As discarded fishing gear settles or floats on the seabed, it destroys the spawning and habitat of fisheries resources that causes various safety accidents and adverse effects on the environment, such as generating microplastics and causing ship accidents. In order to solve this problem, this study is intended to present an implementation plan for establishing a fishing gear deposit system in order to use it as basic data for establishing policies for fishing gear management in Korea. In order to successfully implement the fishing gear deposit system, the deposit system must be established in the form of fishing gear completed at the production stage. It was found that the marking of the object should be easy, and that determining an appropriate deposit amount to motivate the return of waste fishing gear and establishing a convenient return procedure for returned waste fishing gear were important factors. In addition, transparent management of unreturned deposits and mandatory use of fishing gear subject to the deposit system for fishermen will be necessary. The role of a specialized organization to manage and operate all of these procedures is also very important. It is necessary to establish a new mandatory provision in the Fisheries Act to require fishermen who directly use fishing gear to use fishing gear with a deposit refund mark, and to ensure the implementation of the deposit system by linking it with the evaluation items of government policy projects. Since the main purpose of the deposit system is to collect discarded fishing gear, a support plan will be necessary in accordance with the purchase project for fishing waste salvaged by local governments in 2020.
The aging fishery training vessels from the past have mostly been decommissioned, and many universities are introducing state-of-the-art large fishery training vessels. The purpose of these training vessels is to train marine professionals and above all, safety to prevent marine accidents should be of utmost priority as many students embark on the vessel. This study estimated the impact of the hydrodynamic interaction forces acting on the model vessel (fishery training vessel) from the bank when the vessel pass near the semi-circle bank wall in various conditions through the numerical calculation, especially concerning maneuvering motions of the vessel. For estimation, variables were mainly set as the size of the semi-circle shape, the lateral distance between the bank and the model vessel, and the depth near the bank. As a result, it was estimated that, in order for the model vessel to safely pass the semi-circle bank wall at a speed of 4 knots, the water depth to the vessel draft ratio should be 1.5 or more (approximately 8 m of water depth), and the lateral distance from the semi-circle bank wall should be 0.4 times the model vessel’s length or more (a distance of 34 m or more). Under these conditions, it was expected that the model vessel would pass without significantly being affected by the bank wall.
Recently, universities of fisheries and institutions related to fisheries are actively carrying out a project to build new fisheries training ships. These new fisheries training ships are significantly larger in size and longer in length than the previous ships. In addition, these new ships basically have space that can accommodate more than 100 crew and passenger. On the other hand, they are excluded from IMO maneuverability evaluation since the size of these ships are still less than 100 m in length (LBP). These results have had an impact on the study of maneuverability of fishing vessels including the fisheries training ships. Against these backgrounds, the authors conducted a study to estimate the maneuvering characteristics of fisheries training ship Baek-Kyung according to depth in order to prepare a maneuvering characteristic index that enables the large fisheries training ships to navigate more safely using a modified empirical formula. It was confirmed that the maneuvering characteristics of Baek-Kyung changed significantly as the values of the hydrodynamic force coefficients changed as the water depth gradually decreased from around 1.5 (approx. 8 m in depth) of the ratio of the water depth to the ship draft. The results of this study will not only help navigators understand the maneuvering characteristics of Baek-Kyung, but also serve as an indicator when navigating in shallow water. In addition, the accumulation of these results will serve as a basis for future study on maneuverability of fishing vessel types.
In this study, samples of sea anchor canopy cloth mainly used in Korean jigging fishing vessels were collected and tested for performance evaluation. The canopy cloth of sea anchor is a basic element of form composition that is known to have the greatest influence on anchor performance. In order to evaluate the performance of sea anchor canopy cloth, five types of samples were tested for new metric count, tensile strength, water vapour transmission rate and drying speed according to the national standard (KS), and some correlations were identified. As a result of the test, the new metric count of cloths was 335.5-443.4 denier in warp and 217-447.6 denier in weft, and the minimum tensile strength was 860 N in warp direction and 430 N in weft direction. The apparent number and tensile strength of cloth were proportional, the water vapour transmission rate of the sample was 206.8 g/m 2 h, and the drying speed was 90-100 min. This study partially confirmed the performance evaluation based on speculation by the standard test method, and further research is needed on the clear relationship between the research results and the performance of the sea anchor.
