The human information processing center “memory” is defined as the process of encoding – storage – retrieval of external stimuli (information). Considering that all learning begins with memories, the teaching-learning design should present an efficient methodology without biasing the learner’s cognitive process step by step. Based on this information processing theory, this study systematically considered the following three aspects: First, an efficient teaching-learning model is designed by focusing on the input (listening) and output (writing) of the second foreign language on the premise of facilitating communication, which is the goal of language learning. Second, we will try to implement the structuring and systematization of knowledge, which is the ultimate goal of learning, through language learning. Lastly, in applying this to actual classes, based on the constructivism epistemology, the REACT model (Crawford, 2001) - Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating, Transferring - is borrowed, through which the lecture is conducted. The survey was also conducted for analyzing students’ perceptions of the learning methodology and got meaningful results from students’ lecture evaluations.
We analyzed work safety risk factors, which are likely to occur during fishing in gillnet fishing vessels using the written verdict of the Korea Maritime Safety Tribunal from 2016 to 2020, and considered work safety management. Of the total of 37 fatal accidents, three cases in the East Sea, six cases in the South Sea, and 28 cases in the West Sea were very frequent. The accident rate per vessel by sea area (%) was 0.08% in East Sea, 0.12% in South Sea, and 0.40% in the West Sea. Based on the East Sea, the number of fatal accidents was 1.6 times higher in the South Sea and 5.4 times higher in the West Sea. Six cases (16.2%) occurred during departure and preparation for fishing in the fishing process, and all other 31 cases (83.8%) occurred during fishing operation. In the order of accident types, 21 cases (56.8%) of being struck by object, eight cases (21.6%) of contact with machinery and six cases (16.2%) of falls from height were found to be fatal accidents in gillnet fishery. Human factors, such as fishers’ carelessness and negligent safety management by captain accounted for 27 cases (73.0%) of the main cause, and 35 cases (94.6%) of the secondary cause. In addition to human factors such as fisher’s carelessness and negligent safety management by captain, mechanical factors, environmental factors and management factors must be improved together to reduce human casualties. These results are expected to be utilized as basic data for reducing safety accidents during the work of fishers.
우리나라 원양산업은 대중성 수산물 공급 및 식량안보에 중요한 역할을 하고 있다. IMO를 비롯한 각국에서는 어선의 국제적으 로 통일된 안전 기준 마련을 위하여 노력하였고, ‘1977년 어선안전 토레몰리노스 협약’ 채택을 시작으로 ‘2012 케이프 타운 협정’ 채택을 하였으나 발효 요건을 충족하지 못하고 있다. 그러나 2019 토레몰리노스 선언으로 협정의 발효가 가시화되었고, 우리나라도 협정 비준을 앞두고 있으며 원양어선이 협정의 적용 대상이 된다. 2012 케이프 타운 협정은 적용 대상 기준을 선체의 길이 또는 총톤수를 선택할 수 있고, 현존선에 대해서도 일부 적용이 된다. 현존선에 대한 영향을 확인하기 위하여 한국원양산업협회 회원으로 등록된 원양어선 188척을 대상으로 분석한 결과 총톤수 적용이 협정 비준에 미치는 영향이 적은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 Two-way VHF, Radar transponder 등 GMDSS 설비의 강제화 및 선원들의 안전 친숙화 등의 대한 법령 개정이 필요한 것으로 식별되었다. 산업계에서는 협정에서 요구하는 설비의 비 치와 어선원의 안전 친숙화가 필요하다.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of admission and employment in fisheries high schools (FHS) and to consider ways to revitalize FHS through substantialization. The recruitment rate of new students in FHS decreased from 97.4% in 2016 to 83.2% in 2020. The aging training ship that FHS needs to improve most urgently is being jointly used by FHS across the country, and the construction of a joint training ship managed by the Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology is being promoted. The average employment rate for FHS by year was 40.2-59.4%, and the fisheries-related employment rate was low at 31.0-38.9%. On the other hand, the acquisition rate of certificate of competence was 37.5-52.0%, and the rate of employment on board of those who obtained the certificate of competence was 42.9-59.8%. In order to secure new students and improve the recruitment rate, we operate experiential classrooms that reflect the characteristics of training ships and departments and conduct public relations activities using sns, publicity video ucc, YouTube, etc. It will be necessary to expand opportunities for fisheries-related vocational experience through active career exploration and elective courses in the FHS credit system. Finally, it is judged that fisheries related government agencies, industries and local governments need to improve their awareness of FHS and plan to support fisheries manpower nurturing in order to attempt the vitalization of FHS.
