본 연구는 수분함량과 미생물 첨가제가 알팔파 사일리지의 발효특성과 사료가치에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 수행되었다. 알팔파는 개화 10% 시기에서 수확되었으며 수분 함량(M60, M50, M40 및 M30)이 60, 50, 40 및 30%일 때 각각 이용하였다. 1500g을 샘플링한 후, 증류수 10mL을 첨가한 미첨가구(NAD)와 Lactococcus lactis 와 Pediococcus pentosaceus의 혼합물을 증류수(0.1g/10mL)에 1.5 x 1010cfu/g 농도로 희석한 후 접종한 미생물 균주 첨가구(ADD)를 3개월 및 6개월 발효하였다. 수분 및 미생물 첨가제에 따른 연평균 알팔파의 조단백, 중성세제 불용성 섬유 및 산성세제 불용성 섬유에서 차이가 없었다(p>0.05). 모든 발효기간에서 pH는 ADD의 M40에서 가장 낮았다(p<0.05). NAD 처리구에서는 젖산이 M50에서 가장 높았고(p<0.05), ADD 처리군에서는 M40 시험구에서 젖산이 가장 높았다(p<0.05). NAD와 ADD의 M60은 젖산 함량이 다른 수분 함량들에 비해 가장 낮으며(p<0.05) 낙산이 유일하게 검출되었다. 미생물군집의 상대적 풍부도는 ADD 처리구의 M40과 M50에서 Homo LAB (Enterococcus, Lactiplantibacillus, Lacticaseibacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus)의 비율이 가장 높았고, Clostridium은 M60에서 가장 높았다.
This study was conducted to analyze and compare the dry matter yield of Italian ryegrass (IRG) cultivated under monoculture and mixed culture system to recommend suitable varieties that can be cultivated. Italian ryegrass cultivars, Green Fram (GF, extremely early-maturing), Kowinearly (KE, early-maturing), Kowinmaster (KM, mild-maturing), and Hwasan 104 (H104, late-maturing), were used for mono or mixed cultivation. The average monthly temperature in Cheonan over the past 30 years tended to be similar, but that in November and March are judged to be abnormal weather. The dry matter yield of GF+H104 was significantly higher during harvest than that of GF (p<0.05). The dry matter yields of KE and KE+KM were significantly higher during harvest than the output standards of KE and KM. There was no significant difference between the dry matter yield of H104 and KM (p>0.05), but KM had the highest yield of 16,763.1 kg/ha. Analysis showed that the highest dry matter yield during IRG harvest was obtained under monoculture and KE+KM mixed culture. Because the occurrence frequency of abnormal weather such as drought during spring is increasing recently, it is judged that IRG cultivation using early and middle growth is necessary to prepare for abnormal weather.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of storage type and period on the quality of rye hay. The rye “Gogu” was sown on October 15, 2020, and harvested on April 22, 2021 (heading stage). The rye hay was prepared in two wrapping conditions (wrapping and unwrapping) and two storage period (3 and 6 months). In regards to their visual appearance, the forage quality score was higher in wrapped rye hay than in unwrapped rye hay. In all groups, there was no difference in appearance between inside and outside. The moisture content of wrapped rye hay was maintained at the initial level until 6 months. However, the moisture content of unwrapped rye hay was increased at 3 months of storage, and then decreased at 6 months of storage. Crude protein content was higher in wrapped rye hay than in unwrapped rye hay, whereas NDF and ADF contents were lower within wrapped rye hay than within unwrapped rye hay (p<0.05). In conclusion, wrapping rye is effective method for long-term storage that reduces the effect of external environment.
This study was carried out to evaluate the growth characteristics and forage yield potential for warm season grass as emergency forages. The experimental design was a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. Two barnyard millet (Echinochloa species cv. Shirohie and Jeju native), a pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum cv Feed milk 2) a proso millet (Panicum miliaceum cv Native), a teffgrass (Eragrostis tef cv. Tiffany) and a kleingrass (Panicum coloratum cv. Selection 75) were compared for forage production and quality at the Mid regions of Korea. Warm season forage crops were sown on May 21 and June 23 respectively, and in 2021, it was sown twice on May 21 and June 21 The number of days to seedling emergence for barnyard millet and teffgrass was observed approximately 10 and 3 days after seeding, respectively. The cultivation period from seeding to harvest was within 60 days for all entry spices except for the late-heading type barnyard millet (within 84 days). As for the dry matter yield by seeding date, the dry matter yield of the late-heading type barnyard millet in May seeding was the highest at 23,872 kg/ha, and the kleingrass was the lowest at 3,888 kg/ha. For the June seeding, the dry matter yield of the late-heading type barnyard millet was 17,032 kg/ha, the highest, and the proso millet, teffgrass and kleingrass showed the lowest at 5,468, 5,442, and 5,197 kg/ha, respectively. The crude protein (CP) content was varied by warm season grass species, but the early-heading type barnyard millet, teffgrass, and kleingrass showed the highest tendency, and the late-heading type barnyard millet showed the lowest at 5.7~5.9%. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content did not show a significant difference between the seeding in May, but kleingrass in June sowed lower than the others.
