본 연구는 수분함량과 미생물 첨가제가 알팔파 사일리지의 발효특성과 사료가치에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 수행되었다. 알팔파는 개화 10% 시기에서 수확되었으며 수분 함량(M60, M50, M40 및 M30)이 60, 50, 40 및 30%일 때 각각 이용하였다. 1500g을 샘플링한 후, 증류수 10mL을 첨가한 미첨가구(NAD)와 Lactococcus lactis 와 Pediococcus pentosaceus의 혼합물을 증류수(0.1g/10mL)에 1.5 x 1010cfu/g 농도로 희석한 후 접종한 미생물 균주 첨가구(ADD)를 3개월 및 6개월 발효하였다. 수분 및 미생물 첨가제에 따른 연평균 알팔파의 조단백, 중성세제 불용성 섬유 및 산성세제 불용성 섬유에서 차이가 없었다(p>0.05). 모든 발효기간에서 pH는 ADD의 M40에서 가장 낮았다(p<0.05). NAD 처리구에서는 젖산이 M50에서 가장 높았고(p<0.05), ADD 처리군에서는 M40 시험구에서 젖산이 가장 높았다(p<0.05). NAD와 ADD의 M60은 젖산 함량이 다른 수분 함량들에 비해 가장 낮으며(p<0.05) 낙산이 유일하게 검출되었다. 미생물군집의 상대적 풍부도는 ADD 처리구의 M40과 M50에서 Homo LAB (Enterococcus, Lactiplantibacillus, Lacticaseibacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus)의 비율이 가장 높았고, Clostridium은 M60에서 가장 높았다.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of storage type and period on the quality of rye hay. The rye “Gogu” was sown on October 15, 2020, and harvested on April 22, 2021 (heading stage). The rye hay was prepared in two wrapping conditions (wrapping and unwrapping) and two storage period (3 and 6 months). In regards to their visual appearance, the forage quality score was higher in wrapped rye hay than in unwrapped rye hay. In all groups, there was no difference in appearance between inside and outside. The moisture content of wrapped rye hay was maintained at the initial level until 6 months. However, the moisture content of unwrapped rye hay was increased at 3 months of storage, and then decreased at 6 months of storage. Crude protein content was higher in wrapped rye hay than in unwrapped rye hay, whereas NDF and ADF contents were lower within wrapped rye hay than within unwrapped rye hay (p<0.05). In conclusion, wrapping rye is effective method for long-term storage that reduces the effect of external environment.
This experiment was carried out to examine double cropping system using Italian ryegrass (IRG) 'Kowinearly', whole crop rice 'Yeongwoo' and barnyard millet 'Jeju native' during the Oct. 2020 to Oct. 2022. Three kinds of forage crops were cultivated at paddy field in Livestock Institute, Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Jeollanamdo, South Korea. Whole crop rice (WCR) was sown in late May and barnyard millet (BM) sown early June each year after harvesting IRG. We examined dry matter yield and feed value of forage crops depending on harvest time of forage crops during the experimental period. The plant height in heading stage of IRG ranged from 108 to 112cm and dry matter yield ranged from 6,783 to 11,530 kg ha-1. The crude protein (CP) of IRG ranged from 6.0 to 8.44%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ranged from 55.6 to 60.2% and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ranged from 32.58 to 36.7%, The dry matter yield of WCR increased as the harvest stage was delayed (14,310 kg ha-1 in milk, 16,167 kg ha-1 in yellow ripen, and 18,891 kg ha-1 in mature). Similar to results of dry matter yield of WCR, dry matter yield of BM increased as the harvest stage was delayed (11,194 kg ha-1 in late heading. and 14,308 kg ha-1 in mature), However nutrient content of WCR and BM showed a decreasing trend. As shown in above results, the productivity of WCR after harvesting IRG was shown to be high at paddy field in the southern region. However, BM also was appeared to have potential as summer forage crops.
