Effect of allylisothiocyanate on the enzyme activities including malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADPH and acetyl CoA which were related to atlatoxin production of Aspergillus parasricus R-716 were invetigated. The activities of malate dehydrogenase (EC.188.8.131.52), isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C.184.108.40.206) and NADPH oxidase (E.C.220.127.116.11) indicated relatively high in the 50 ppm allylisothiocyanate-added-culture. In contrast, the activity of acetyl CoA in the 50 ppm allylisothiocyanate-added-culture showed rather lower level through the cultivation.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioflavonoids naringin on dental caries and periondontal disease in the albinorat. Twenty-five-day-old-male rats were fed the experimental diets for 42 days in this work at the end of the 42-day experimental period. The tooth surfaces were examined under a dissecting microscope. The sulcular caries lesions were recorded : the first molars were more affected than the second and third molars. Alveolar bone loss was measured on the buccal and lingual aspects of each molar: three site measurements (mesialpoint midpoint and distalpoint) were taken on the first molars. The results showed that the bioflavonoids, naringin had beneficial effects in the prevention of periodontal disease.
To examine the effects of residual phosphorus content on color reversion and storage stability of corn germ oil, the changes of Lovibond total color and stability of oxidation were determined according to the different storage periods at room and incubating temperature, respectively. The residual phosphorus content and storage temperature had the synergistic effect on color reversion during short time storage. The extent of color change was the greatest when oils were stored for 1.0-1.5 years at room temperature and thereafter gradually tended to reverse color reversion. It is supposed that the double bonds of carotenoids in oils were oxidized and then turned to the volatiles such as epoxide, ionone, and etc. In contrast, the residual phosphorus content increased oxidation stability of oils. The residual phosphorus content was closely correlated with the color reversion and storage stability, respectively.
For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of dried-Angelica Keiskei Koidz powder, the effects of ozone treatment and gamma irradiation on the microbial decontamination and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5 to 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilizing total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the total aerobic bacteria of the sample. The physicochemical properties of the sample were not changed by gamma irradiation up to 7.5 kGy, whereas, ozone treatment caused remarkable changes in pH, TBA value, chlorophyll, carotenoid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, this investigation demonstrated conclusively that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment for decontaminating and sterilizing the dried-Angelica Keiskei Koidz powder, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analyzed.
A simple, rapid and simultaneous analytical method is described for the detection of Sulfonamide and Tetracycline residues, i.e., Sulfamerazine (SMR), Sulfamethazine (SMT), Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), Sulfadimethoxine (SDM), Sulfaquinoxaline (SQN), Oxytetracycline (OXY), Tetracycline (TC), Chlortetracycline (CTC). Blank control and sulfonamide and tetracycline fortified fish muscle samples (0.5 g) were blended with octadecylsilyl (C,e, 40 gm, 21% load, 60Å) derivatized silica packing material (2 g). Blended fish samples were washed with hexane, then, benzene and dichloromethane were used for the elution of tetracycline and sulfonamide, respectively, The eluants containg tetracycline and sulfonamide were analyzed by HPLC. Correlation coefficients of standard curves for individual sulfonamide and tetracycline isolated from fortified samples were linear (0.9993±0.0003-0.9997±0.0003, 0.9493±0.078-0.9753±0.036), respectively, The average percentage recoveries of sulfonamide and tetracycline ranged as 80.86-96.52% to 85.88-92.23%, and 30.01-37.12% to 65.89-73.40%, for the concentration range (0.1--1.0 ppm) examined, respectively. Limit of detection for sulfonamide was 0. 05 ug/g, then, tetracycline was 0.1 ug/g. Detection of quantitation of sulfonamide residue was 0.0012 ppm for SMR in Paralichthys Odiuacleus and 0.0020 ppm for SMR, 0.015 ppm for SMM in Cyprinus Carpio. The applicability of this procedure is demonstrated by separation and detection of incurred tetracycline and sulfonamide residues in fish muscle tissue.
Gulbi, salted and dried yellow corvenia, is a favorite diet food in Korea from the ancient times. A Few studies have dealt with sanitary concerns related to its products, while a number of investigators studied its taste compounds. This study attemps to establish the basic data for ensuring the safety of Gulbi. The contents of nitrate and nitrite were detected 1.2 and $lt;0.1 mg/kg in raw sample, but their contents were detected 3.6-3.9 and 1.2-2.0 mg/kg during its processing and storage of Gulbi, respectively. TMAO contents decreased while betaine, TMA, DMA and formaldehyde increased in yellow corvenia during its processing and storage. Recovery from raw, salted, salt-dried and stored sample spiked with 10 ug/kg for NDBA was 83.2-102.7%(average 92.7%). N-nitrosamine such as NDMA, NDEA and NDPA was not detected in raw sample and drastically increased during Gulbi processing and storage. The levels of NDMA, NDEA and NDPA in Gulbi stored for 30 days were about 2.7, 4.5 and 5.3 times higher than those in salted sample, respectively. Regardless of cooking methods, NDMA, NDEA and NDPA levels increased during cooking Gulbi stored for 30 days, and more N-nitrosamine was formed during cooking when sample were cooked using direct heating methods such as a gas and a briquet fire than when sample were cooked using indirect methods such as an microwave oven and a fried pan. Indirect cooking methods was effective to minimize the N-nitrosamine formation such as NDMA, NDEA and NDPA during cooking of Gulbi.
