The world is becoming overwhelmed with widespread diseases as antibiotic resistance increases at an alarming rate. Hence, there is a demanding need for the discovery and development of new antimicrobial drugs. The ocean is gifted with many organisms like phytoplankton, algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, mollusk, tunicates and echinoderms, which are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites with pharmacological properties. Many new therapeutic drugs have emerged from marine invertebrates, although the large algal community is yet to be explored. The bioactivity possessing secondary metabolites of marine algae include polyphenols, phlorotannins, alkaloids, halogenated compounds, sulfated polysaccharides, agar, carrageenan, proteoglycans, alginate, laminaran, rhamnan sulfate, galactosylglycerol, and fucoidan. These metabolites have been found to have great antimicrobial activities against many human aliments. Studies show that the algal community represents about 9% of biomedical compounds obtained from the sea. This review looks at the evolution of drugs from the ocean, with a special emphasis on the antimicrobial activities of marine algae.
The objective of this study was to find out a nomenclature and a code number for fruit commodities from the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) corresponding with a commodity name used in South Korea. In addition, nomenclature or classification for commodity that needs an alteration or detailed examination domestically was determined. In this study, ‘Food Code (Korean and English version)’ and ‘Pesticide MRLs in Food’ from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and ‘Codex Classification of Foods and Animal Feeds’ were used. As results, regarding a nomenclature or classification used in South Korea, it appeared that alteration or further examination was needed for the following (English name of commodity, coming from an English version of Food Code). First, reconsiderations for classification of Chinese matrimony vine, fig, five-flavor magnolia vine, and pomegranate are needed as they are classified differently between Korea and Codex. Second, in any case of Korean or English language, nomenclature of commodity is different even within Korea or when it is compared with Codex. Such commodities are: Asian citron, Chinese bush cherry, Chinese matrimony vine, coconut, crimson glory vine, date palm, five-flavor magnolia vine, five-leaf chocolate vine, Japanese apricot, Japanese cornelian cherry, jujube, kiwifruit (golden kiwi), Korean black berry, Korean raspberry, kumquat, lychee, mandarin, persimmon, plum, quince, raspberry, and trifoliate orange. Third, reconsiderations for peach and raspberry nomenclatures are needed as it is currently unclear whether ‘peach’ includes nectarine and an English nomenclature, ‘raspberry’, is used in Korea for both various varieties (red, black) and one specific variety.
The use of microwave-assisted extraction and an acid-base clean-up process to determine the amount of methylmercury (MeHg) in marine products was suggested in order to improve the complicated sample preparation process. The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction was developed by using a 10% NaCl solution as an extraction solution, setting the extraction temperature at 50℃, and holding for 15 minutes to extract the MeHg in marine products. A NaOH solution was selected as a clean-up substitute instead of L-cysteine solution. Overall, 670 samples of marine products were analyzed for total mercury (Hg). Detection levels were in the range of 0.0006~0.3801 μg/kg. MeHg was analyzed and compared using the current food code and the proposed method for 49 samples which contained above 0.1 mg/kg of Hg. Detection ranges of methylmercury followed by the Korea Food Code and the proposed method were 75.25 (ND~516.93) μg/kg and 142.07 (100.14~244.55) μg/kg, respectively. The total analytical time of proposed method was reduced by more than 25% compared with the current food code method.
The aim of the present work was to develop simultaneous methods of quantification of carazolol, azaperone, and azaperol residues in livestock and fishery products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted from beef, pork, chicken, egg, milk and shrimp using acetonitrile (ACN); while flat fish and eel were extracted using 80% ACN. For purification, ACN saturated n-hexane was used to remove fat composition. The standard calibration curves showed good linearity as correlation coefficients; r 2 was > 0.99. Average recoveries expressed were within the range of 67.9-105% for samples fortified at three different levels (0.5 × MRL, 1 × MRL and 2 × MRL). The correlation coefficient expressed as precision was within the range of 0.55- 7.93%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.0002-0.002 mg/kg. The proposed analytical method showed high accuracy and acceptable sensitivity based on Codex guideline requirements (CAC/GL71-2009). This method can be used to analyze the residue of carazolol, azaperone, and azaperol in livestock and fishery products.