This experiment was carried out to determine effects of seed rate of native grasses, called native summer forage crops (NSFC), on their growth characteristics and yields in no-tillage paddy fields in central provinces. NSFC cultivation was performed according to the agricultural guidelines of the Rural Development Administration (RDA) during 2020 to 2022. Echinochloa crusgalli ‘Jeju native’, Setaria viridis ‘Korean native type’, Digitaria sanguinalis ‘Korean native type’) were sown by various seed rate in the experimental field (3m × 4m plot) of Department of Animal Resources Development, Seonghwan–eup, Cheonan, Korea in late-May or early-June for 3 years and harvested in middle-September. Dry matter yields (DMY) in Echinochloa crusgalli and Setaria viridis increased as increasing seed rate. DMY in 40 kg ha-1 of Echinochloa crusgalli was the highest and DMY in 60 kg ha-1 of Setaria viridis was the highest. However, All treatments of Digitaria sanguinalis showed similar DMY. Yields of NSFC were the order of Echinochloa crusgalli (9,681~11,092 kg ha-1) > Digitaria sanguinalis (8,311~9,023 kg ha-1) >etaria viridis (3,145~4,749 kg ha-1). The contents of crude protein in NSFC were the order of Digitaria sanguinalis > Echinochloa crusgalli > Setaria viridis. The contents of ADF and NDF in NSFC were the order of Echinochloa crusgalli > Digitaria sanguinalis > Setaria viridis. As shown in above results, we suggest that introduction of NSFC is one of the most important skills in order to stably increase yields of forage crops for utilization of the double cropping system in no-tillage paddy fields.
This study was conducted at the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) from 2010 to 2017 to develop a late-maturing variety with high productivity for cultivation in the southern region of South Korea. The new variety of Italian ryegrass, ‘IR901’, was a late-maturing variety, and its heading date was 22 May, 17 days later than that of the control variety ‘Kowinearly’. ‘IR901’ had a flag leaf width of 11.2 mm, flag leaf length of 31.8 cm, and plant length of 103 cm on its heading date. The combined average dry matter yield of ‘IR901’ in all three adaptability evaluation regions (Cheonan, Pyeongchang and Haenam) was 7,747 kg/ha, which was similar to that of the ‘Kowinearly’ variety (7,734 kg/ ha). However, the average dry matter yield over three years in Cheonan and Pyeongchang was 82% and 96%, respectively, compared to that of the control, which was most likely because of the poor cold tolerance of ‘IR901’. By contrast, in Haenam, in the southern region, the average dry matter yield of ‘IR901’ was 19% higher than that of the ‘Kowinearly’ variety. The proportions of crude protein (CP), total digestible nutrients (TDN), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in ‘IR901’ were 8.6%, 59.7%, 36.9%, and 54.8%, respectively; the proportions were 0.2% lower, the same, the same, and 2.5% lower than those in the ‘Kowinearly’ variety. The determined in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of ‘IR901’ was 72.2% higher than that of ‘Kowinearly’ (67.2). In general, of the two varieties, the forage quality of ‘IR901’ was marginally superior to that of ‘Kowinearly’.
This study was carried out to evaluate the growth characteristics and forage yield potential for warm season grass as emergency forages. The experimental design was a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. Two barnyard millet (Echinochloa species cv. Shirohie and Jeju native), a pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum cv Feed milk 2) a proso millet (Panicum miliaceum cv Native), a teffgrass (Eragrostis tef cv. Tiffany) and a kleingrass (Panicum coloratum cv. Selection 75) were compared for forage production and quality at the Mid regions of Korea. Warm season forage crops were sown on May 21 and June 23 respectively, and in 2021, it was sown twice on May 21 and June 21 The number of days to seedling emergence for barnyard millet and teffgrass was observed approximately 10 and 3 days after seeding, respectively. The cultivation period from seeding to harvest was within 60 days for all entry spices except for the late-heading type barnyard millet (within 84 days). As for the dry matter yield by seeding date, the dry matter yield of the late-heading type barnyard millet in May seeding was the highest at 23,872 kg/ha, and the kleingrass was the lowest at 3,888 kg/ha. For the June seeding, the dry matter yield of the late-heading type barnyard millet was 17,032 kg/ha, the highest, and the proso millet, teffgrass and kleingrass showed the lowest at 5,468, 5,442, and 5,197 kg/ha, respectively. The crude protein (CP) content was varied by warm season grass species, but the early-heading type barnyard millet, teffgrass, and kleingrass showed the highest tendency, and the late-heading type barnyard millet showed the lowest at 5.7~5.9%. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content did not show a significant difference between the seeding in May, but kleingrass in June sowed lower than the others.
