There were few data for the distribution of the indicator organisms in the commercial plant foods, and for the normal flora and for the foodborne agents within the country. First of all it must be investigated the distribution of the indicator organisms. And also it is very important to prepare the sanitation criteria for the plant foods through the microbiological e×amination and the investigation of tendency to change of the indicator organisms according to the storage temperature and period. The average number of total viable counts for grains was 2.9 × 10^5/g, psychrophilic bacteria 2.9 × 10^6/g, heterotrophic bacteria 3.1 × 10³/g, heat-resistant bacteria 2.1 × 10³/g Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23/g. That for beans was 6.3 × 10²/g, psychrophile 34/g, heterotroph 1.7 × 10²/g. That for sesames was 1.4 × 10^5/g, coliform 350/g, psychrophile 7.4 × 10⁴/g, heterotroph 5.8 × 10⁴/g, Pseud. aeruginosa 2.3 × 10³/g. heat-resistant bacteria 150/g. That for potatoes was 2.0 × 10^7/g, coliform 5.0 × 10⁴/g, psychrophile 1.8 × 10^7/g, heterotroph 1.4 × 10^7/g, heatresistant bacteria 3.3 × 10¹/g, Staphylococcus 2.7 × 10^5/g, fecal streptococcus 4.5 × 10³/g, Pseud. aeruginosa 7.0 × 10³/g. That for mushrooms was 1.2 × 10^8/g, psychrophile 9.4 × 10^7/g, heterotroph 1.0 × 10^9/g, heat-resistant bacteria 1.6 × 10^5/g, Pseud. aeruginosa 1.3 × 10³/g. That for vegetables was 5.9 × 10^(11)/g, coliform 1.8 × 10^6/g, psychrophile 1.1 × 10²/g, heterotroph 8.4 × 10^(11)/g, heatresistant bacteria 7.6 × 10^6/g, Staphylococcus 1.1 × 10^7/g, fecal streptococcus l.1 × 10⁴/g, Pseud. aeruginosa 5.2 × 10⁴/g. That for nuts 3.9 × 10⁴/g, coliform 3.9 × 10³/g, psychrophile 4.0 × 10^8/g, heterotroph 3.2 × 10^8/g, heat-resistant bacteria 400/g. In commercial grains and beans, SPC, psychrophile, heterotroph and heat-resistant bacteria stored at 10℃, 20℃, 30℃ were constant. Staphylococcus, coliform, Pseud. aeruginosa were decreased a little in grains, but were not detected in beans. In mushrooms, all indicator organisms were increased as time goes on and were increased rapidly at 20. In sesames, coliform was not detected at all temperature. psychrophile was increased for 7 days, the otners were constant. In potatoes, SPC, psychrophile, heat-resistant bacteria, heterotroph had a tendency to increase and the others were constant. In vegetables, indicator organisms were had a tendency to increase, psychrophile, heterotroph were rapidly increased after 7 days. In nuts, SPC, coliform, psychrophile, heterotroph, heat-resistant bacteria, Pseud. aeruginosa were constant, staphylococcus and fecal streptococcus were not detected.
Effect of storage temperature, washing, and cooking on postharvest-treated pesticide residues in polished rice was investigated. After being traeted with each 500 mg/kg of captan, carbaryl, phenthoate, fenthion, fenitrothion, chlorpyriphos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, the polished rice was stored for 8 weeks at 4 and 30℃, respectively. The penetation rate of carbaryl was the highest as 27.5% and the others, 13 to 18%. The half lives of pesticide residues were estimated as 30 to 230 weeks at 4℃, but 1 to 12 weeks at 30℃. The residues were reduced faster at 30℃ than at 4℃. The half lives of pesticide residues by water washing were estimated as 0.7 to 4.6 trials and the residues were removed with the washing trials. The residues of captan and carbaryl in cooked rice were removed 100 and 98%, respectively, comparing to initial residues concentration in treated rice but those of other 5 pesticides were removed 80%.