본 연구는 LED 조명의 파장이 육용종계의 생산성, 번식호르몬, 면역 수준 및 행동에 미치는 영향을 확인하고자 실시하였다. 25주령 아바에이커 192수를 공시하였다. 처리구는 백색(5,000 K), 녹색(520 nm), 황색(570 nm) 및 적색(620 nm) LED 전구를 사용하여 처리구당 6반복, 반복당 8수씩 임의 배치하였으며, 15주간 사양실험을 실시하였다. 산란율은 적색 처리구에서 유의적으로 증가하였고(P<0.05), 난중은 적색 처리구에서 유의적으 로 감소하였다(P<0.05). 수정율, 부화율, 병아리 체중, IgG 수준 및 혈액 생화학 조성은 처리구 간에 통계적인 차이가 없었다. 번식호르몬인 FSH와 LH 농도는 적색 LED 처리구에서 현저히 높게 나타났다(P<0.05). 또한 행동 관찰 결과, 적색 처리구에서 바닥 긁기, 바닥 쪼기 및 깃털 쪼기 행동이 다른 처리구에 비해 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(P<0.05). 본 연구 결과, 육용종계에 LED 점등을 사용할 경우 적색 처리구에서 번식호르몬의 증가와 산란율이 높아지는 것을 확인하였다. 그러나 적색 처리구에서 바닥 긁기, 바닥 쪼기 및 깃털 쪼기 행동이 높게 나타난 원인을 밝히기 위한 추가 연구가 필요한 것으로 보인다. 따라서 산란성적, 번식 호르몬 분비를 고려할 때 육용종계에 적색 LED 조명이 유리하다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다.
Fisheries is known as a high-risk industry in Korea, and various efforts have been made to reduce occupational accidents. Trap fisheries represent crustacean production, accounting for 4.7% of total fisheries production and 10.7% of its production value, which is classified as a relatively high-risk industry. With the disaster insurance payment data of the National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives (NFFC) from 2016 to 2020, the accident rate of the entire fishery, the accident rate of trap fisheries, and the type of disasters in the past five years were analyzed. As a result, the average fishery accident rate for the past five years was 5.31%, but it was high at 6.15% for coastal trap fisheries and 5.59% for offshore trap fisheries. Slips and trips, struck by objects and contact with machinery were the most common types of the accident according to the characteristics of the work, and hand injuries were analyzed the most. Additional efforts, including education for accident prevention, development of personal protective equipment and improvement of the working environment, are needed to prevent accidents caused by repeated types of disasters.
본 연구는 육계사육에서 횃대의 제공효과와 최적 두께를 구명하기 위해 진행하였다. 12일령 육계(RossⅹRoss) 288수를 24개의 독립된 공간(7.3 수/m2)에 균등한 평균 체중으로 분배하여 42일령까지 사양실험을 실시하였다. 그룹은 일반 평사사육(대조구)과 3개의 횃대 처리구(두께: 3, 4 및 5 cm)인 총 4개로 구성하였으며, 각 그룹은 6반복과 반복당 12수씩으로 배치하였다. 각 반복 별로 횃대의 길이는 1.3 m (0.11 m/수)로서 높이 15 cm에 설치하였다. 조사항목으로 육계의 생산성, footpad dermatitis (FPD)과 hock burn (HB) 지표 및 횃대이용성을 확인하였다. 본 연구결과, 육계사육에서 횃대의 유무와 두께에 따른 체중, 증체량, 사료섭취량 및 사료요구율은 통계적 차이가 없었다. FPD는 처리구 간 유의적 차이가 없었으나, HB 지표는 4와 5 cm의 횃대를 제공한 처리구에서 일반 평사와 3 cm 두께의 횃대에서 사육한 육계에 비해 개선되었다(p<0.05). 육계가 횃대를 이용한 시간은 사육전기(12~24일령)에는 차이가 없었으나, 사육후기(25~42일령)에 횃대를 이용한 총 시간은 5 cm 두께에서 3과 4 cm 두께보다 높았으며(p<0.05), 올라간 횟수에 비해서도 더 많은 시간을 보냈다(p<0.05). 그러므로 횃대는 육계의 다리질병을 줄이며, 4~5 cm의 두께를 이용하는 것이 가장 적합할 것으로 사료된다.