This study was carried out the estimation on consumption patterns and consciousness of domestic forage for improvement of the quality of domestic forage. Although the cultivated area in South Korea of forage has increased significantly compared to the past, the self-sufficiency rate of domestic forage has increased to around 80% since 2010. Also, livestock farmers prefer to use import forage than domestic due to convenience of use. In Korean beef farms, the ratio of import to domestic forage was higher in domestic forage (import forage 3 : domestic forage 7). In the method of securing domestic forage, purchase of forage (55.6%) was higher than self-cultivation of forage (44.4%). The ratio of use by bailing type was shown in the order of rice staw rice straw (50.5%), domestic hay (15%), imported hay (12.5%), and total mixed ratio (10.7%). The preference of forage was in the order of amount of foreign matter, moisture content, price, feed value in Korean native cattle farm. The result of satisfaction with domestic and import forage showed that the satisfaction of domestic forage price was higher than import forage, while the moisture content and foreign matter of forage were lower than import forage. In addition, in the results of the satisfaction and importance of domestic roughage compared to imported roughage, satisfaction with imported roughage was generally high in all items except for price. As a result, in order to improve the satisfaction of domestic forage in Korean native cattle farm, it is necessary to minimize foreign matter in forage and increase hay production for moisture content uniform in forage.
This study was conducted to examine the dry matter yield and weed control of alfalfa according to postemergence herbicides treatment during spring seeding alfalfa. The seeding time of alfalfa was April 21, 2021, the seeding amount was 20 kg/ha, and the seeding method was by 20 cm wide. The alfalfa harvest was carried out at the early bloom stage (10% of flowering), and the harvest date was June 29, 2021. The test treatments were non herbicide (NH), hand weeding (HW), herbicide 1 (Trifluralin, H1), herbicide 2 (S-metolachlor, H2), herbicide 3 (Alachlor, H3), and herbicide 4 (Pendimethalin, H4). Alfalfa plant height was significantly highest in H2 (62.1±1.4 cm) followed by H3 (61.7±1.6 cm), HW (58.5±1.0 cm), H1 (57.2±1.3 cm), H4 (56.1±1.3 cm), and NH (54.1±1.2 cm) (p<0.05). Based on HW, H2 and H3 were high and H1 and H4 were short, but NH was significantly shorter than HW and H1~H4 (p<0.05). The dry matter yield of alfalfa in NH, HW, H1, H2, H3, and H4 were 717.2±94.2, 2,613.8±254.1, 1,667.8±94.1, 2,498.3±120.2, 2,435.0±118.3, and 1,793.7±354.3 kg/ha. HW is the highest among them (p<0.05). The feed composition of alfalfa was 22~24% of the dry matter yield, and the CP content were significantly higher in NH (23.6 %) (p<0.05). The NH had higher (p<0.05) NDF and ADF, but RFV was lower (p<0.05). The weed plant height was NH 98.0±3.3cm, HW 73.3±1.7 cm, H1 91.9±1.5 cm, H2 53.3±5.8 cm, H3 81.4±3.5 cm and H4 96.6±2.2 cm, and H2 was significantly smallest in the group (p<0.05). The weed dry matter yield was NH 4,770.4±232.5 kg/ha, HW 316.3±91.9 kg/ha, H1 2,353.4±173.7 kg/ha, H2 114.5±10.2 kg/ha, H3 752.7±440.6 kg/ha and H4 2,220.6±775.6 kg/ha. The weed control value was HW 94.1%, H1 53.5%, H2 98.2%, H3 84.9%, H4 48.7%, the weed value of H2 is similar to weed control value of HW. Considering the above results, postemergence herbicide treatment controlled weeds by more than 50% compared with no treatment, and among herbicides, H2 (S-metolachlor) was found to be on a similar level to hand weeding.
