This study was conducted at the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) from 2010 to 2017 to develop a late-maturing variety with high productivity for cultivation in the southern region of South Korea. The new variety of Italian ryegrass, ‘IR901’, was a late-maturing variety, and its heading date was 22 May, 17 days later than that of the control variety ‘Kowinearly’. ‘IR901’ had a flag leaf width of 11.2 mm, flag leaf length of 31.8 cm, and plant length of 103 cm on its heading date. The combined average dry matter yield of ‘IR901’ in all three adaptability evaluation regions (Cheonan, Pyeongchang and Haenam) was 7,747 kg/ha, which was similar to that of the ‘Kowinearly’ variety (7,734 kg/ ha). However, the average dry matter yield over three years in Cheonan and Pyeongchang was 82% and 96%, respectively, compared to that of the control, which was most likely because of the poor cold tolerance of ‘IR901’. By contrast, in Haenam, in the southern region, the average dry matter yield of ‘IR901’ was 19% higher than that of the ‘Kowinearly’ variety. The proportions of crude protein (CP), total digestible nutrients (TDN), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in ‘IR901’ were 8.6%, 59.7%, 36.9%, and 54.8%, respectively; the proportions were 0.2% lower, the same, the same, and 2.5% lower than those in the ‘Kowinearly’ variety. The determined in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of ‘IR901’ was 72.2% higher than that of ‘Kowinearly’ (67.2). In general, of the two varieties, the forage quality of ‘IR901’ was marginally superior to that of ‘Kowinearly’.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of horse manure compost application on Italian ryegrass (IRG) yield and volcanic ash soil characteristics. Because the number of horses in Korea is growing, the amount of horse manure is growing. Jeju island, where about 55 % of the horses live, is composed of volcanic ash soil. This study was conducted for about 7 months. Sowing was conducted on October 2019. Harvesting was conducted at heading stage(2020.5.). Five treatments were established based on the horse manure compost composition. These were 100 % chemical fertilizer (CF), the combination of 50 % horse manure and 50 % chemical fertilizer (combination), horse manure with 50 % nitrogen (HM 50 %), horse manure with 100 % nitrogen (HM 100 %), and horse manure with 150 % nitrogen (HM 150 %). The plant height and dry matter yield were investigated to determine the forage yield and the soil characteristics of pH, total nitrogen, available phosphate, and organic matter were analyzed. The plant heights in the CF, combination, and HM 150 % treatments were 147.8 cm, 144.3 cm, and 147.1 cm respectively (Table 2). Dry matter yield in the CF treatment was about 23,807 kg/ha, which tended to be the highest dry matter yield. HM 150 % and the combination treatment were about 18,804 and 18,455 kg/ha, respectively, which tended to be the highest dry matter yield of the treatments amended with horse manure compost. The dry matter yield of the HM 100 % and HM 50 % treatments was about 15,801 kg/ha and 14,446 kg/ha, respectively (Table 2). The pH of the surface soil tended to increase after the experiment. The soil pH of the HM 150 % treatment was significantly higher than the soil pH of the other treatments. The pH was affected by the amount of horse manure compost, with a pH of 8.1. The available phosphate in the treatments in which horse manure compost was added was higher than the available phosphate in the CF treatment. And the available phosphate in the HM 150 % treatment was significantly higher than the available phosphate in the other treatments (p < 0.05)(Table 3). These results suggest that 50 % horse manure should be applied to IRG as the basal fertilizer and the remaining 50 % should be chemical fertilizer as the top fertilizer. This can provide the proper IRG dry matter yield with less effect on volcanic ash soil.
This experiment was conducted to compare the seed productivity of Spring sown Italian ryegrass(Lolium multiflorum Lam.) depending on the seeding rates(20kg/ha, 30kg/ha, 40kg/ha) in Gangwon region. The experiment was a randomized block design with three replications. The test plots were located in alpine areas of about 600 m above sea level in Gangwon province. The tested Italian ryegrass variety was ‘Greencall’ developed by the National Institute of Animal Science, RDA. Italian Ryegrass was sown on March 26, 2020, and the seed harvesting was on the 60th day(2 July) from heading date. The heading date was May 8 with no difference, There were no significant differences in the agronomic characteristics including plant height. 30kg/ha seed rate was the highest at 146.8 seed/spike and 40kg/ha seed rate was the lowest at 114.7 seed/spike for the number of seeds per spike. The number of spikes per unit area was the highest in 40kg/ha at 886/m2 and the lowest in 20kg/ha at 750/m2. The yield of seed and straw was the highest in 40kg/ha at 1,288kg/ha and 2,970kg/ha respectively, but there was no difference. From the above results, the production of Italian ryegrass seeds through spring sowing in the Gangwon region is not much than autumn seeding, requiring the input of various technologies to increase productivity in the future, and it is desirable to determine the production cost through economic analysis was evaluated.
This experiment was conducted to study on the growth characteristics and seed productivity of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., IRG) planted in the Spring in Gangwon Highland according to the seeding distance (20, 30 and 40 cm). The field was located in highland around 600 m above sea level. The experimental design was randomized block design with three replication and the tested IRG variety was ‘Greencall’ developed by National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS). IRG was sown on March 26, 2020, and harvested on July 2. The plant height was the shortest at 80.5 cm in the 40 cm seeding distance plot (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between the 20 and 30 cm seeding distance. The number of spike per square meter (m2) was significantly higher in the 20 cm seeding distance plot than that of 40 cm (937 vs. 571). The dry matter (DM) content of seed and straw after harvesting was 49.70 and 33.36 % on average, and there was no significant difference between treatments (P>005). However, there was a significant difference in the fresh and DM yield of seeds and straw (P<0.05). DM yield of seeds was significantly higher in 20 cm distance than that of 40 cm, and the yield of straw was the same trend. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in DM yield between 20 cm and 30 cm and also in the feed value of straw after seed harvesting among seeding distance. The average CP, ADF, NDF, and TDN contents were 6.91, 36.76, 61.75 and 59.86%, respectively, and the RFV value was 91. Considering the above results, the production of Italian ryegrass seeds sown in the spring in the highlands of the Gangwon is lower than that of autumn sowing, but it is judged that it needs to be reviewed in case it is unavoidable. In the future, there should be an economic analysis and the development of technology that can increase production.
