The aging fishery training vessels from the past have mostly been decommissioned, and many universities are introducing state-of-the-art large fishery training vessels. The purpose of these training vessels is to train marine professionals and above all, safety to prevent marine accidents should be of utmost priority as many students embark on the vessel. This study estimated the impact of the hydrodynamic interaction forces acting on the model vessel (fishery training vessel) from the bank when the vessel pass near the semi-circle bank wall in various conditions through the numerical calculation, especially concerning maneuvering motions of the vessel. For estimation, variables were mainly set as the size of the semi-circle shape, the lateral distance between the bank and the model vessel, and the depth near the bank. As a result, it was estimated that, in order for the model vessel to safely pass the semi-circle bank wall at a speed of 4 knots, the water depth to the vessel draft ratio should be 1.5 or more (approximately 8 m of water depth), and the lateral distance from the semi-circle bank wall should be 0.4 times the model vessel’s length or more (a distance of 34 m or more). Under these conditions, it was expected that the model vessel would pass without significantly being affected by the bank wall.
Recently, universities of fisheries and institutions related to fisheries are actively carrying out a project to build new fisheries training ships. These new fisheries training ships are significantly larger in size and longer in length than the previous ships. In addition, these new ships basically have space that can accommodate more than 100 crew and passenger. On the other hand, they are excluded from IMO maneuverability evaluation since the size of these ships are still less than 100 m in length (LBP). These results have had an impact on the study of maneuverability of fishing vessels including the fisheries training ships. Against these backgrounds, the authors conducted a study to estimate the maneuvering characteristics of fisheries training ship Baek-Kyung according to depth in order to prepare a maneuvering characteristic index that enables the large fisheries training ships to navigate more safely using a modified empirical formula. It was confirmed that the maneuvering characteristics of Baek-Kyung changed significantly as the values of the hydrodynamic force coefficients changed as the water depth gradually decreased from around 1.5 (approx. 8 m in depth) of the ratio of the water depth to the ship draft. The results of this study will not only help navigators understand the maneuvering characteristics of Baek-Kyung, but also serve as an indicator when navigating in shallow water. In addition, the accumulation of these results will serve as a basis for future study on maneuverability of fishing vessel types.
This study quantitatively evaluated size selectivity for three netting shapes (T0; regular, T45, T90) and hanging ratio (35%, 70%) of T0 netting used for trawl codend. The size selectivity experiment was performed in a tank using a cube experimental model with a length of 50 cm on one side and 389 experimental individuals, jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus). In the selectivity analysis, a selectivity curve was created based on the selection ratio using a logistic function, and the 25%, 50%, and 70% selection length and selection range were obtained. The T0 netting was 19.54 cm when the 50% selective length, which is a selectivity evaluation index, had a hanging ratio of 35%, a selection range of 0.51 cm, and 22.70 cm and 3.08 cm for the hanging ratio of 70%. The T45 netting was 24.34 cm and 2.13 cm, and the T90 netting was 23.51 cm and 2.84 cm. The results of the T45 netting and the T90 netting are similar, and the 50% selection length and selection range were relatively larger than the T0 netting. There was a significant difference in the correlation between the circumference of the inner circle of the mesh by the shape of the netting and the body girth of the experimental individual (Pearson test, ). There was no significant difference in the correlation between the selection ratio by the T0 netting, T45 netting, and T90 netting with a 70% hanging ratio (one-way ANOVA, ). The results of this study showed that selectivity such as T45 netting and T90 netting appeared when the hanging ratio, which maximizes the area of T0 netting, was maintained at 70%.
In this study, samples of sea anchor canopy cloth mainly used in Korean jigging fishing vessels were collected and tested for performance evaluation. The canopy cloth of sea anchor is a basic element of form composition that is known to have the greatest influence on anchor performance. In order to evaluate the performance of sea anchor canopy cloth, five types of samples were tested for new metric count, tensile strength, water vapour transmission rate and drying speed according to the national standard (KS), and some correlations were identified. As a result of the test, the new metric count of cloths was 335.5-443.4 denier in warp and 217-447.6 denier in weft, and the minimum tensile strength was 860 N in warp direction and 430 N in weft direction. The apparent number and tensile strength of cloth were proportional, the water vapour transmission rate of the sample was 206.8 g/m 2 h, and the drying speed was 90-100 min. This study partially confirmed the performance evaluation based on speculation by the standard test method, and further research is needed on the clear relationship between the research results and the performance of the sea anchor.