This study was evaluated to compare annual productivity and feed value of Italian ryegrass and summer forage crops at paddy field in middle region of Korea. Italian ryegrass (Kowinearly) was used as winter forage crop, and forage rice (Youngwoo) and barnyard millet (Jeju) were used as summer forage crops. Each crop was cultivated using the standard forage cultivation method. The plant height, dry matter yield, crude protein content, and total digestible nutrient content of Italian ryegrass were 90.6 cm, 7,681 kg/ha, 9.2%, and 63.8%, respectively, and it was no significant difference by summer forage crops (p>0.05). The plant height of summer forage crops was the higher in barnyard millet than in forage rice (p<0.05). The dry matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient yields of summer forage crops were the higher in forage rice than in barnyard millet (p<0.05). Also, the feed value of summer forage crops was higher in forage rice than in barnyard millet. In conclusion, the combination of Italian ryegrass-forage rice was the most effective cropping system for annual forage production with high-yield and high-feed value, and it was considered the combination of Italian ryegrass-barnyard millet was good cropping system for annual forage production through reducing labor and cultivating stable at paddy field in middle region of Korea.
This study was carried out to study the effect of supplementary nitrogen fertilization application time according to regrowth date on growth date on growth characteristics, feed value, and productivity of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; IRG) from 2019 to 2021 in Cheonan region. In order to determine the regrowth time, IRG was cut from experimental plots 3cm above soil level and the time when 1cm grew was judged as the regrowth time. The regrowth dates were February 15th and February 12th in 2020 and 2021 respectively. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments were no fertilizer, immediately after the regrowth period, after 10 days of the regrowth period, and after 25 days of the regrowth period. Dry matter yield of IRG was significantly influenced by the supplementary N-fertilization application time. Dry matter yield was reduced for the delayed application time. The dry matter yield of immediately after the regrowth period was approximately 34.8 % higher than that no fertilizer application. In delaying the supplementary N-fertilization application time resulted in increased crude protein content. However, no significant statistical difference was neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber(p>0.05). After wintering, productivity of IRG reduced for the delayed application time. Therefore, it is essential to application N-fertilizer immediately after the regrowth period for high productivity of IRG.
우리나라는 의약발명의 진보성을 판단할 때 구성의 곤란성, 작용효과의 현저성, 목적의 특이성 중 1) 구성의 곤란성과 2) 효과의 현저성이 진보성 인정의 핵심 판단 기준이 된다. 효과의 현저성은 효과에 대한 구체적인 기술적 의의나 입증 데이터가 있어야만 하고, 그러한 결과가 선행기술에 비교하여 당업자가 예측할 수 없는 특유의 효과나 현저한 차이를 보여주어야 한다.
미국의 진보성 기준은 우리나라와 일맥상통하는 부분이 많으나, 의약발명의 진보성 판단에서 당업자가 1) 선행문헌을 합치거나 변경할 동기가 있는지 및 2) 선행문헌에 비추어 성공적으로 특허발명에 도달할 합리적인 기대를 가질 수 있는지를 큰 축으로 삼고 있다. 선행문헌을 합치거나 변경할 동기와 관련하여, 미국은 의약물질특허에 대해서 선도 화합물 분석을 적용하여, 선행문헌을 합치거나 변경할 동기를 찾을 때 상당히 엄격한 기준을 부여한다. 이는 특허의 자명성을 증명하기 어렵게 만들어 특허권자가 특허를 방어하기 용이하게 한다. 또한, 성공에 대한 합리적인 기대를 판단할 때는 전임상 또는 임상 데이터의 존재를 강조하는 것으로 사료된다.
우리나라 법원은 선행문헌에서 특허발명에 이르는 암시⋅동기를 찾을 때 유연한 접근을 취하는 것으로 고려된다. 대법원은 2016후502 판결에서 이매티닙(글리벡)을 위장관 기질 종양에 사용하는 의약용도특허가 선행문헌에 의해서 쉽게 예측된다는 이유로 진보성을 부정하였다. 대법원은 미국의 선도 화합물 분석과 같은 엄격한 진보성 기준을 적용하지 않았고, 하급심에서 언급된 성공에 대한 합리적인 기대 기준을 적용하는 것에 대해 유보적인 입장을 취하면서, 기존의 진보성 판단 기준에서 벗어나지 않는 모습을 보여주었다.
