We surveyed the sanitary conditions for 17 cold and frozen food storage warehouses in Korea,using the following 5 inspections items: “putting into warehouse (A)”, “prevention of cross-contamination (B)”, “storage management (C)”, “temperature control (D)”, and “management of records and documents (E)”, We included 20detailed items. The results of distribution for frequency by five major inspection items showed that “(E)” was the highest,the next “(D)”, “(C)”; and “(B)” was the lowest. In the correlation of inspection scores between total scores, “(B)”and “(C)” were highly related to the total score, therefore, the higher score of “(B)” or “(C)”, the higher for the total score. In details of inspection items, “the management of cross-contamination upon taking product out of the warehouse”had the lowest score with a mean, of 2.67 ± 1.80, and also ranked as first of the 20 items.
Produce, including leafy vegetables, has been implicated in several outbreaks of food illness. To evaluate microbiological safety of lettuce and it’s cultivation area, a total of 147 samples were collected from lettuce farms and post harvest facility at Icheon, Gyeonggi province. The collected samples were assessed for presence of sanitary indicator microorganisms (Aerobic plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli) and foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus). The population of APC was over 4.0 log CFU from most of the samples. While the numbers of APC, and coliform of lettuce at 62 days after transplanting were 4.18 log CFU/g, and 1.00 log CFU/g, respectively, those of 10 days after transplanting were 5.37 log CFU/g, and 2.87 log CFU/g, respectively. B. cereus was highly detected from soil and balance which were contaminated with 3.5 log CFU/g, and 2.6 log CFU/100 cm2, respectively. The number of E. coli recovered from gloves was 3.5 log CFU/hand. However, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and L. monocytogenes were not detected. These data suggested that risk management system should be introduced to lettuce farms to enhance safety of lettuce.
This study was to evaluate the growth potential of E. coli O157:H7 in lettuce leaf extracts and on lettuce leaf surface at various temperatures. The pathogen can survive and multiply in the extracts and leaf surface of lettuce. The population of E. coli O157:H7 in the lettuce extracts reached to 4.79 log CFU/mL at 37℃. The multiplication of pathogen in lettuce extracts initiated within 10 hours of inoculation over 15℃ conditions. And it can survive in the lettuce leaf extracts at 4℃ for 100 hours at least. And this pathogen can multiply on lettuce leaf surface and the population of pathogen on the lettuce leaf surface increased to 1.82 log CFU/g at 25℃. At 37℃, the pathogen density increased to 1.53 CFU/g within 3 days after inoculation. At all temperature, irrespective of the inoculation level, similar trends in growth of E. coli O157:H7 were observed. These results emphasize the growth potential of E. coli O157:H7 in lettuce leaf extract and on lettuce leaf surface. To reduce the risk of outbreak, it is important to maintain the cold chain system during storage before the consumption.
One of the most important objectives of post-marketing monitoring of dietary supplements is the early detection of unknown and unexpected adverse events (AEs). Several causality algorithms, such as the Naranjo scale, the RUCAM scale, and the M&V scale are available for the estimation of the likelihood of causation between a product and an AE. Based on the existing algorithms, the Korea Food & Drug Administration has developed a new algorithm tool to reflect the characteristics of dietary supplements in the causality analysis. However, additional work will be required to confirm if the newly developed algorithm tool has reasonable sensitivity and not to generate an unacceptable number of false positives signals.
This study surveyed and compared the temperatures established in display stands and food surfaces for cold and frozen foods in large discount stores in Korea. The temperatures established in display stands for cold food ranged with 3.5 ± 1.8 ℃ as mean, minimum and maximum were 0 ℃ and 7 ℃ . However, the surface temperatures of cold food on sale ranged with 10.7 ± 2.9 ℃ as a mean, minimum 4.6 ℃ and maximum 18.4 ℃ . Totally, the surface temperature of cold food on sale was 7.2 ℃ , as a mean, higher than established in display stands for cold food in large discount stores in Korea. 53% of the surveyed cold foods were more than 10 ℃ in surface temperature and only 47% was less than 10 ℃ . The differences between temperatures were lowest in fruits, salads and vegetables, but highest in milk products. On the other hand, the temperatures established in display stands for frozen food showed a range with −20.7 ± 1 ℃ as a mean. However, the surface temperatures of frozen food on sale showed a range with −15.4 ±5 ℃ as a mean, minimum −28 ℃ and maximum −4.6 ℃ (included defrosting). The surface temperatures of frozen food,frozen meats, frozen processed foods and ice creams were −13.8 ℃ , −15.9 ℃ , and −16.8 ℃ , respectively. Only 32.3%of surveyed frozen foods showed less than −18 ℃ in surface temperature. In conclusion, the temperatures established on cold and frozen food display stands were less than those of cold and frozen food surfaces on sale. There was also much variation in food surface temperatures during cold and frozen food storage and sales. Therefore, a temperature management system technology use at the distribution level for cold and frozen foods will be developed.