ZnO nanosheets have been used for many devices and antibacterial materials with wide bandgap and high crystallinity. Among the many methods for synthesizing ZnO nanostructures, we report the synthesis of ZnO/Zn(OH)2 nanosheets using the ionic layer epitaxy method, which is a newly-developed bottom-up technique that allows the shape and thickness of ZnO/Zn(OH)2 nanosheets to be controlled by temperature and time of synthesis. Results were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The physical and chemical information and structural characteristics of ZnO/ Zn(OH)2 nanosheets were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns after various posttreatment processes. The crystallinity of the ZnO/Zn(OH)2 nanosheets was confirmed using scanning transmission electron microscopy. This study presents details of the control of the size and thickness of synthesized ZnO/Zn(OH)2 nanosheets with atomic layers.
Fishery sea anchor is widely used for many fishing vessels. However, standardization of the dimension and terminology of the fishery sea anchor has not been achieved, reducing the reliability of the performance and safety of the fishery sea anchor. Therefore, this study researches the reality of usage of fishery sea anchor and then attempts to suggest the development direction of the standard draft as basic data. As a result of the survey on the reality of usage show that various terms were used for each part of the fishery sea anchor (including the incorrect form of non-standard words derived from Japanese) and that the production of this product in the fishery sea anchor market was concentrated on one specific manufacturer. In addition, the main specifications of the fishery sea anchor are set and manufactured based on conventional experience without standards. In the field, there was no standardized drawing for fishery sea anchor and users had low awareness of the main specifications of fishery sea anchor. Therefore, this study suggested the following regarding the fishery sea anchor: standard terms for each part including Korean and English names and standard drawing of sea anchor. It is hoped that this study will contribute to research for the standardization of fishery sea anchor, which will increase in reliability and lead to increased interest in standardization in the fishery field.
본 연구는 로메인 상추에서 병원성미생물이 생존과 생육의 특성을 분석하여 안전관리 정보를 확보하고자 실시하였다. 로메인 상추에서 분무 접종한 E. coli O157:H7은 72시간 배양 후 초기균수 보다 2.0 log CFU/g 수준으로 증가하여 생존 및 증식이 가능한 것으로 판단되었다. 상추 잎의 상처 유무에 따른 E. coli O157:H7은 배양 72시 간 후 유의적 차이가 없었다. 상추 잎에 인위적인 상처에 내어 E. coli O157:H7을 접종하고 병원균의 분포를 조사한 결과 상처가 없는 상추는 표면이 매끄러워 균이 부착하지 못하거나 균수가 매우 낮았고, 상처가 있는 상추 잎은 거친 표면에 균이 밀집되어 상처를 통해 상추 내부로 침입하는 것으로 판단되었다. 병원성미생물의 상추 추출물 이용 여부는 10-100% 농도에서 배양 24시간 이후에 E. coli O157:H7 8.9 log CFU/mL, L. monocytogenes 8.6 log CFU/mL, P. carotovorum 8.8 log CFU/mL로 나타났다. 이는 병원성미생물과 식물병원균이 유사한 4 log CFU/g 이상의 증가율을 나 타내어 미생물이 상추 추출물을 영양원으로 사용할 수 있는 것으로 판단되었다. 상추 추출물 0.1%에서 초기 접종 농 도와 비교하여 E. coli O157:H7 2.7, L. monocytogenes 1.3, P. carotovorum 2.9 log CFU/mL 수준으로 증가하였다. 이에 따라 병원성 미생물의 최소생육농도는 0.1%보다 낮은 것으로 판단되었고, 상처를 통해 지속적으로 0.1% 수준의 상추 추출물이 병원성미생물에 제공되면 상추 내부에서도 생존 및 증식이 가능할 것으로 확인하였다.
The purpose of this study is to design an instructional model based on CLIL (Content Language Integrated Learning) theory for effective language learning. The study findings reveal the following three points. First, context-oriented foreign language education is possible, if we have well-edited authentic materials that match the level of the students, and implement the relevant materials as classroom activities that covered 4C (Content, Cognition, Communication, Culture) through sophisticated placement of content-language integration methods. Second, changes in evaluation methods can affect the studying style of learners. Since the process of output can only be actively utilized if the input is repeated, if we provide an desirable evaluation method so that the repetition process can focus on acquiring meaningful language information, this will help learners make more active use of the target language. Third, foreign language education could expand learners’ thinking skills. Content-language integrated learning is sufficient to help students to understand other cultures and compare/analyze the educational contents based on respect for cultural diversity. Through this all learning activities based on CLIL theory, language learners can also develop their critical thinking skills.
