency in packed frozen chicken meat than in refrigerated chicken meat. In the distribution of serotypes of isolates, most isolates of Sta. aureus classified as enterotoxin type C and D. All of the Salmonella spp. isolated from pork were diagnosed group A and most of isolates from chicken meat were grouped B and D. Most of L. monocytogenes isolated from chicken meat were grouped type 1 and a few number of isolates classified as type 4.
The lipid stability of walnut added with water extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Camellia sinensis and Lycii fructus was studied. The results are as follows : 1. when the extracts were added to walnut, the lipid stability was improved. The antioxidative activities of water extract of Camellia Sinensis and Lycii Fructus were considerably higher than that of Ganoderma lucidum. The antioxidative activity was decreased in the rank order Lycii Fructus$gt;Camellia Sinensis$gt;Ganoderma lucidum. 2. This clearly suggests that water extract of Lycii Fructus at 4℃ Bx level can be used as an alternative natural antioxidant for the lipid stability of walnut.
The present study was performed to investigate photodegradation rate constants and degradation products of dichlorvos and methidathion by the USEPA method. The two pesticides were very stable in sunlight for 16 days from September 2 to 18, 1998 and humic acid had no sensitizing effect on the photolysis of each pesticide in sunlight. The photolysis rate was fastest for methidathion, followed by dichlorvos in the presence of UV irradiation. Photodegradation rate constant and half-life of dichlorvos were 0.0208 and 33.3 min, respectively. Photodegradation rate constant and half-life of methidathion were 0.6789 and 1.0min, respectively. The two pesticides were degraded completely in the presence of UV irradiation and UV irradiation with TiO₂ in about 3 hours. Therefore, it is suggested that UV treatment will be effective for the degradation of pesticides in the process of drinking water purification. In case of dichlorvos and methidathion, UV irradiation with TiO₂ was more effective for degradation than UV irradiation. In order to identify photolysis products, the extracts of degradation products were analyzed by GC/ MS. The mass spectrum of photolysis products of dichlorvos was at m/z 153, those of the photolysis of methidathion were at m/z 198 and 214, respectively. Photolysis products of dichlorvos was O, O-dimethyl phosphate(DMP), those of methidathion were O, O-dimethyl phosphorothioate(DMTP) and O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate (DMDTP).
To develop a lactic starter to produce antimicrobial substance for inhibiting the growth of a variety of foodborne spoilage bacteria in fermented foods, we investigated the antibacterial effect of the antibacterial substance, produced by Lactobacillus amylovorus IMC-1, against foodborne spoilage strains, and its sensitivity on the treatment of proteolytic enzymes. L. amylovorus IMC-1, which was isolated from a traditional cheese in Inner Mongolia, produced a maximum amount of antibacterial substance in the skim milk medium after 72 h incubation at 37℃, and further incubation resulted in the same activity. The substance obtained from gel filtration inhibited all strains used such as Bacillus subtilis IFO 3025, Staphylococcus aureus IAM 1011, Listeria monocytogenes VTU 206, Escherichia coli RB, and Pseudomonas fragi IFO 3458 at the concentration of 20 units/ml. This substance was found to show bactericidal action against B. subtilis, E. coli, and Ps. fragi, and bacteriostatic activity against both Staph. aureus and L. monocytogenes. The bactericidal action was due to cellular lysis. The substance is not organic acid, hydrogen peroxide and proteinaceous compound.
Changes in titratable acidity, viable cells and sensory properties of curd yogurt during lactic fermentation in milk added with mugwort extract have been studied. Milk added with 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% of mugwort extract was fermented with single or mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus for 24 hours. Addition of mugwort extract markedly stimulated the acid production and propagation of lactic acid bacteria. Among the organism tested, the mixed culture of Lzctobczcillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus produced the highest amount of acid, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus showed the highest number of viable cell counts. Sensory property of curd yogurt added with mugwort extract was evaluated as better than reference sample(milk yogurt). The sample prepared by fermenting milk containing mugwort extract at 5% level with Lactobacillus bulgaricus showed the most favorite characteristics.
Propolis, a natural resinous compound collected from honey bees, contains many biochemical constituents and has been used in traditional medicines as early as 300 B.C. Recently, it has been reported to possess many biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, local anaesthetic, immunostimulating, antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. This study was performed to investigate the pharmacological effects of the propolis extract and fractions on the gastric lesion and ulcer. The ethanol extract was fractionated with hexane, toluene and ethyl acetate. Followed by bioassay on antigastric and antiulcer activity. Propolis ethanol extracts(500, 750, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg/kg) showed the protective effect on HCl ethanol-induced gastric lesion and the antisecretory effect against Shay's gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats in a dose related manner. In the animal models of HCl ethanol, aspirin-induced gastric lesion and Shads gastric secretion, the hexane and toluene fraction of propolis significantly reduced the length of gastric lesion and the acid secretion. These data showed that the gastric protective effects of propolis might result from reduction of acid secretion through the inactivation of H^+/K^+ATPase activity.