The baking property, chemical composition, instrumental characteristics and sensory quality of yeast breads containing various mixing percentage of Job's-tears flour with wheat flour were studied. The loaf volume and baking quality of the yeast bread made from mixing of 30% Job's-tears flour were similar to those of wheat flour bread. The contents of crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash in Job's-tears flour breads were much higher than those of wheat flour bread. Instrumental rheological characteristics of the yeast breads were measured with a Texture Analyzer. As the addition level of Job's-tears flours increased, hardness of the yeast breads increased but fracturability, adhesiveness, springness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience decreased. The results of sensory evaluation revealed that Job's-tears flour was added to wheat flour at a replacement level of 10% without a large adverse effect on flavor, taste, mouthfeel and aftertaste.
he purpose of this experiment was to examine the antimicrobial effect of the natural flavonoid hesperidin on dental caries and alveolar bone resorption in the albinorats. Twenty five day old male rats were fed with the experimental diets for 42 days. At the end of the 42 day experimental period, the molar tooth occlusal surface was examined by a dissecting microscope. The sulcular caries lesions were recorded: the first molar caries incidence was higher than that of the second molar and the third molar. Alvelolar bone resorption was measured on the buccal and lingual aspects of each molars. Three measurements were taken on the first molar (mesialpoint, midpoint, distalpoint). The results of this experiment, showed that hesperidin is effective in reducing dental caries and alveolar bone resorption.
Phytic acid, making up 1-5% of the composition of many plant seeds and cereals, is known to form iron-chelates and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as an indication of lipid peroxidation, were measured in beef round, chicken breast, pork loin, and halibut muscle after the meats were stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at various temperatures [frozen (-20℃), refrigerator (4℃), and room temperature (25℃)]. Phytic acid effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation in beef round, chicken breast, halibut, and pork loin muscle (p$lt;0.05). The inhibitory effect of phytic acid was dependent on concentration, storage time, and temperature. At frozen temperature, the inhibitory effect of phytic acid was minimal, whereas at room temperature, the inhibitory effect of phytic acid was maximal, probably due to the variation of the control TBARS values. At the concentration of 10 mM, phytic acid completely inhibited lipid peroxidation in all the muscle foods by maintaining TBARS values close to the level of the controls, regardless of storage time or temperature (p$lt;0.05). The rate of lipid peroxidation was the highest in beef round muscle, although they had a close TBARS value at 0 day. Addition of phytic acid to lipid-containing foods such as meats, fish meal pastes, and canned seafoods may prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in improvement of the sensory quality of many foods and prolonged shelf-life.
A survey was conducted to investigate the attitudes of public officials related to food hygiene toward food safety. The official groups were divided into four sub-groups based on their area, agency, gender and age. Response of each group to the survey was statistically analysed. The survey's results showed that most of them (87.0%) were satisfied with a domestic level of food hygiene. But, some of them (29.8%) considered unsatisfactoryly on safety of the food they eat. Their response to food safety did not statistically significant between each group of area, agency and age but, in case of gender, female group showed stastically more negative attitude to food safety than male one (P$lt;0.05). All groups chose residues of chemical substances such as pesticides and food additives as the most potential food risk factor followed by foodborne pathogens, heavy metals and animal drug residues. The results are not consistent with the scientific judgement. Therefore, more education and information were needed for these groups. They pointed out food manufacturer as a responsible group for poor food hygiene (48.7%). In addition, food manufacture and processing were selected as main business types with the lowest level in the food hygiene but official, working in the area of the central government and Seoul metropolitan city, pointed out food services establishments as the poorest hygiene one (P$lt;0.01). This result suggested that education and information to let mind of responded groups change, working in this part, and governmental financial support are needed to improve hygiene level of food manufacture and processing (70.3%). They also chose HACCP as the most effective way for improving the level of food hygiene followed by Recall, PL (Product Liability), monitoring, labeling and increasing of number of company with good manufacture and processing (GMP).
The purpose of this study was to examine the increased bone loss caused by ovariectomy through monitoring the concentrations of the collagen and the pyridinoline crosslinks of collagen. The ovariectomized rats treated for 8 weeks, were divided at random into two or three groups of 10. Ovariectomies were carried out from the saline-treated group (Ovx), the estrogentreated group (Ovx+ES) and chondroitin sulfate-treated group (Ovx+CS). Sham operations were performed on the sham-operated group (Sham). Ovx+ES and Ovx+CS groups showed the remarkably increased collagen and pyridinoline amount in the bone and cartilage compared to Ovx group. And as the result of the measurement of SOD, Catalase and GPx which are antioxidant enzyme, SOD and Catalase activities in Ovx group were much higer than in Sham group. But they were significantly decreased in Ovx+CS group. Based on these results, it is supposed that estrogen and condroitin sulfate can enhance collagen synthesis and affect the pyridinoline formation in collagen fibrils through stimulating lysyl oxidase activity. And it is also thought that chondroitin sulfate can inhibit aging by reducing antioxidant enzyme.