This study was carried out the estimation on consumption patterns and consciousness of domestic forage for improvement of the quality of domestic forage. Although the cultivated area in South Korea of forage has increased significantly compared to the past, the self-sufficiency rate of domestic forage has increased to around 80% since 2010. Also, livestock farmers prefer to use import forage than domestic due to convenience of use. In Korean beef farms, the ratio of import to domestic forage was higher in domestic forage (import forage 3 : domestic forage 7). In the method of securing domestic forage, purchase of forage (55.6%) was higher than self-cultivation of forage (44.4%). The ratio of use by bailing type was shown in the order of rice staw rice straw (50.5%), domestic hay (15%), imported hay (12.5%), and total mixed ratio (10.7%). The preference of forage was in the order of amount of foreign matter, moisture content, price, feed value in Korean native cattle farm. The result of satisfaction with domestic and import forage showed that the satisfaction of domestic forage price was higher than import forage, while the moisture content and foreign matter of forage were lower than import forage. In addition, in the results of the satisfaction and importance of domestic roughage compared to imported roughage, satisfaction with imported roughage was generally high in all items except for price. As a result, in order to improve the satisfaction of domestic forage in Korean native cattle farm, it is necessary to minimize foreign matter in forage and increase hay production for moisture content uniform in forage.
This study was conducted to examine the dry matter yield and weed control of alfalfa according to postemergence herbicides treatment during spring seeding alfalfa. The seeding time of alfalfa was April 21, 2021, the seeding amount was 20 kg/ha, and the seeding method was by 20 cm wide. The alfalfa harvest was carried out at the early bloom stage (10% of flowering), and the harvest date was June 29, 2021. The test treatments were non herbicide (NH), hand weeding (HW), herbicide 1 (Trifluralin, H1), herbicide 2 (S-metolachlor, H2), herbicide 3 (Alachlor, H3), and herbicide 4 (Pendimethalin, H4). Alfalfa plant height was significantly highest in H2 (62.1±1.4 cm) followed by H3 (61.7±1.6 cm), HW (58.5±1.0 cm), H1 (57.2±1.3 cm), H4 (56.1±1.3 cm), and NH (54.1±1.2 cm) (p<0.05). Based on HW, H2 and H3 were high and H1 and H4 were short, but NH was significantly shorter than HW and H1~H4 (p<0.05). The dry matter yield of alfalfa in NH, HW, H1, H2, H3, and H4 were 717.2±94.2, 2,613.8±254.1, 1,667.8±94.1, 2,498.3±120.2, 2,435.0±118.3, and 1,793.7±354.3 kg/ha. HW is the highest among them (p<0.05). The feed composition of alfalfa was 22~24% of the dry matter yield, and the CP content were significantly higher in NH (23.6 %) (p<0.05). The NH had higher (p<0.05) NDF and ADF, but RFV was lower (p<0.05). The weed plant height was NH 98.0±3.3cm, HW 73.3±1.7 cm, H1 91.9±1.5 cm, H2 53.3±5.8 cm, H3 81.4±3.5 cm and H4 96.6±2.2 cm, and H2 was significantly smallest in the group (p<0.05). The weed dry matter yield was NH 4,770.4±232.5 kg/ha, HW 316.3±91.9 kg/ha, H1 2,353.4±173.7 kg/ha, H2 114.5±10.2 kg/ha, H3 752.7±440.6 kg/ha and H4 2,220.6±775.6 kg/ha. The weed control value was HW 94.1%, H1 53.5%, H2 98.2%, H3 84.9%, H4 48.7%, the weed value of H2 is similar to weed control value of HW. Considering the above results, postemergence herbicide treatment controlled weeds by more than 50% compared with no treatment, and among herbicides, H2 (S-metolachlor) was found to be on a similar level to hand weeding.