This study was performed to investigate contamination levels of aflatoxins, the secondary metabolites produced by fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, in herbal medicine. Herbs is susceptible to these fungi infections through its growth harvest, transport and storage. This study determine the aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂levels by HPLC-florescence detector coupled with photochemical enhancement in 558 samples herbal medicine distributed in Korea and China. Also, We checked a transfer ratio of aflatoxins from raw herbal medicines to herbal medicine extract. Hot water extraction of herbal medicines was prepared by air pressure and high pressure condition. The analytical method for aflatoxins was validated in this method. In results recoveries of the analytical method were ranged from 67.4% to 96.2% and, limits of detection and quantitation for aflatoxins were 0.015~0.138 μg/kg and 0.046~0.418 μg/kg, respectively. According to the results of monitoring on aflatoxins in herbal medicine, aflatoxins 1.7 ug/kg B1 and 0.9 ug/kg G₁were detected in only one sample of Strychni Ignatii Semen, and 0.8 ug/kg G₁ in Strychni Semen. About 13.6~51.3% of aflatoxins were transferred to hot water extract. Although the detected levels are under the permitted levels for aflatoxins in herbal medicine, these amounts should be considered in regard to overall daily exposure to mycotoxins.
This study was done to analyze the contents of minerals and vitamins to compare the measured values of minerals, vitamins with labeled values of them in food labeling and to investigate the ratio of measured values to labeled values in 437 specimen with minerals and vitamins - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas. Content of calcium and sodium in samples after microwave digestion was analyzed with an ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer) and vitamins were determined using by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The measured values of calcium were ranged 80.3~142.6% of the labeled values in 21 samples composed calcium - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas. In case of sodium, measured values were investigated 33.9~48.5% of the labeled values in 21 sports beverages. The measured values of vitamin C, vitamin B2and niacin were ranged 99.7~2003.6, 81.1~336.7, 90.7~393.2% of the labeled values in vitamins - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas, 57, 12, 11 samples. To support achievement of the accurate nutrition label, there must be program and initiatives for better understanding and guidances on food labelling and nutrition for food manufacture.
This study was performed to determine the transfer rates of each foodborne pathogen from pork meat packaging during the processing. We analyzed the transfer rate of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated pork meat to worker's hands (wearing polyethylene gloves, PEG; cotton gloves, CG; and bare hands), cutting boards and knives, and vice versa. Transfer rate of CG 100.00% was higher than that of bare hands 2.513% and PEG 1.511%. In particular, when wearing CG, the transfer rate from the CG to bare hands with CG was 0.08%. Also, the range of transfer rates from contaminated pork meat to cutting board and knife was 0.352-3.791%. In contrast, transfer rates from the workers’ hands (with PEG/CG and bare hands) to cutting board, knife, and pork meat ranged from 0.001 to 0.141%. There was a lower transfer rate from workers’ hands than from pork meat. These findings indicate that use of PEG could effectively reduce or prevent the cross-contamination compared to CG and provide important information concerning the consecutive transfer of L. monocytogenes during food processing.