6-(4-Iodophenyl)amino-7-chloro-5,8-quinolinedione (RCK9) was evaluated for antifungal activities. The MIC values of RCK9 were determined against A. flavus, C. albicans, C. neoformans and F. oxysporium. The RCK9 showed generally potent antifungal activities against the tested fungi. Acute oral toxicity studies of RCK9 were carried out in ICR mice of both sexes. These acute oral toxicities of RCK9 were low and LDSO values were over 2,850 mg/kg in ICR mice. The genotoxicities of RCK9 had been evaluated. RCK9 was negative in Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium and chromosomal aberration test in CHL cells. The clastogenicity was tested on the RCK9 with in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. RCK9 did not show any clastogenic effect in mouse peripheral blood and was negative in mouse micronucleus assay. The results indicate that RCK9 has no genotoxic potential under these experimental conditions.
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is known as a potential hepatic carcinogen by single administration. This study was designed to measure the effects of DEN-induced cell damage on the triglyceride and cholesterol concentration in the liver, excluding dietary effects. Fertilized chicken eggs, 10 days before hatching, were randomly divided into three groups (n=20) and each egg was injected 10 ul of corn oil (vehicle control), 5 ug of DEN/10 ul and 10 ug of DEN/10 ul into yolk via air sac. After 48 hr and 96 hr incubation, the damage of the chick-embryo liver cell was investigated by electron microscopy and by measuring the concentration of lipid components (total cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipid and triglyceride). For eggs administered 10 ug of DEN and incuvated 96 hr, in hepatocyte, the nucleus membrane was roughed, the size of nucleolus was apparently increased and euchromatin was accumulated. Mitochondria were condensed and cristae, located mitochondrial inner membrane, were obscured. Additionally, the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol classes were significantly increased depend on the amount of DEN and incubation time. Especially, triglycerides were notably increased in the group treated with 10 ug DEN at 96 hr, but phospholipids, component of cell membrane, were decreased with significance. As a conclusion, carcinogen induced hepatic lesion was correlated with the changes in lipid component of liver.
The new approach using the Peak Pattern Method was conducted for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the papers or paper products to provide certain hygienic data for the recycled papers as well as white papers. The height of the each peak, obtained from the PCBs standards, was transformed to the spectrum to compare with that of the samples. In addition to the results of the single PCBs standards, the pattern of mixed PCBs standards with the adequate concentration and ratios were obtained prior to the analysis of the paper samples. The test showed excellent repetition within 5% variation, and the recoveries of PCBs ranged from 92% to 97%. The PCBs, considered as a hazard material, were analyzed using the Peak Pattern Method from six different types of paper samples including the roll tissue. It could not find the same pattern of the PCBs peaks from all of the paper samples.
Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for the determination of 6 standard solvents (methanol, isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, cyclohexane, toluene) in food packaging materials. SPME method is a solvent-free sample preparation technique in which a fizsed silica fiber coated with polymeric organic liquid is introduced into the headspace above the sample. SPME method using fiber coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was compared with static headspace (SHS) method used as a reference. It was found that the optimal adsorption condition using PDMS-SPME method was 20 for 15 minutes for the standard solvents. Detection limits, linearity, reproducibility, and recovery of both SHS and PDMS-SPME methods have been determined using 6 standard solvents. Both methods were characterized by high reproducibility and good linearity. Using SHS method, the mean recovery of the 6 standard solvents was ranged from 75.5% to 105.8% with a mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.3% to 4.8%. With PDMS-SPME method, the mean recovery of the 6 standard solvents was ranged from 86.7% to 108.3% with a mean RSD of 0.4% to 2.5%. The detection limits of both methods were the same for toluene, cyclohexane and methyl ethyl ketone; those of PDMS-SPME method were higher than those of SHS method for methanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate. PDMS-SPME fiber showed excellent adsorption for non-polar solvents such as toluene, while it showed relatively low adsorption for polar solvents such as methanol.
