This study is performed to identify the contents of nitrosamine in meat (beef, pork) and meat product (ham, bacon, sausage) by gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer. The author also determined the formation of nitrosamine in these products when they were cooked in frying pan at 210 for 4 minutes and microwave for 45 and 75 seconds. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) analysis was impossible in the most products because of their impurietiea. On the other hand, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR,) of 0-9.4ug/kg in meat and 0-15.6 ug/kg in meat products were detected, respectively. When meat and meat products were cooked, generally contents of NDMA and NPYR have a tendency to be increased a little. Meat and meat product being cooked in microwave rather than flying pan, contents of NDMA and NPYR, were detected more. Especially, in sausage contained much fish, contents of NDMA was detected more.
Chicken skins or carcasses inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium were exposed to 0.1 or 0.5% grapefruit seed extracts (DF-100) for 1 or 3 min to evaluate antibacterial activity of DF-100 and its possible application in proultry processing. The numbers of live salmonellae on chicken skins were reduced by 0.8-1.2 logs/㎠ with 0.1% and by 1.6-1.7 logs/㎠ with 0.5% DF-100. Dipping chicken carcasses into 0.5% DF-100 for 3 min reduced salmonellae by 4.3 logs/ carcass. Scanning electron microaoopy showed that DF-100 killed the cells attached but did not detach cells from the skin. No odor or changes in the color of chicken skin were detected after DF-100 treatment.
The removal of residual captan in carrot and kale by storage temperatures and the addition of condiments was investigated. The quantities of residual captan after sticking and drying of captan in carrot and kale were 0.958 and 26.12 ppm, respectively. During storage of 20 days at 15, 3 and -17℃, the levels of the residual captan in carrot decreased to 0.008 (removal rate: 99.2%), 0.228(76.2%) and 0.380 ppm (60.3%), and those in kale decreased to 1.21 (95.4%), 7.72 (70.5%) and 15.06 ppm (42.3%), respectively. The higher removal rate of residual captan was observed at the higher storage temperatures. When the condiments of soy sauce, green onion, garlic and vinegar added to the carrot which contaminated with the captan and then stored at 15℃ for 24hrs, the residual levels of captan decreased to 0.207 (removal rate: 78.4%), 0.196 (79.5%), 0.164 (82.8%) and 0.209 ppm (78.2%), respectively, showing the garlic was the most effective. However, the residual levels in kale were 2.27 (91.3%), 12.70 (51.4%), 16.42 (37.1%) and 13.70 ppm (47.5%), respectively under the same condition, indicating the soy sauce was the most effective. The removal rates of residual captan in carrot and kale were significantly higher with the addition of the condiments than those of the controls that without the condiments.
The genotoxicity of combinations of four p-oxybenzoic acids (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, isopropyl paraben, butyl paraben) and benzoic acid had been evaluated. The in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537) and the in uiuo micronucleus assay using mouse peripheral blood were performed. Methyl paraben plus benzoic acid, ethyl paraben plus benzoic acid, and ethyl paraben plus butyl paraben slightly increased the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the high doses, but were negative in Ames test with Salmonella typhimurzum with and without rat liver microsomal activation. The other combinations tested were negative in Ames test and did not show any clastogenic effect in micronucleus test. These results suggest that genotoxicity can produced by the combinations of p-oxybenzoic acid.
A fucoidanase, which was screened from the heptopancreas of Patinopectin yessoensis, was fractionated according to by ammounium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange chromatography. The crude fucoidanase activity was hydrolyzed a small amounts of fucoidan agar and not carrageenan. The crude enzyme hydrolyzed fucoidan to produce oligosaccha-rides of fucose, glucose, maltose maltotriose and maltotetraose as the reaction products.
Aloe, being used widely as a health food and also as a traditional folk remedy for burns and constipation, contains quinone derivatives particularly in its skin. Thus, we have investigated the effect of extracts of Aloe on ethanol metabolism. The dried powder of water extract of skinned Aloe (300 mg/kg body weight given to rats by oral administration at 30 min prior to oral administration of ethanol given at a dose of 4 gm/kg) and the freeze-dried Aloe gel commercial product (600 mg/kg) which was prepared after selective elimination of quinones were found not to increase the ethanol metabolism rate in vivo. This result suggested that quinones, missing from the above preparations, might be responsible for enhancing ethanol metabolism rate.
The effect of allylisothiocyanate, the major compound of radish on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus R-716 and aflatoxin production, was investigated. An increase in the level of allylisothiocyanate results in a decrease both growth and aflatoxin per myclial weight, and the addition of 125 ppm allylisothiocynate completely inhibited the growth of this strain. The addition of allylisothiocyanate to the culture of R-716 strain delayed the production of atlatoxin. The inhibition of aflatoxin was more B-group than G-group and M-group during cultural period. The growth of strain and aflatoxin production were greatly affected by the addition of allylisothiocyanate.