We analyzed work safety risk factors, which are likely to occur during fishing in gillnet fishing vessels using the written verdict of the Korea Maritime Safety Tribunal from 2016 to 2020, and considered work safety management. Of the total of 37 fatal accidents, three cases in the East Sea, six cases in the South Sea, and 28 cases in the West Sea were very frequent. The accident rate per vessel by sea area (%) was 0.08% in East Sea, 0.12% in South Sea, and 0.40% in the West Sea. Based on the East Sea, the number of fatal accidents was 1.6 times higher in the South Sea and 5.4 times higher in the West Sea. Six cases (16.2%) occurred during departure and preparation for fishing in the fishing process, and all other 31 cases (83.8%) occurred during fishing operation. In the order of accident types, 21 cases (56.8%) of being struck by object, eight cases (21.6%) of contact with machinery and six cases (16.2%) of falls from height were found to be fatal accidents in gillnet fishery. Human factors, such as fishers’ carelessness and negligent safety management by captain accounted for 27 cases (73.0%) of the main cause, and 35 cases (94.6%) of the secondary cause. In addition to human factors such as fisher’s carelessness and negligent safety management by captain, mechanical factors, environmental factors and management factors must be improved together to reduce human casualties. These results are expected to be utilized as basic data for reducing safety accidents during the work of fishers.
우리나라 원양산업은 대중성 수산물 공급 및 식량안보에 중요한 역할을 하고 있다. IMO를 비롯한 각국에서는 어선의 국제적으 로 통일된 안전 기준 마련을 위하여 노력하였고, ‘1977년 어선안전 토레몰리노스 협약’ 채택을 시작으로 ‘2012 케이프 타운 협정’ 채택을 하였으나 발효 요건을 충족하지 못하고 있다. 그러나 2019 토레몰리노스 선언으로 협정의 발효가 가시화되었고, 우리나라도 협정 비준을 앞두고 있으며 원양어선이 협정의 적용 대상이 된다. 2012 케이프 타운 협정은 적용 대상 기준을 선체의 길이 또는 총톤수를 선택할 수 있고, 현존선에 대해서도 일부 적용이 된다. 현존선에 대한 영향을 확인하기 위하여 한국원양산업협회 회원으로 등록된 원양어선 188척을 대상으로 분석한 결과 총톤수 적용이 협정 비준에 미치는 영향이 적은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 Two-way VHF, Radar transponder 등 GMDSS 설비의 강제화 및 선원들의 안전 친숙화 등의 대한 법령 개정이 필요한 것으로 식별되었다. 산업계에서는 협정에서 요구하는 설비의 비 치와 어선원의 안전 친숙화가 필요하다.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of admission and employment in fisheries high schools (FHS) and to consider ways to revitalize FHS through substantialization. The recruitment rate of new students in FHS decreased from 97.4% in 2016 to 83.2% in 2020. The aging training ship that FHS needs to improve most urgently is being jointly used by FHS across the country, and the construction of a joint training ship managed by the Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology is being promoted. The average employment rate for FHS by year was 40.2-59.4%, and the fisheries-related employment rate was low at 31.0-38.9%. On the other hand, the acquisition rate of certificate of competence was 37.5-52.0%, and the rate of employment on board of those who obtained the certificate of competence was 42.9-59.8%. In order to secure new students and improve the recruitment rate, we operate experiential classrooms that reflect the characteristics of training ships and departments and conduct public relations activities using sns, publicity video ucc, YouTube, etc. It will be necessary to expand opportunities for fisheries-related vocational experience through active career exploration and elective courses in the FHS credit system. Finally, it is judged that fisheries related government agencies, industries and local governments need to improve their awareness of FHS and plan to support fisheries manpower nurturing in order to attempt the vitalization of FHS.
Fisheries is known as a high-risk industry in Korea, and various efforts have been made to reduce occupational accidents. Trap fisheries represent crustacean production, accounting for 4.7% of total fisheries production and 10.7% of its production value, which is classified as a relatively high-risk industry. With the disaster insurance payment data of the National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives (NFFC) from 2016 to 2020, the accident rate of the entire fishery, the accident rate of trap fisheries, and the type of disasters in the past five years were analyzed. As a result, the average fishery accident rate for the past five years was 5.31%, but it was high at 6.15% for coastal trap fisheries and 5.59% for offshore trap fisheries. Slips and trips, struck by objects and contact with machinery were the most common types of the accident according to the characteristics of the work, and hand injuries were analyzed the most. Additional efforts, including education for accident prevention, development of personal protective equipment and improvement of the working environment, are needed to prevent accidents caused by repeated types of disasters.