The purpose of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb) that is specific to mackerel thermal stable-soluble protein (TSSP), that can be used for the rapid detection of mackerel in processed marine foods. Among the four MAbs (3A5-1, 2, 9, and 12) developed in previous studies, the 3A5-2 MAb that showed high specificity and sensitivity were selected and used to develop the indirect ELISA method. The detection range of the indirect ELISA was 0.02%-0.001% and the detection limit of 0.001% was shown. No cross-reaction to other marine products and food ingredients was observed by the indirect ELISA. Processed marine foods containing mackerel with ≥ 0.3 O.D. value at 405 nm were estimated as positive samples by the indirect ELISA. Therefore, the indirect ELISA can be used as a rapid and sensitive method to identify mackerel authenticity and adulteration in processed marine foods.
In this study, PAT protein of genetically modified maize was prepared from the recombinant E. coli strain BL21 (DE3), and mice were immunized with the recombinant PAT protein. After cell fusion and cloning, two hybridoma cells (PATmAb-7 and PATmAb-12) were chosen since the monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) produced by them were confirmed to be specific to PAT protein in the indirect enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot tests. There were no cross-reactions of either Mabs to other GM proteins or to the extracts of non-GM maize. The ELISA based on the PATmAb-7 can sensitively detect 0.3 ng/g PAT protein in corn. These results indicate that the developed Mabs can be used as bio-receptors in the development of immunosensors and biosensors for the rapid and simple detection of GM corn adulterated in foods.
This study was to investigate the optimal condition of mixture ratio for development of functional food ingredient from Sarcodon aspratus and rice bran. First, oBrix was measured along with extraction time. Five kinds of mixtures of Sarcodon aspratus and rice bran (10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) were extracted in 95oC water over a one-hour period and the extraction yield was evaluated. We further evaluated β-glucan content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content and total flavonoids content. As a result, both Sarcodon aspratus and rice bran showed a constant oBrix after 45 minutes of extraction time. The content of β-glucan was highest in the Sarcodon aspratus and rice bran mixture with a ratio of 3:7. As the ratio of rice bran increased in all mixtures, the antioxidant capacity also increased. In conclusion, to create a functional food ingredient the optimal mixing ratio of Sarcodon aspratus to rice bran is 3:7.
This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity of Litsea japonica fruit-hexane extract (LJF-HE). In order to examine the genotoxicity, we carried out bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and a micronucleus induction (MN) test according to the OECD and the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) toxicity test guidelines. In the bacterial reverse mutation assay, no significant increase in revertant colonies, nor bacterial toxicity, was observed in the LJF-HE treatment group, regardless of the absence or presence of metabolic activation by the S9 mixture. However, in the positive control group, revertant colony counts were shown to be more than twice that of the negative control group. The chromosome aberration test showed that the repetition rate of abnormal chromosome aberration was less than 5%, regardless of the treatment time, and with or without the S9 mixture. No significant change was observed when (p < 0.05) compared with the negative control group. The micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) repetition rate of the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) showed no significant changes when compared with the negative control group (p < 0.05). The PCE portion of total erythrocytes also showed no significant changes (p < 0.05). These results showed that LJF-HE had no significant genotoxic effects.
The present study was carried out to investigate the acute oral toxicity of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) essential oil in ICR male and female mice. Acute oral treatment with C. obtusa essential oil did not reveal any sign of toxicity or mortality in treated mice. Mouse body weights were not affected after single oral administration of C. obtusa essential oil during the 14-day observation period. In the hematological and blood biochemical analysis, all parameters of the treated group with 2,000 mg/kg body weight of the essential oil were not significantly different those of the control group. Therefore, the lethal dose 50 of the essential oil was estimated to be greater than 2,000 mg/ kg body weight in mice, which indicated that the essential oil is non-toxic. In conclusion, this study suggests that C. obtusa essential oil orally safe ICR mice.