This study was carried out to investigate efficacy of aerosol sanitizer with natural antimicrobial and organic acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. The artificially inoculated pathogens on stainless steel coupon were treated with grapefruit seed extract (GFE), acetic acid,citric acid and lactic acid in model cabinet for 5 min. The number of three foodborne pathogens with individual treatment was reduced by 0.34-3.77 log units, treatment with GEF + organic acid was reduced by 1.72-3.89 log units and treatment with GEF + organic acid + alcohol was reduced by 1.46-5.05 log units. By treatment with GEF + lactic acid + alcohol in scale-up model system for 10 min. Populations of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were reduced by 3.42, 2.72 and 2.30 log units from the untreated control respectively. From the above result,aerosol sanitizer with natural antimicrobial agents and organic acid can be used as an environmental sanitation method with satisfying the consumer demand on safe food.
The quality properties of peeled ginger (PG) were investigated during CA storage at different CO₂concentrations. O₂ concentration was kept constant at 5% while CO₂of 6%, 14%, 22% and 30% were used. It was found that the weight loss rate tended to decrease with an increase of CO₂. In the case of fixed 10 ℃ storage, the Lvalue and a-value of the exterior color in treatment increased more than that of control with respect to time, while the b-value of the exterior color and the cutting plane color showed no significant difference. In the exterior color, the results of PG-25 ℃ showed similar with PG-10 ℃ except b-value of the exterior color which showed not a little change. The cutting plane color did not showed significantly difference in the PG samples between 25 ℃ and 10 ℃ . Hardness of the PG during storage was found to decrease most severely at 6% of CO₂concentration regardless of storage temperature. The growth of microorganisms during storage of the PG tended to be restrained as CO₂concentration increased. However, microorganisms, when maintained at 25 ℃ storage, multiplied rapidly to 10^8 CFU/g within 4 days regardless of concentration.
Our objective in this study is to assess the safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) fortified milk of dairy cows fed feeds containing protected fish oil treated with formaldehyde by analyzing formaldehyde concentration in commercial milk and DHA fortified milk of dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated feed. There are 3 milk samples in this study: Commercial milk (CM), DHA fortified milk for Kid (DHA-K) and DHA fortified milk for Baby (DHA-B). We confirm the fresh quality of these three samples by physicochemical tests. In fat content result, three groups are significantly different at the p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test, but fat content of group DHA-K is about half the level of the other two groups. Protein content of group DHA-K is 1% higher than other two groups. According to the analysis result of DHA content of DHA fortified milk, DHA content of DHA-B is two-fold higher than DHA-K. Similar pattern was seen in the intake based on age. According to HPLC analysis result of formaldehyde concentration in milk, commercial milk and DHA fortified milk are between 0.013 ppm and 0.057 ppm which is formaldehyde standard level in fresh milk settled in WHO (World Health Organization). Three groups have no significantly differences at the p < 0.05 by Duncan’s multiple range test. For this reason, it can be concluded that there is no transition of formaldehyde from dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated feeds to its produced milk. Safety about formaldehyde of DHA fortified milk of dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated feeds is considered similar to commercial milk.
This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant effects of 4 citrus fruits including Hallabong,Cheonhyehyang, Cheonggyeon, and Jinjihyang. In this study the citrus fruits were separated in three parts of peel, pulp segment membrane (PSM), and pulp and extracted with methanol, then concentrated using a rotary vacuum evaporator. Total polyphenol contents ranged 23.497~42.341 mg/g in peel, 13.285~21.872 mg/g in PSM and 6.333~11.627 mg/g in pulp of the citrus fruits. The total polyphenol contents were highest in the peel and PSM of Jinjihyang and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. 1,1-diphenyl-2picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were highest in the peel and PSM of Jinjihyang and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. 2,2’-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacities were also highest in the peel and PSM of Jinjihyang and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. Reducing powers were highest in the peel of Cheonggyeon, in the PSM of Jinjihyang,and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. There were significant correlations in between total polyphenol contents and the radical scavenging activities, and reducing power each other. These results indicate that the 4 citrus fruits (Hallabong, Cheonhyehyang, Cheonggyeon, and Jinjihyang) evidently have antioxidant capacities and their peel parts have the highest antioxidant activities.