The yields of solvent fractions of irradiated red ginseng powder were increased in the order of petroleum ether(PE)$lt;diethyl ether(DE)$lt;ethyl acetate(EA)$lt;n-butanol (BU)$lt;aqueous fraction(AQ), and did not show any changes in fraction yields by irradiation dose levels. Inhibition activities of lipid peroxide formation were increased in the order of AQ$lt;BU $lt;PE$lt;EA$lt;DE. Inhibition activities of malonaldehyde formation were increased in the order of AQ≤BU$lt;EA$lt;PE$lt;DE. AQ fraction showed little effects on the antioxidative activity and all the activities of the samples did not changed by gamma irradiation. The reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhunurium (TA98, TA100 and TA102) demonstrated that the nonirradiated and irradiated red ginseng powder extract did not have mutagenic activity (presence of S9 mix or not). The chromosomal aberration test in mammalian animal cell (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast, CHL) showed no significant increase in incidence of structural and numerical aberrations, comparing gamma-irradiated red ginseng powder extracts to nonirradiated red ginseng powder extract in the concentration of the sample producing cytotoxicity(presence of S9 mix or not). Therefore, gamma-irradiatied red ginseng powder (upto 10 kGy) could be safe on the genotoxic point of view.
As a preliminary experiment to investigate the effect of ozone sterelization on the ginseng powder, the changes of fatty acid composition and organic acid content and sensory properties in ginseng powder treated with ozone was investigated. Ginseng powder was treated with 0.5 ppm ozone for 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. With increase in ozone treatment time, the content of crude lipid and total unsaturated fatty acid decreased, whereas composition of total saturated fatty acid increased. Contents of unsaturated fatty acid-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, etc.-decreased with ozone treatment time, whereas saturated fatty acid of same number-stearic acid-increased. Contents of organic acid were not shown significant changes. Ginseng odor, roasted odor, bitter taste, roasted taste and sweet taste were thicker with ozone treatment times, but pungent taste was thicker with those treatment. These changes of ordors and tastes of ginseng powder with ozone treatment were predicted by oxydation of lipids, flavor components and saponins.
This paper intends to investigate commercial fish and shellfish 25 species (fish 8 species, shellfish 7 species, crustacean 3 species, molusc 4 species and echinodermata) for the distribution of sanitary indicator organisms (total viable counts, coliforms, staphylococci, vibrios, and enterococci) and diatributional change of indicator organisms according to storage temperature and period. The logarithmic mean of total viable counts for total commercial fish and shellfish 25 species was 5.41±0.26 CFU/g, and in accordance with fish and shellfishes, crustacean 6.76±0.67 CFU/g, shellfish 5.67±0.56 CFU/g, echinodermata 5.47±0.50 CFU/g, fish 5.021±0.38 CFU/g, and mollusc 5.03±0.65 CFU/g. The logarithmic mean of enterococci was 2.36±0.37 CFU/g, and in accordance with fish and shellfish, crustacean 3.44±0.12 CFU/g, shellfish 3.87±0.45 CFU/g, echinodermata 3.38±0.0 CFU/g, fish 2.16±0.41 CFU/g and mollusc 0.01±0.0 CFUIg. The logarithmic mean of vibrios was 1.60±0.59 CFUIg, and in accordance with fish and shellfish, crustacean 4.23±0.11 CFU/g, shellfish 3.58±0.90 CFUIg, echinodermata 1.64±0.34 CFU/g, fish 1.79±0.67 CFU/g and mollusc 1.07±0.61 CFU/g. The logarithmic mean of staphylococci was 1.60±0.59 CFU/g, and in accordance with fish and shellfish, shellfish 0.01±0.00 CFU/g, echinodermata 3.51±0.60 CFU/g, fish 1.68±0.64 CFU/g, crustacean 0.34±0.33 and mollusc 2.90±0.11 CFU/g. The logarithmic mean of coliforma was 2.2±0.32 CFU/g, and in accordance with fish and shellfish, echinodermata 3.58±0.89 CFU/g was highest, shellfish 3.25±0.30 CFU/g, crustacean 3.23±0.49 CFU/g, fish 2.18±0.63 CFU/g, peeled shellfish 1.80±0.51 CFU/ g and mollusc 1.55±0.95 CFU/g. As the results of research of the change of the contaminated indicator microflora in working with storage period at 10℃, 20℃ and 30℃, total viable counts was increased without storage temperature and enterococci were decreased slowly at 10℃, but increased at 20 and 30℃ Vibrios were decreased slowly at 10℃, decreased at 20℃ and 30℃ in 2 days after increased rapidly. Staphylococci were increased promptly without storage temperature in 2 days, then the total viable counts were maintained. Coliforms were increased at 10℃ by 7 days, then decreased or maintained after 14 days, changed at 20℃ in accordance with fish species in 2 days, then returned to the initial total viable count, and decreased rapidly at 30℃ on 2 days. By the way, there were no difference among the species.
In order to study the antitumoral effect of Selaginella tamariscina extracts, the cytotoxicities to human histiocytic leukemia cells (U937) and lymphocyte were measured by MTT method. The water extract of Selaginella tamariscina was partitioned into chloroform (CHCl₃), ethylacetate (EtAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H₂O), successively. CHCl₃, EtAc and BuOH fractions of Selaginella tamariscina showed the cytotoxicity to the U937 cells but they had no effect on the cytotoxicity of lymphocyte under the same conditions. The tumor-specific cytotoxicity of Selaginella tamariscina fractions might have been attributed to their genotoxic effect on actively proliferating cells. The expression of p53 tumor suppressor gene was then evaluated by northern blotting. The increased expression of p53 was induced by Selaginella ramariscina fraction V but no expression of p53 was induced by CHCl₃, EtAc, and BuOH fractions of Selaginella tamariscina. These results suggested that the increased expression of p53 induced by Selaginella tamariscina water extract (fraction V) should be required for the cytotoxicity on U937 and the other fractions of Selaginella tamariscina mediated the U937 disruption.