In the winter forage study, Italian ryegrass(IRG) and barley were selected. In 2018, the dry matter yield of IRG was 16,915kg per ha under the Agrivoltaic System; this was a little more than 16,750kg per ha of outdoors. On the contrary, the dry matter yield of barley was slightly less under the Agrivoltaic System than that of outdoors. In 2019, the dry matter yield under the Agrivoltaic System was 12,062kg per ha for IRG and 12,195kg per ha for the barley; this was 5.4% and 11.5% less than that of outdoors, respectively. In the summer forage study, corn and sorghum×sudangrass were selected. In 2019, the dry matter yield of corn under the Agrivoltaic System was 13,133kg per ha which was 17% less than that of outdoors. The dry matter yield of sorghum×sudangrass was 12,450kg per ha, which was 82.5% of that of outdoors. In 2020, the dry matter yield of corn under the Agrivoltaic System was 8,033kg per ha which was 7.9% less than that of outdoors. The dry matter yield of sorghum×sudangrass was 5,651kg per ha, which was 11.4% less than that of outdoors.
This experiment was conducted to compare the seed productivity of the Italian ryegrass(Lolium multiflorum Lam.) varieties sown in the spring in Gangwon region. The experiment was randomized block design with three replications. The Experimental field was located in alpine areas of about 600 m above sea level in Gangwon province. The tested Italian Ryegrass varieties were ‘Greenfarm’, ‘Greencall’ and ‘Kowinearly’ developed by National Institute of Animal Science, RDA. Italian Ryegrass varieties were sown on March 26, 2020, and the harvest was on the 60th day of mean heading date, July 2. The heading date of Kowinearly was May 8, but Greenfarm and Greencall was May 4. The plant length was the largest in the Kowinearly variety. However, the Kowinearly suffered severe lodging. There was no significant difference in the length of spike among varieties, and the number of seeds per spike was the lowest in Greenfarm at 118.5 seed/spike. As for the seed weight per spike, the Greenfarm variety was significantly lower at 0.56 g/spike, but the 1,000 seed weight was the heaviest in the Greenfarm at 2.5g.. The number of spike per unit area was the highest in Greenfarm at 906/m2. The dry matter content of seeds was the highest in Greenfarm at 54.3%, and for straw, Kowinearly was the highest at 35.3%. Seed productivity was not significant among varieties, and the average was 1,493 kg/ha. The yield of straw after seed production was also not significant among varieties (P>0.05), and the average was 3,172 kg/ha. From the above results, the production of Italian ryegrass seeds through spring sowing in the Gangwon region is not much than autumn seeding, requiring the input of various technologies to increase productivity in the future, and it is desirable to determine the production cost through economic analysis was judged.
‘Luckyone 2ho’ is a new orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) cultivar developed by the National Institue of Animal Science (NIAS) in 2017. To develope the new variety of orchardgrass, 5 superior clones were selected and polycrossed for seed production. The agronomic growth characteristics and forage productivity of ‘Luckyone 2ho’ were examined at Cheonan from 2012 to 2014, and regional trials were conducted in Cheonan, Pheonchang, Jinju and Jeju from 2015 to 2017, respectively. ‘Luckyone 2ho’ showed medium type growth habit in fall, and medium in length of flag leaf and very long upper internode. Plant height of ‘Luckyone 2ho’ was 3 cm less than that of standard cultivar, ‘Potomac’ and heading date was 1 days later than 5th May compared to standard cultivar, ‘Potomac’. Characteristics such as waterlogging and disease resistance of ‘Luckyone 2ho’ were stronger or better than those of standard cultivar, ‘Potomac’, Especially, dry matter yield of ‘Luckyone 2ho’(15,980 kg/ha) increased 9 % compared to that of standard cultivar, ‘Potomac’(14,702 kg/ha). Nutritive values were appeared to be similar in both varieties except in Vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) and crude protein and total digestible nutrients (TDN).
본 시험은 추위에 강하고 생산성이 우수한 이탈리안 라이그라스 품종을 육성하기 위하여 2009년부터 2017년까지 국립축산과학원 초지사료과에서 수행되었다. 이탈리안 라이그라스 신품종 그린콜은 2배체 작물로 엽색은 녹색이며, 월동전 초형은 반직립형, 봄의 초형은 직립형이다. 그린콜은 4월 25일경에 출수하는 극조생종 품종이고 지엽폭이 8 mm, 지엽길이는 24.9 cm 이며, 출수기의 초장은 96 cm로 플로리다 80호 보다 5 cm 정도 짧다. 줄기 두께는 플로리다80호 보다 0.14 mm 굵고 이삭 길이는 플로리다 80호와 대등하다. 그린콜의 건물수량은 11,592 kg/ha로서 대조품종인 플로리다 80호에 비하여 약간 높았다. 상대적 사료가치는 그린콜이 96.7인데 비해 수입종인 플로리다 80호는 89.8로 다소 높고 가소화양분총량 (TDN)이 60.8 %로서 플로리다 80호에 비해 2.1% 높았고, 산성세제불용섬유 (ADF)와 중성세제불용섬유 (NDF)는 각각 35.5 및 58.9 %로서 대조 품종 보다 약간 낮았다.