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is known as a more environmental-friendly process with economic advantages in terms of less time, less solvent, less energy and less waste than the current reflux method that is time-consuming. MAE was applied to extract three pesticides (quintozene, tolclofos-methyl and procymidone) from ginseng in a pesticide residue analysis and eliminate pesticide contaminants from ginseng prior to production of the ginseng extracts. The optimal conditions for pesticide extraction from ginseng were 50% in power (150 watts), 2 minutes, 20 mL hexane and 2.0 g sample. The results of optimal conditions were compared with those of Soxhlet method (7 hours, 150 mL hexane). The recoveries between two methods were almost same while time and amount of solvent used in MAE were significantly decreased in comparing with those in the Soxhlet methods. When the 45% ethyl alcohol as a extraction solvent was applied to eliminate pesticides from ginseng prior to the production of the ginseng extracts, it was found that 100% quintozene, 69% tolclofos-methyl and 83% procymidone were eliminated from ginseng. The data showed that MAE may be used to eliminate pesticide contaminants in ginseng prior to making the ginseng extracts.
A bacteriological study of sea water and oyster in Tongyeong coastal area was conducted to evaluate sanitary conditions of the bay and compliance of waters with the recommended bacteriological criteria for the designated area of shellfish cultivation. The Samples were collected at 5 zone, 34 sampling stations(Fig. 1) established once a month from September 1997 to August 1998. During the study period, temperature ranged from 6.9 to 23.6℃, transparency ranged from 2.6 to 6.2 m, chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.35 to 1.82 mg/l, dissolved oxygen ranged from 5.0 to 9.9 mg/l, dissolved nitrogen ranged from 1.60 to 8.17 ug-ab/l, phosphate ranged from 0.14 to 1.21 ug-ab/l, Chlorophyll-a ranged from 2.03 to 69.9 mg/㎥, respectively. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of sea water were ranged from $lt;3.0-1,600 and $lt;3.0-540, respectively. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of oysters were ranged from $lt;18-6,000 and $lt;18-2,200, respectively. The viable cell counts in oyster ranged from 1.5× 10² to 8.2× 10³. The coliform grnup, fecal coliform, classification of coliform group with IMViC reactions and pathogenic vibrios were analyzed. 437 strains that were obtained from Tongyeoung coastal area seawater samples represented E. coli group 47.5%, C. freundii group 14.8%, K. aerogenes 10.9%, unknown 26.8%, respectively. During the study period, infectious bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. were not detected from the samples, but detection ratios ofVibrio parohaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were 12-21% in summer months.
This study was performed to investigate the contents of sulfites in 2,770 dried marine products in Seoul Chung-Bu market from March to October in 1999. Sulfites of the samples were determined by Zn powder reduction method and Monnier-Williams's modified method. Eight samples of 2,770 (0.29%) were detected over 30ppm in S02 contents by Monnier-Williams's modified method. In samples detected over 30ppm, six dried filefishes(130.2-573.4ppm) were imported from Vietnam, same kind of other one(114.2ppm) was from China and the other one Alaska pollack(195.3ppm) was domestic. By Zn powder reduction method, 259 dried marine products (259/2,770=9.35%) were positive reaction (1-30ppm). These were 93 dried shrimps, 53 filefish meats, 34 dried squids, 33 slices of dried pollacks and 17 sea mussel meats. So sulfites must be use commonly to prevent black spot and preserve for many dried shrimps, filefishes meats, dried squids etc. According to results, the quality test for the imported dried marine products must be reinforced to supply safety food for the citizens.
Commonly eaten fish, meat and other protein-containing foods show some level of mutagenic activity following normal cooking such as broiling, frying, grilling, roasting etc. The main food mutagens found in cooked products are $quot;heterocyclic aromatic amines$quot; . Several of them have been shown to be carcinogenic in rodent and suggested to be relevant for human cancer etiology. This review summarizes the chemistry, formation, occurrence and toxicity of food-borne heterocyclic aromatic amines. Factors that influence the formation of them are also discussed with special emphasis on dietary factors. From a health safety point of view, it is desirable to estimate the intake of heterocyclic amines via foods, and reduce or prevent the formation of food mutagens.