To evaluate the indoor air quality of food manufacturing plants, the presence of viable bacteria and fungi was assessed in the indoor air of the facilities at which 9 food items were manufactured. Air samples were collected from the general zone, low clean zone and clean zone of each factory with an air sampler, in combination with plate counts agar using for bacteria, and dichloran-glycerol agar for fungi. The samples were incubated at 25℃for 4 to 7 days. After culture, the colony forming units (CFU) on each plate were counted and corrected with a positive hole conversion table. The average concentration of bacteria was 2.2 × 10³ CFU/㎥ in the general zone, 1.2 ×10³ CFU/㎥ in the low clean zone and 7.3 × 10² CFU/㎥ in the clean zone. The average concentration of fungal microbes was 2.5 × 10³ CFU/㎥ in the general zone, 2.6 × 10³ CFU/㎥ in the low clean zone, and 2.0 × 10² CFU/㎥in the clean zone. No meaningful differences were detected between the general zone and the low clean zone, but the clean zone had significantly lower concentrations than the other zones. Additionally, the identification of the fungi was performed according to morphological method using a giant culture and slide culture. The fungi were identified as belonging to 18 genera, and the genera Cladosporium(33%), Penicillium(29%) and Aspergillus(26%), predominated. Aspergillus isolates were identified to species level, and A. ochraceus, a mycotoxigenic species, was identified. As part of the effort to control the quality of the indoor air of food manufacturing plants, our results show that continued studies are clearly warranted.
In this study, the contamination levels of total aerobic bacteria, E. coli, total coliform and S. aureus of seasoned dried fishes (SDF) in Korea were investigated. A total of 81 SDF samples were purchased randomly from 28 stores. Contamination range of total aerobic bacteria, total coliform and S. aureus were 150~1,700,000, 10~31,000and 10~220 CFU/g, respectively. E. coli was detected in only one samples in the qualitative test. We have analyzed quantitatively Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE-type A, C and D) produced by S. aureus contaminated in SDF using a TECRA kit and standard curve. The curve equation was Y = 0.1499 * X + 0.1183 and maximum amount of SEs in SDF was 0.71 ng/ml. Reduction speed of S. aureus in SDF stored at 37 ℃ was the highest among the samples stored for 8 days at different temperature of 7, 18 and 37℃ . On the basis of the results, SDF in Korea can be contaminated by a variety of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, precautionary measures are necessary for consumer protection, including the improvement of sanitary conditions in the processing plants in Korea.
This study was performed to investigate the antioxidative effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort extracts (LCE) against the hyperlipidemia of high-fat diet-fed obese rats. The rats were divided into the three groups (normal group, control group and sample group) to perform the experimental research. 1.5 ml/kg of LCE was intraperitoneally administered into the sample group for 21 days. The equal dose of 0.9% saline was intraperitoneally administered into the normal group and the control group. On day 22, they were anesthetized with ether and dissected. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in serum of rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured in mitochondrial fraction. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and glutamate peroxidase (GPx) were determined in liver homogenate. High-fat diet markedly increased the levels of AST, ALT and MDA, significantly decreasing those of SOD, CAT and GPx. But Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort-pretreatment decreased the levels of AST, ALT, and MDA. increasing those of SOD, CAT and GPx. These results demonstrated the antioxidative effects, suggesting that LCE could be the candidate for the functional material.
This test was performed to evaluate the acute oral toxicity and skin irritation of Lamia-Kill®, disinfectant,containing 20% benzalkonium chloride and 10% citric acid. In acute oral toxicity, Lamia-Kill® was orally administered at dose levels of 2,000, 1,000, 500, 250 and 0 mg/kg body weight. After single oral administration to both sexes of SD rats, the rats were observed for 14 days. In primary skin irritation test, New Zealand white rabbits were dermally treated with Lamia-Kill® for 24 hr and observed for 3 days. All rats treated with Lamia-Kill® were induced no toxic signs in mortalities, clinical findings, body weights and gross findings. Also, the disinfectant did not induce any adverse reactions such as erythema and edema on intact skin sites for the most part rabbits, but on abraded skin sites, some rabbits showed very slight erythema on 24 hr after topical application. With the results of this study,Lamia-Kill® have no effect on acute toxicity and side effect in SD rats and was classified as a practically non-irritating material based on the score 0.50 of primary irritation index.