In this study, an improvement plan was derived by statistically analyzing the system and current status of tests in Korea and survey of seafarers perception in order to improve the expertise of the Korean fishing vessel officer examination. Recently, about 70% of marine accident occurs from fishing vessels. Therefore, it's necessary to improve the examination to reduce marine accidents. As a result, it was identified that an average of 29,265 applicants have applied over the past four years, and among them, 1,833 people have applied for fishing vessel licenses, accounting for 6.3% of the total. According to the result of explanation and response of 115 people, they responded that practical utilization was low, each operation waters has different requirements and it’s necessary to improve the contents of the questions for the specialty subject. In addition, inappropriate questions were found in previous exams. To reduce marine accidents caused by human error and to improve the professionalism of fishing vessel officers, it is necessary to adjust the test criteria and ratio with characteristics of fishing vessels and in the long run, institutional improvements such as the distinction between test subjects and licenses are needed.
The research was analyzed the catch data of the five years (2016-2020) for six joint venture company tuna purse seiners in the Atlantic Ocean, with the aim of suggesting improvement measures for responsible and sustainable fishing according to changes of recommendation by International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) on the tropical tunas. In the last five years, the average catch of six tuna purse seiner gradually increased to 7,745 tons, 8,364 tons and 9,053 tons from 2016 to 2018, but decreased to 7,761 tons in 2019 and 6,214 tons in 2020. The reason for the decrease in fishing volume in 2019 and 2020 was the fluctuation of the formation of the cold water zone (22-23℃), and the total ICCAT convention area of FAD closure in January and February due to the expansion of the FAD closure area and poor free school catching during two months period, respectively. The analysis on fishing area showed that the percentage of fishing in the high sea was about 85% although the FAD closure area included the EEZ zone in coastal countries; the rise of the fishing license in coastal countries is also believed to be a factor. In order to overcome such situations and improve catching volume, it will be possible if excellent manpower is secured, school fishing is expanded, and the production of high value-added catch (purse seine special: PS).
The breakdown of the Korea-Japan fishing negotiations since 2016 has made it impossible for many domestic fishing vessels to operate in the Japanese EEZ water, and large purse seine fishing vessels are one of them. Mackerel is a highly migratory fish species, circulating in the East China Sea, South Sea, West Sea and East Coast throughout the year, and goes through a period of wintering, spawning, growth and feeding migration. In this study, in order to find out the dependence of large purse seine fishing vessels on mackerel fishing in the Japanese EEZ waters, we analyzed the characteristics of mackerel by large purse seine fisheries in the Japanese EEZ waters from 2010 to 2016. The catch and fishing details were investigated. The total catch of mackerel by large purse seine fishery, the average catch rate of mackerel in Japanese EEZ is 4 percent per year. The amount is estimated at 10.2 billion won per year. Although there was an effect, it was not judged to be a significant factor, and it was found that the amount of catch and fish price in the domestic waters had a greater influence on the total catch than the Japanese EEZ waters.
이 연구의 목적은 한국어 학습과정에서 나타나는 학습부진아의 실태를 파악하고 뇌선호도 조사를 통해 학습현장에서 적용할 수 있는 교육적 시사점을 도출하는 데 있다. 연구범위는 2019년 부산지역 대학교 한 부설 한국어교육기관에서 봄 학기 과정 중인 학습자들과 교사들을 대상으로 조사가 이루어졌다. 연구방법 으로는 먼저 한국어 학습부진아실태를 파악하기 위해 1급에서 5급 까지 수준별로 조사를 진행하였으며, 그 조사결과를 바탕으로 학습부진아 수가 가장 많은 급을 선정하여 좌ㆍ우뇌의 인지유형을 분석하는 뇌선호도 검사를 실시하였다. 학습부진아 실태조사 결과, 한국어 학습부진아수는 2급이 가장 많으며, 학습부진아의 비율이 가장 높은 것이 4급으로 나타났다. 좌ㆍ우뇌 뇌선호도 검사에서는 좌뇌 형이 8.3%로 가장 낮게 조사되었으며 우 뇌형과 양 뇌형의 45.8%의 5배가 낮은 수치이다. 이와 결과를 바탕으로 학습자의 다양한 특성에 맞은 수업지도와 맞춤형 지도를 하게 된다면 학습에 대한 부담이 줄게 되고 오히려 수업에 대한 자신감까지 느끼게 된다. 결국, 현장에서 수업을 담당하는 교사는 이러한 요인들을 파악하여 수업에 적용하는 것이 교사의 역할이라고 볼 수 있다. 이에 본 연구는 학습부진아를 지도함에 있어 학습부진아 실태를 파악하여 학교현장에서 적용할 수 있는 교육적 시사점을 도출하는 데 의의가 있다.