A survey was conducted to investigate the attitudes of the food specialist to the food developed by gene recombination. The mail survey was distributed to 1,400 food specialists and received 464, a response rate of 33.1%. Respondents were asked about knowledge, concerns of potential hazards, purchasing and labeling of the gene recombination foods. Most respondents (98.7%) have some knowledge on the gene recombination foods. 91.3% of respondents recognized necessity of gene recombination technology. However, they also point out its potential hazards (80.9%). The groups with less knowledge showed their increased worry on the hazard in comparison with ones of having more knowledge(p$lt;0.01). The result indicated that there was negative relationship between knowledge and worry on the gene recombination foods. The groups with more knowledge showed their increased purchasing on gene recombination foods in comparison with ones of having less knowledge(p$lt;0.01). The result indicated that there was positive relationship between their purchase intent for gene recombination foods and knowledge. 68.4% of respondents showed their interest on purchasing the gene recombination foods. In this group, most of them (44.9%) has on condition that low cost (27.0%). In addition, they also have not use the foods for their children (17.9%) if they buy it. Most respondents (85.3%) want labeling on the gene recombination foods.
A number of chemical released into the environment eliciting their effects by disrupting normal hormonal pathways. Endocrine disrupting compounds are present in the aquatic environment and pose potential health consequences to wildlife and humans. This review are designing for xenobiotic estrogens based on induction of the egg-yolk precursor protein vitellogenin. In fish of aquatic environment, it may result in decease fertility and egg production in females or lead to reduced gonad size or feminization of genetic male fish. It has been known that male fish exposed to estrogenic compounds show induced production of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin production is normally restricted to adult females, which have elevated estrogen levels during egg production. However, vitellogenin can be induced in males by pollution of environmental endocrine disruptors. Consequently, the presence of vitellogenin in male fish can serve as an indicator of exposure of environmental endocrine disrupting compounds. In immature fish polluted at low levels of environmental endocrine disruptor, vitellogenin can serve as a reliable biomarker for exposure to endocrine disruptor. This review demonstrates the utility of vitellogenin as a biomarker for exposure to estrogenin agents in auqatic environment.
The flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) (EC 18.104.22.168) are NADPH-dependent flavoenzymes that catalyze oxidation of soft nucleophilic heteroatom centers in a range of structurally diverse compounds including foods, drugs, pesticides, and other xenobiotics. In humans, FMO1 appears to be the predominant form expressed in human fetal liver. cDNA-expressed human FMO and human liver microsomal FMO have been observed to N- and S-oxygenate nucleophilic nitrogen- and sulfur-containing drugs and chemicals, respectively. In the present study, FMOl can be expressed in the baculovirus expression vector system at level of 2.68 nmol FMO1/㎎ of membrane protein. This isoform was examined for its capacity to metabolize methimazole to its S-oxide using thiocholine assay. Kinetic studies of its S-oxide by recombinant human FMO1 result in K_m of 7.66 μM and V_(max) of 17.79 nmol/min/㎎ protein.
Antimicrobial activity of Korean leek was effective on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pichia membranaefaciens. Extract from raw Korean leek and that from frozen one showed antimicrobial activity; in contrast, extract stored frozen condition or extract from blanched one lost antimicrobial activity. Filtration, centrifugation, and vacuum concentration did not affect antimicrobial activity of the leek, nor did the changes in storage pHs. Addition of ground leek to soy milk, soy curd, and broth for cold noodle resulted in the prolonged shelf life by significantly reducing the number of viable cells.
This study was performed to investigate the possible effect of sunlight on the reduction or degradation of mycelia and aflatoxins. The mycelia and aflatoxins were produced by Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517 in a yeast-extract sucrose broth (YES) and potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and then exposed to sunlight. The weight of mycelia was decreased to 76.8% in 8 hours and to 66.7% in 168 hours(p$lt;0.05). The total aflatoxin level was significantly decreased to below 50% (46.3% in the YES broth and 49.6% in the PDA) in 8 hours (p$lt;0.05). After 168 hours, a 90.4% degradation of aflatoxin in the YES broth and a 77.2% degradation of aflatoxin in the PDA was observed, respectively (p$lt;0.01). The results showed that the degradation ratios of total aflatoxin level increased with increased exposure time to sunlight. These results indicate that sunlight could be an effective factor in aflatoxin degradation although its effect on mycelia was less pronounced.
The number of viable microorganism in drinking water was monitored according to storage temperature and storage period. The number of general bacteria in underground water was 10²-10^5CFU/ml and that of coliform group was decreased after 7days. The number of general bacteria in bottle water was increased until 7days but decreased after that day. Coliform group in bottle water were detected only 1 sample. The number of general bacteria in purified water was 10³-10⁴CFU/ml and 10²-10⁴CFU/ml at 8 and 25, respectively. Coliform group were not detected in purified water.