또한, 대법원은 자명성을 증명할 때 임상 데이터가 반드시 필요한 것은 아니라고 선을 그었다. 그 결과 자명성 증명이 용이해져 오리지널 제약사가 개량특허를 허여받기 어려워졌고, 이에 근거한 에버그리닝 전략 또한 제동을 건 것으로 이해 된다. 기존의 진보성 기준을 유지함으로써 사소한 개량발명에 대한 특허가 남발되지 않도록 하고, 제약사에게 혁신신약 개발을 하도록 동기부여를 제공한 것으로 사료된다. 우리나라 진보성 법리의 기본 취지는 당업자가 선행발명을 근거로 용이하게 도달할 수 있는 발명은 특허를 허여하지 않는 것인 만큼, 구성의 곤란성 및 효과의 현저성에 초점을 맞추되 임상시험 결과까지는 요구하지 않는 것이 법적 안정성이나 정책적 측면에서나 바람직 한 방향이라고 생각된다.
Sorghum×sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, SSH) is one of the most important summer forage crop and it is widely used for silage in Korea. Agriculture is highly dependent on the climate condition and experiencing significant loss of productivity due to climate change. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation analysis between productivity of forage SSH and climatic factors in Central Northern region of South Korea for 3 years (2017 to 2019). Plant height and dry matter yield of SSH were significantly higher in Gyeonggi-do than Ganwon-do. The productivity of SSH is more closely related with temperature than other climatic factors. Maximum temperature and Growing degree days in May and June showed a positive correlation. However, correlation between production of SSH and precipitation was not clear in this study, but rainy days showed a negative correlation (0.42). In conclusion, temperature is most important climatic factor to the maintenance of plant yield.
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is routinely used for the determination of nutrient components of forages. However, little is known about the impact of sample preparation and wavelength on the accuracy of the calibration to predict minerals. This study was conducted to assess the effect of sample preparation and wavelength of near infrared spectrum for the improvement of calibration and prediction accuracy of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) in imported hay using NIRS. The samples were scanned in reflectance in a monochromator instrument (680–2,500 nm). Calibration models (n = 126) were developed using partial least squares regression (PLS) based on cross-validation. The optimum calibrations were selected based on the highest coefficients of determination in cross validation (R2) and the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV). The highest R2 and the lowest SECV were obtained using oven-dry grinded sample preparation and 1,100-2,500 nm wavelength. The calibration (R2) and SECV were 0.99 (SECV: 468.6) for Ca and 0.91 (SECV: 224.7) for P in mg/kg DM on a dry weight, respectively. Results of this experiment showed the possibility of NIRS method to predict mineral (Ca and P) concentration of imported hay in Korea for routine analysis method to evaluate the feed value.
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of discrimination 12 different cultivar of sorghum × sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum genus) seed through near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The amount of samples for develop to the best discriminant equation was 360. Whole samples were applied different three spectra range (visible, NIR and full range) within 680-2500 nm wavelength and the spectrastar 2500 Near near infrared was used to measure spectra. The calibration equation for discriminant analysis was developed partial least square (PLS) regression and discrimination equation (DE) analysis. The PLS discriminant analysis model for three spectra range developed with mathematic pretreatment 1,8,8,1 successfully discriminated 12 different sorghum genus. External validation indicated that all samples were discriminated correctly. The whole discriminant accuracy shown 82 ~ 100 % in NIR full range spectra. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NIRS combined with chemometrics as a rapid method for discrimination of sorghum × sudangrass hybrid cultivar through seed.
This field evaluated the effect of different yields on the drying rate of Italian ryegrass (“Kowinearly”, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) hay during the spring season. The experiment was performed at Hwaseong, 2015. The different yields of the plot were selected by growth and development check. Three treatments were 35 t/ha(Y1), 45 t/ha(Y2), and 60 t/ha(Y3). After harvest with conditioner, it was conducted tedding 1/day. It was investigated patterns for changes in moisture content. The changes in moisture content were respectively Y1 from 78.9% to 14.4%, Y2 from 79.1% to 18.3%, and Y3 from 77.9% to 25.5% for 5days. It was no different significantly for changes in moisture content by yields from 1st day ~ 2nd day, But It was different significantly from 3rd day to 5th day. the content of neural detergent fiber(NDF) and acid detergent fiber(ADF) were respectively about 34%, 59%, regardless of yields (P>0.05). Crude protein of Yields Y1, Y2, and Y3 were respectively 6.9%, 8.7%, and 9.4% (P<0.05). The result of this study that the higher yields, the slower it dried. The Quantity is a factor to effect on drying rate.