The levels of migration of 1-hexene and 1-octene residues in PE (polyethylene) products were analyzed by Headspace gaschromatography (HSGC). A total of 21 samples were including lap, polyglove, zipper bag and ect. The samples were eluted with distilled water, 4% acetic acid, 20% ethanol and n-heptan. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 mg/L ~ 0.30 mg/L and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.21 mg/L ~ 1.01 mg/L, respectively. But beacause of the high volatile, n-heptan elution was not detected 1-hexene and 1-octene standard. 1- hexene and 1-octene were not detected in the sample which eluted with simulant at 60℃, 30min. Microwave for 1 minute also treated sample and direct heated at 100℃ wthiout simulant were not detected.
Selenium (Se) is known to prevent from several cancers, while iron (Fe) is known to be associated with high risk of cancers. The role of Se on colon carcinogenesis was investigated in an animal model induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in low Fe mice. Six-week old ICR mice fed on a low Fe diet (4.5 ppm Fe; generally 10 times lower than normal Fe) with three different Se (0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 ppm) levels for 24weeks. The animals received weekly three (0~2nd weeks) i.p. injections of AOM (10 mg/kg B.W), followed by 2%DSS with drinking water for 1 week to induce the colon cancer. There were five experimental groups including vehicle,positive control (normal Fe level, AOM/DSS), Low Fe (LFe) + AOM/DSS+Low Se (LSe), LFe + AOM/DSS + medium Se (MSe) and LFe + AOM/DSS + high Se (HSe) groups. HSe group showed a 66.7% colonic tumor incidence, MSe group showed a 69.2% tumor incidence, and LSe group showed a 80.0% tumor incidence. The tumor incidence was negatively associated with Se levels of diets. Tumor multiplicity in Hse group was significantly low compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). With increasing Se levels of diets, the primary anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were decreased and apoptotic bodies were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Sedependent glutathione peroxidase activity and its protein level were dependent on the levels of Se of diets. Malondialdehyde level in liver was lowest in Hse group among experimental groups. These findings indicate that dietary Se is chemopreventive for colon cancer by increasing antioxidant activity and decreasing cell proliferation in Fe-deficient mice.
Cruciferous vegetables including diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to have anticancer activity. Especially, DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF used in this study was reported to have more effective and less toxic effects than DIM. However, there is no report presenting their anti-tumorigenic activity in oral cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells. DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis evidenced by western blot analysis, DAPI staining and sub-G1 population. This provides the first evidence that DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF originating from cruciferous vegetables induce apoptotic cell death in human oral cancer cells to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.
The removal amount of pesticide residue which were remained in baechu (Chinese cabbage) and perilla leaf were measured during the preparation process of kimchi. The amounts of diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan applied to chinese cabbage were 9.18 ± 0.03 mg/kg, 22.27 ± 0.22 mg/kg and 10.46 ± 0.02 mg/kg respectively. When chinese cabbage was brined with 10% salt solution for 12 hours, the removal rates of three pesticides were 22.5%, 25.3% and 0.6% for diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan, respectively. When chinese cabbage was brined and rinsed 3 times with water, the removal rates of three pesticides were 69.9%, 85.6% and 11.2% for diazinon,procymidone and endosulfan, respectively. When kimchi was prepared and fermented for 28 days at 4oC, the removal rates of three pesticides were 79.4%, 94.4% and 21.0% for diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan, respectively. The relative percentages of removal dose of pesticides during brining were 28.4%, 26.9% and 3.2% for diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan, respectively and which were 59.7%, 63.8% and 50.4% during rinsing and which were 11.9%,9.3% and 46.4% during fermentation, respectively. The amounts of diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan applied to perilla leaf were 18.11 ± 0.62 mg/kg, 31.80 ± 0.33 mg/kg and 12.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. When perilla leaf was rinsed 3 times with water, the removal rates of three pesticides were 60.5%, 52.0% and 23.7% for diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan, respectively. When perilla leaf was rinsed and brined with 10% salt solution for 14 days, the removal rates of three pesticides were 93.9%, 92.4% and 49.6% for diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan, respectively. The relative percentages of removal dose of pesticides during rinsing were 64.5%, 56.3% and 47.8% for diazinon,procymidone and endosulfan, respectively, and which during brining were 35.5%, 43.7% and 52.2% for diazinon, procymidone and endosulfan, respectively.