Additives in plastics are capable of migrating from the packaging materials into the foodstuffs, thereby presenting a source of contamination and a potential health risk to the consumer. The migration from packaging materials into foodstuffs is first of all regulated by examining the amounts of global and specific migrated components. Besides, there is worldwide still a need for practical methods for measuring and monitoring migration from polymers, especially for the testing of migration into fatty foodstuffs. Therefore, these studies were undertaken to investigate the safety status of domestic plastic packaging materials with respect to migration. Another objective of this study was to examine the applicability of ethanol as an alternative fatty food simulant substituting for olive oil and n-heptane. The evaporation residues for various domestic plastic samples determined as described in Korean food laws were in the level from 4.3 to 14.5 mg/l, which were much lower than the limit value of 150 mg/l. The global migration values into 95 % ethanol showed to be comparable to those into n-heptane, while the olive oil migration values were comparably higher than those into ethanol or n-heptane and moreover they were not reproducible. The kinetic migration behavior of additives in polyolefin samples into 95% ethanol showed a Fickian diffusion process. The results of these studies on global migration and kinetic testings demonstrate that the ethanol could be successfully substitute for the olive oil and n-heptane as an alternative fatty food simulant, at least in contact with polyolefins.
This study was performed to investigate the toxic effect of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Symphytum officinale in rat. For this experiment, 120 male and female rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were used. The experimental groups were divided into five: Group CM and CF served as normal control with its gender. Group EMl and EF1 were fed a 1% Symphytum officinal extract diet for 8 weeks. Group EM2 and EF2 fed a diet containing 2% extract diet. 4% extract diet into group EM3 and EF3 and 8% extract diet into group EM4 and EF4 were given. The results were as follows: 1. The major alkaloids of Symphytum officinale extract were symphytine, echimidine, and lasiocarpine. The amounts of total alkaloid were 168 ug PAs/ ml extract. And contents of PAs in leaves were 0.05% wt.. 2. Total serum bilirubin concentrations increased significantly in group EM2, EM3, and EM4. Group EFl, EF2, EF3,and EF 4 showed statistical significance for the group CF (p$lt;0.05). 3. Aspartate transaminase activities were increased significantly in group EM3 and EM4 (p$lt;0.05). Aspartate transaminase activities of EF1, EF2, EF3, and EF4 showed statistical significance for the group CF (p$lt;0.05). 4. Alanine transaminase activities increased significantly in group EM3, EM4 (p$lt;0.05). Alanine transaminase activities of EFl, EF2, EF3, and EF4 showed statistical significance for the group CF (p$lt;0.05). 5. Alkaline phosphatase activities increased significantly in group EM2, EM3, and EM4 (p$lt;0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activities of EF1, EF2, EF3, and EF4 showed statistical significance for the group CF (p$lt;0.05). 6. Histopathological analysis of liver specimens from group EM3 and EM4 showed focal necrosis, periportal necrosis and apoptosis. Hepatocytes obtained from group EM2 showed fatty change and hydropic degeneration in group EM3 and EM4. Chromatolysis and chromatin margination was shown in group EF2 and EF3. With the above results, it was demonstrated that the Symphytum officinale extract could induce functional change of liver, and histopathological change of liver in rats fed a diet containing extract. In conclusion, because of the risk of intoxication or adverse effect, the composition, dosage and mode of administration of herbal products should be monitored strictly. And this study serves as a reminder that herbal as well as orthodox medications may have serious side effects.
Progress in commercialization of the irradiation process, greater international trade in irradiated food, differing regulations relating to use of the technology in many countries, and consumer demand for clear labeling of irradiated food highlighted the need for tests that could be applied to the food itself. Scientists have had to focus on identifying and isolating the minute changes caused in the component food molecules by the process. A number of investigators have reviewed the changes occurring in food after irradiation, detecting and measuring the effects of irradiation. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organised a coordinated program on analytical detection methods in irradiation treatment of food (ADMIT) which promoted cooperation in this area and sponsored collaborative testing of some of the most promising methods.