본 연구는 객토를 한 간척지에서 석고시용 수준이 알팔파의 수량과 사료성분에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 수행하였다. 실험장소는 간척한지 17~33년 경과된 석문간척지로서 약 70 cm 정도 객토한 토양이었다. 객토에 사용한 흙은 섬토양의 제염을 하지 않은 것 이었다. 처리는 석고를 시용하지 않은 0 ton/ha 구(G0), 석 고를 2 ton/ha(G2) 및 4 ton/ha(G4) 시용한 구로 하였다. 수확은 알팔파가 개화초기(개화 10%)에 도달할 때 1차 수확하였으며 이 후 수확은 약 35일 간격으로 수확을 하였다. 알팔파의 건물수량은 1차 년도는 G2가 G0와 G4보다 유의적으로 높았으며 2차 년도는 처리간 유의적인 차이는 없었으나 G2가 G0와 G4보다 높은 경향을 보였다. G2에서 알팔파의 건물수량이 높은 이유는 토양의 pH 및 EC가 각각 재배가능 및 재배적합 수준이었고 피복도 및 알팔파 식생비율도 높은 것에 기인하였다. 1차 및 2차 년도 모두 석고 처리 간 CP, NDF 및 ADF 함량 및 RFV는 차이가 없었다. 한편 1차 및 2차 년도의 연구결과를 통해서 알팔파 건물수량에 부정적인 영향을 주는 요인은 봄의 가뭄과 여름의 집중된 강수로 나타났다. 이상으로부터 객토 간척지에서 석고 처리는 알팔파의 건물수량을 높이는데 효과적인 것으로 판단되며 2 ton/ha이 적정 수준인 것으로 사료된다.
This study was evaluated to compare annual productivity and feed value of Italian ryegrass and summer forage crops at paddy field in middle region of Korea. Italian ryegrass (Kowinearly) was used as winter forage crop, and forage rice (Youngwoo) and barnyard millet (Jeju) were used as summer forage crops. Each crop was cultivated using the standard forage cultivation method. The plant height, dry matter yield, crude protein content, and total digestible nutrient content of Italian ryegrass were 90.6 cm, 7,681 kg/ha, 9.2%, and 63.8%, respectively, and it was no significant difference by summer forage crops (p>0.05). The plant height of summer forage crops was the higher in barnyard millet than in forage rice (p<0.05). The dry matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient yields of summer forage crops were the higher in forage rice than in barnyard millet (p<0.05). Also, the feed value of summer forage crops was higher in forage rice than in barnyard millet. In conclusion, the combination of Italian ryegrass-forage rice was the most effective cropping system for annual forage production with high-yield and high-feed value, and it was considered the combination of Italian ryegrass-barnyard millet was good cropping system for annual forage production through reducing labor and cultivating stable at paddy field in middle region of Korea.
This study was carried out to study the effect of supplementary nitrogen fertilization application time according to regrowth date on growth date on growth characteristics, feed value, and productivity of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; IRG) from 2019 to 2021 in Cheonan region. In order to determine the regrowth time, IRG was cut from experimental plots 3cm above soil level and the time when 1cm grew was judged as the regrowth time. The regrowth dates were February 15th and February 12th in 2020 and 2021 respectively. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments were no fertilizer, immediately after the regrowth period, after 10 days of the regrowth period, and after 25 days of the regrowth period. Dry matter yield of IRG was significantly influenced by the supplementary N-fertilization application time. Dry matter yield was reduced for the delayed application time. The dry matter yield of immediately after the regrowth period was approximately 34.8 % higher than that no fertilizer application. In delaying the supplementary N-fertilization application time resulted in increased crude protein content. However, no significant statistical difference was neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber(p>0.05). After wintering, productivity of IRG reduced for the delayed application time. Therefore, it is essential to application N-fertilizer immediately after the regrowth period for high productivity of IRG.
This study was conducted to determine the possibility of estimating the daily mean temperature for a specific location based on the climatic data collected from the nearby Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS) and Automated Weather System(AWS) to improve the accuracy of the climate data in forage yield prediction model. To perform this study, the annual mean temperature and monthly mean temperature were checked for normality, correlation with location information (Longitude, Latitude, and Altitude) and multiple regression analysis, respectively. The altitude was found to have a continuous effect on the annual mean temperature and the monthly mean temperature, while the latitude was found to have an effect on the monthly mean temperature excluding June. Longitude affected monthly mean temperature in June, July, August, September, October, and November. Based on the above results and years of experience with climate-related research, the daily mean temperature estimation was determined to be possible using longitude, latitude, and altitude. In this study, it is possible to estimate the daily mean temperature using climate data from all over the country, but in order to improve the accuracy of daily mean temperature, climatic data needs to applied to each city and province.
The objective of this study was to access the effect of climate and soil factors on alfalfa dry matter yield (DMY) by the contribution through constructing the yield prediction model in a general linear model considering climate and soil physical variables. The processes of constructing the yield prediction model for alfalfa was performed in sequence of data collection of alfalfa yield, meteorological and soil, preparation, statistical analysis, and model construction. The alfalfa yield prediction model used a multiple regression analysis to select the climate variables which are quantitative data and a general linear model considering the selected climate variables and soil physical variables which are qualitative data. As a result, the growth degree days(GDD) and growing days(GD), and the clay content(CC) were selected as the climate and soil physical variables that affect alfalfa DMY, respectively. The contributions of climate and soil factors affecting alfalfa DMY were 32% (GDD, 21%, GD 11%) and 63%, respectively. Therefore, this study indicates that the soil factor more contributes to alfalfa DMY than climate factor. However, for examming the correct contribution, the factors such as other climate and soil factors, and the cultivation technology factors which were not treated in this study should be considered as a factor in the model for future study.