Octenylsuccinated corn starches prepared by reaction of corn starch with 1octenylsuccinic anhydride(OSAn) and their degree of substitution (DS), reaction efficiency(RE), residual octenylsuccinic acid (OSA), and physicochemical properties were compared with those of the native corn starch. DS increased with increase of OSAn and RE was much nearly the same regardless of increase of OSAn. The content of residual OSA was significantly lower than that of regulation of food additives. And as washing frequency of dispersion of the reactant was increased, the content of residual OSA of octenylsuccinated starch was decreased. Rapid Visco-Analyzer initial pasting temperature and setback of octenylsuccinated starches decreased whereas peak viscosity and breakdown increased. When DS of octenylsuccinated starches increased, temperature of initial gelatinization of octenylsuccinated starches drastically decreased. The octenylsuccinated starches also formed clearer pastes. The solubility was much nearly the same regardless of increase of DS at 70℃ but the swelling power increased about 1.2-1.7 times higher than that of native corn starch at 70℃. The water binding capacity of octenylsuccinated starches also decreased.
Biodegradable films were prepared by solution blending method in the weight ratio of Chitosan and Algin for the purpose of useful bioimplants. The possibility of bioimplants, which prepared from natural polymers as a akin substitute and food wrapping materials were evaluated by measuring the biodegradability. these biodegradable films were inserted in the back of rats and their biodegradability was investigated by hematological change as a function of time. Rats study showed that low-Chitosan induced increments of monocyte and basophil after 48 hours of implantation. And medium-Chitosan showed increase of lymphocyte and decreased neutrophil counts after 48hours of implantation. Low, medium Chitosan showed high hemoglobin contents, medium and high Chitosan showed high hematocrit value after 48 hours of implantation. As a result, medium, high-Chitosan induced potential incompatibility in the tissue after 48 hours, but there was little effects to the akin inflammation. The values of biodegradable films, which prepared from natural polymers measured in this study were some satisfiable results at short period with those of ideal akin bioimplants and artificial skin.
This study was carried out to isolate and identify Salmonella species from poultry slaughterhouses and pork meat processing plants during the period from January 1997 to August 1998, and analyze resistance of antimicrobial agents and plasmid profiles of isolated Salmonella strains. A total of 15 Salmonella strains was isolated from poultry carcasses, swine carcasses, pork meats and cutting boards. Identified Salmonella strains were S. typhimurium, S. heidelberg, S. hilingdon, S. mbandaka, and S. virginia. Ten (66.7%) of 15 Salmonella strains showed resistance to antimicrobial agents and five strains (33.3%) of them were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Plasmids were isolated from three Salmonella isolates which had two or more plasmids.
This study was conducted to find out the proper ways of implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concepts applicable to the current Korean food inspection system. The following recommendations are based on an in-depth review of the Canadian Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP), which is one of the leading HACCP programs adapted to the food industry. Since 1997, the HACCP system has been voluntarily applied to meat processing plants in Korea in accordance with the Food Protection Law. But the guidelines are obscure and inadequate to expand to the diversity of food plants, and are therefore only applied to a limited number of plants of small scale enterprise. For these reasons, it is necessary to prepare an enhanced food safety control program focused not only on the HACCP plants but also on the non-HACCP plants. The national program should be the fundamental framework of a food safety control policy enforced by all the relevant authorities. The Prerequiste Program of Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) of FSIS are good example programs for the non-HACCP plants. These programs, which are a major part of the HACCP system, could easily be adapted to the Korean food industry. To improve the current HACCP implementation guideline, it is necessary to develop a detailed implementation manual, generic HACCP model, training program, and an audit program.
The cholesterol-lowering effect of a fermented milk was studied for long-term period (56 weeks) in 206 Korean adults (106 normal cholesterol group and 100 hypercholestrol group). 300 ml of the fermented milk was taken daily to all subjects for 10 weeks. 24 subjects drinking the fermented milk for 56 weeks and 42 subjects no-drinking for 40 weeks and then redrinking from 50 th week for 6 weeks were followed up. Paired t-test, Duncan's multiple range test, and GLM repeated measure were used for statistical analysis. The level of total blood cholesterol and LDL after drinking the fermented milk for 10 weeks were decreased significantly in both group and affected by total cholesterol level at baseline, BMI, smoking, and drinking. There is no significant change in triglyceride, HDL, and LDL/HDL ratio by drinking the fermented milk. The fermented milk intake for long-term period (56 weeks) did not show any more effect after 10 week on the level of TC, TG, HDL, LDL.