Fishery sea anchor is widely used for many fishing vessels. However, standardization of the dimension and terminology of the fishery sea anchor has not been achieved, reducing the reliability of the performance and safety of the fishery sea anchor. Therefore, this study researches the reality of usage of fishery sea anchor and then attempts to suggest the development direction of the standard draft as basic data. As a result of the survey on the reality of usage show that various terms were used for each part of the fishery sea anchor (including the incorrect form of non-standard words derived from Japanese) and that the production of this product in the fishery sea anchor market was concentrated on one specific manufacturer. In addition, the main specifications of the fishery sea anchor are set and manufactured based on conventional experience without standards. In the field, there was no standardized drawing for fishery sea anchor and users had low awareness of the main specifications of fishery sea anchor. Therefore, this study suggested the following regarding the fishery sea anchor: standard terms for each part including Korean and English names and standard drawing of sea anchor. It is hoped that this study will contribute to research for the standardization of fishery sea anchor, which will increase in reliability and lead to increased interest in standardization in the fishery field.
In this study, an improvement plan was derived by statistically analyzing the system and current status of tests in Korea and survey of seafarers perception in order to improve the expertise of the Korean fishing vessel officer examination. Recently, about 70% of marine accident occurs from fishing vessels. Therefore, it's necessary to improve the examination to reduce marine accidents. As a result, it was identified that an average of 29,265 applicants have applied over the past four years, and among them, 1,833 people have applied for fishing vessel licenses, accounting for 6.3% of the total. According to the result of explanation and response of 115 people, they responded that practical utilization was low, each operation waters has different requirements and it’s necessary to improve the contents of the questions for the specialty subject. In addition, inappropriate questions were found in previous exams. To reduce marine accidents caused by human error and to improve the professionalism of fishing vessel officers, it is necessary to adjust the test criteria and ratio with characteristics of fishing vessels and in the long run, institutional improvements such as the distinction between test subjects and licenses are needed.
The research was analyzed the catch data of the five years (2016-2020) for six joint venture company tuna purse seiners in the Atlantic Ocean, with the aim of suggesting improvement measures for responsible and sustainable fishing according to changes of recommendation by International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) on the tropical tunas. In the last five years, the average catch of six tuna purse seiner gradually increased to 7,745 tons, 8,364 tons and 9,053 tons from 2016 to 2018, but decreased to 7,761 tons in 2019 and 6,214 tons in 2020. The reason for the decrease in fishing volume in 2019 and 2020 was the fluctuation of the formation of the cold water zone (22-23℃), and the total ICCAT convention area of FAD closure in January and February due to the expansion of the FAD closure area and poor free school catching during two months period, respectively. The analysis on fishing area showed that the percentage of fishing in the high sea was about 85% although the FAD closure area included the EEZ zone in coastal countries; the rise of the fishing license in coastal countries is also believed to be a factor. In order to overcome such situations and improve catching volume, it will be possible if excellent manpower is secured, school fishing is expanded, and the production of high value-added catch (purse seine special: PS).
The breakdown of the Korea-Japan fishing negotiations since 2016 has made it impossible for many domestic fishing vessels to operate in the Japanese EEZ water, and large purse seine fishing vessels are one of them. Mackerel is a highly migratory fish species, circulating in the East China Sea, South Sea, West Sea and East Coast throughout the year, and goes through a period of wintering, spawning, growth and feeding migration. In this study, in order to find out the dependence of large purse seine fishing vessels on mackerel fishing in the Japanese EEZ waters, we analyzed the characteristics of mackerel by large purse seine fisheries in the Japanese EEZ waters from 2010 to 2016. The catch and fishing details were investigated. The total catch of mackerel by large purse seine fishery, the average catch rate of mackerel in Japanese EEZ is 4 percent per year. The amount is estimated at 10.2 billion won per year. Although there was an effect, it was not judged to be a significant factor, and it was found that the amount of catch and fish price in the domestic waters had a greater influence on the total catch than the Japanese EEZ waters.