Sorghum×sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, SSH) is one of the most important summer forage crop and it is widely used for silage in Korea. Agriculture is highly dependent on the climate condition and experiencing significant loss of productivity due to climate change. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation analysis between productivity of forage SSH and climatic factors in Central Northern region of South Korea for 3 years (2017 to 2019). Plant height and dry matter yield of SSH were significantly higher in Gyeonggi-do than Ganwon-do. The productivity of SSH is more closely related with temperature than other climatic factors. Maximum temperature and Growing degree days in May and June showed a positive correlation. However, correlation between production of SSH and precipitation was not clear in this study, but rainy days showed a negative correlation (0.42). In conclusion, temperature is most important climatic factor to the maintenance of plant yield.
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is routinely used for the determination of nutrient components of forages. However, little is known about the impact of sample preparation and wavelength on the accuracy of the calibration to predict minerals. This study was conducted to assess the effect of sample preparation and wavelength of near infrared spectrum for the improvement of calibration and prediction accuracy of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) in imported hay using NIRS. The samples were scanned in reflectance in a monochromator instrument (680–2,500 nm). Calibration models (n = 126) were developed using partial least squares regression (PLS) based on cross-validation. The optimum calibrations were selected based on the highest coefficients of determination in cross validation (R2) and the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV). The highest R2 and the lowest SECV were obtained using oven-dry grinded sample preparation and 1,100-2,500 nm wavelength. The calibration (R2) and SECV were 0.99 (SECV: 468.6) for Ca and 0.91 (SECV: 224.7) for P in mg/kg DM on a dry weight, respectively. Results of this experiment showed the possibility of NIRS method to predict mineral (Ca and P) concentration of imported hay in Korea for routine analysis method to evaluate the feed value.
This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of replacing imported Timothy hay (TH) with domestic Italian ryegrass silage (IRGS) as a horse feed considering feed quality, nutrient digestibility and feed price. Two experimental diets (TH and IRGS) were fed to six-headed Thoroughbred (body weight, 475.7±33.3kg) of the Korea Racing Authority of Wondang Stud Farm. The 3 head animals were assigned to Control group (TH) and Treatment group (IRGS), respectively. The nutrient digestibility was determined by the total collection method. IRGS is enough for using as a horse feed because its Relative feed value(RFV) was higher than TH and its fermentation quality is suitable for horses. Although no difference was observed in nutrient digestibility, Total digestible nutrients(TDN), and Digestible energy(DE) between Control and Treatment group (p>0.05), the fact that price of IRGS was much lower (53.7~62.4%) than that of TH indicates IRGS has competitive advantage over TH as a horse forage feed. The present study indicates that IRGS can be fully replaced with TH due to its superior economic value even though the similarity of its nutrient digestibility, TDN, and DE to TH.
This study was conducted to suggest the new grassland grade system on evaluating the grassland status. The grassland status has been evaluated based on the forage yield (good, fair and poor) by municipal authorities. The grassland grades by current system were 19 good, 11 fair and 11 poor among the 41 grassland farms from 6 provinces. This evaluation result differed greatly from the result of actual measurement of forage yields which showed all poor. The big difference was resulted from failing the reflection of the various characteristics, such as different seasonal growth and harvest frequency. Furthermore, the lack of consistent examining date and method added the inaccuracy of current grassland grade system. The new grassland grade system based on the grassland vegetation ratio (grass, weed and bare soil) was initially designed into 6-grade system (1st; 100~80%, 2nd; 79~60%, 3rd; 59~40%, 4th; 39~20%; 5th; 19~1% and 6th; 0% on the basis of grasses proportion), but later was changed into 4-grade system (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades are 70% or more, 50% or more, 50% or less, and 0% of forage proportion, respectively) after reflecting the opinion of grassland farms and municipal authorities. Re-evaluation on the grassland status using the 4-grade system resulted in the total 80% consisted of 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade which means most grasslands needs the partial reseeding or the rehabilitation of entire grassland. Pictures and schematic diagrams depicting the 4-grade system were presented to improve the objectivity of evaluation. The optimal time for assessing grassland status is fall when plant height 20~30 cm. Conclusively, the 4-grade system is an efficient method for all non-professionals including grassland farms or municipal authorities in assessing the grassland status. To apply this system to the field, the institutional arrangements such as amendment of grassland act should take place in advance.