We analyzed work safety risk factors, which are likely to occur during fishing in gillnet fishing vessels using the written verdict of the Korea Maritime Safety Tribunal from 2016 to 2020, and considered work safety management. Of the total of 37 fatal accidents, three cases in the East Sea, six cases in the South Sea, and 28 cases in the West Sea were very frequent. The accident rate per vessel by sea area (%) was 0.08% in East Sea, 0.12% in South Sea, and 0.40% in the West Sea. Based on the East Sea, the number of fatal accidents was 1.6 times higher in the South Sea and 5.4 times higher in the West Sea. Six cases (16.2%) occurred during departure and preparation for fishing in the fishing process, and all other 31 cases (83.8%) occurred during fishing operation. In the order of accident types, 21 cases (56.8%) of being struck by object, eight cases (21.6%) of contact with machinery and six cases (16.2%) of falls from height were found to be fatal accidents in gillnet fishery. Human factors, such as fishers’ carelessness and negligent safety management by captain accounted for 27 cases (73.0%) of the main cause, and 35 cases (94.6%) of the secondary cause. In addition to human factors such as fisher’s carelessness and negligent safety management by captain, mechanical factors, environmental factors and management factors must be improved together to reduce human casualties. These results are expected to be utilized as basic data for reducing safety accidents during the work of fishers.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of admission and employment in fisheries high schools (FHS) and to consider ways to revitalize FHS through substantialization. The recruitment rate of new students in FHS decreased from 97.4% in 2016 to 83.2% in 2020. The aging training ship that FHS needs to improve most urgently is being jointly used by FHS across the country, and the construction of a joint training ship managed by the Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology is being promoted. The average employment rate for FHS by year was 40.2-59.4%, and the fisheries-related employment rate was low at 31.0-38.9%. On the other hand, the acquisition rate of certificate of competence was 37.5-52.0%, and the rate of employment on board of those who obtained the certificate of competence was 42.9-59.8%. In order to secure new students and improve the recruitment rate, we operate experiential classrooms that reflect the characteristics of training ships and departments and conduct public relations activities using sns, publicity video ucc, YouTube, etc. It will be necessary to expand opportunities for fisheries-related vocational experience through active career exploration and elective courses in the FHS credit system. Finally, it is judged that fisheries related government agencies, industries and local governments need to improve their awareness of FHS and plan to support fisheries manpower nurturing in order to attempt the vitalization of FHS.
Tuna purse seine fishery (TPF) constitute more than 60% of distant water fishery production in Korea based on a statistic of 2018, and 28 ships from four different companies were under operation at the western and central Pacific Ocean. On this research, common risk factors during TPF were investigated via enumeration of five years Korean fisherman’s insurance payment statement, followed by some counterplans to diminish the accident rate. The accident rate of TPF on the Pacific Ocean peaked by 43.0% in 2014 and constantly decreased to 23.0% until 2018, presenting an average of 33.6%. Meanwhile, the accident rate on the Indian Ocean reached the highest point 55.1% in 2014 and declined to 11.6% in 2016, having an average of 24.7%. The average accident rate of the Indian Ocean scored 8.9% lower than the rate of the Pacific Ocean, but no statistic significance was observed. Depending on the process of operation, ‘casting or hauling of net’ was the most frequent part that people received an injury (40.4%). When the accidents were classified by their types, ‘falling down’ was the most recurrent cause of the injuries (28.5%). At the point of severity, the worst injuries were induced by crush hazard. Considering aforementioned accident frequency and severity, all the factors on the accident type list were divided into three different groups including high risk, moderate risk, and common risk. This study is expected to contribute to the reduction of occupational accidents during the work of fishermen and establishment of a safety management system for distance water fishing vessels.
Fisheries is known as a high-risk industry in Korea, and various efforts have been made to reduce occupational accidents. Trap fisheries represent crustacean production, accounting for 4.7% of total fisheries production and 10.7% of its production value, which is classified as a relatively high-risk industry. With the disaster insurance payment data of the National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives (NFFC) from 2016 to 2020, the accident rate of the entire fishery, the accident rate of trap fisheries, and the type of disasters in the past five years were analyzed. As a result, the average fishery accident rate for the past five years was 5.31%, but it was high at 6.15% for coastal trap fisheries and 5.59% for offshore trap fisheries. Slips and trips, struck by objects and contact with machinery were the most common types of the accident according to the characteristics of the work, and hand injuries were analyzed the most. Additional efforts, including education for accident prevention, development of personal protective equipment and improvement of the working environment, are needed to prevent accidents caused by repeated types of disasters.
Fishery sea anchor is widely used for many fishing vessels. However, standardization of the dimension and terminology of the fishery sea anchor has not been achieved, reducing the reliability of the performance and safety of the fishery sea anchor. Therefore, this study researches the reality of usage of fishery sea anchor and then attempts to suggest the development direction of the standard draft as basic data. As a result of the survey on the reality of usage show that various terms were used for each part of the fishery sea anchor (including the incorrect form of non-standard words derived from Japanese) and that the production of this product in the fishery sea anchor market was concentrated on one specific manufacturer. In addition, the main specifications of the fishery sea anchor are set and manufactured based on conventional experience without standards. In the field, there was no standardized drawing for fishery sea anchor and users had low awareness of the main specifications of fishery sea anchor. Therefore, this study suggested the following regarding the fishery sea anchor: standard terms for each part including Korean and English names and standard drawing of sea anchor. It is hoped that this study will contribute to research for the standardization of fishery sea anchor, which will increase in reliability and lead to increased interest in standardization in the fishery field.
Although Korea operates various systems and policies for the management of fisheries resources, it is judged that a more systematic resource management policy is needed due to the continuous decrease in the production of coastal and offshore fisheries. In this study, the catch capacity was analyzed using the DEA technique for coastal and offshore fisheries. As a result, despite the decrease in the amount of fisheries resources and the number of fishing vessels, there was a trend of increasing fishing capacity. As of 2019, the total maximum catch of offshore fishery was estimated at 820,007 tons. The actual catch was 548,159 tons and the CU was measured to be about 66.8%, which was analyzed to be an excess of about 33.2% of the catch. The total maximum catch of coastal fisheries was estimated at 187,887 tons. The actual catch was also the same value and the CU was measured to be about 100.0%. Thus, it was analyzed that there was no excess in catch. For the management of fisheries resources, it is necessary to manage the fishing capacity. To this end, policies such as scientific TAC should be promoted as well as expanding the reduction of fishing vessels.
Most fishing vessels are less than 100 m in length (LBP), which is not mandatory for the IMO standards for ship maneuverability. Therefore, research on estimating the maneuverability of fishing vessel hull shapes are somewhat lacking compared to that of merchant ship hull shapes, and at the design stage, the numerical simulation method developed for merchant ships are applied without modification to estimate the maneuverability. Since this can cause estimation errors, the authors have derived a modified empirical formula that can improve the accuracy of estimating the maneuverability of fishing vessels in a previous study. In this study, using the modified empirical formula, the IMO maneuverability evaluation items, the turning motion test and Z-test simulations were performed on the fisheries training vessel BAEK-KYUNG and compared with the sea trial test result to verify the validity of the modified empirical formula. In conclusion, the modified empirical formula was able to estimate quantitatively and qualitatively similar to the result of the sea trial test. Such a study on estimating the maneuverability of fishing vessels will be a good indicator for fishing vessel operators and will help them analyze marine accidents.
The research was analyzed the catch data of the five years (2016-2020) for six joint venture company tuna purse seiners in the Atlantic Ocean, with the aim of suggesting improvement measures for responsible and sustainable fishing according to changes of recommendation by International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) on the tropical tunas. In the last five years, the average catch of six tuna purse seiner gradually increased to 7,745 tons, 8,364 tons and 9,053 tons from 2016 to 2018, but decreased to 7,761 tons in 2019 and 6,214 tons in 2020. The reason for the decrease in fishing volume in 2019 and 2020 was the fluctuation of the formation of the cold water zone (22-23℃), and the total ICCAT convention area of FAD closure in January and February due to the expansion of the FAD closure area and poor free school catching during two months period, respectively. The analysis on fishing area showed that the percentage of fishing in the high sea was about 85% although the FAD closure area included the EEZ zone in coastal countries; the rise of the fishing license in coastal countries is also believed to be a factor. In order to overcome such situations and improve catching volume, it will be possible if excellent manpower is secured, school fishing is expanded, and the production of high value-added catch (purse seine special: PS).