구조물 환기성능 평가에서 기존 사용된 환기 지표 (ACH: Air Change per Hour)는 유체가 거동하는 구조물 내 유량의 흡·배기량과 전체 볼륨에 의해 결정된다. 이는 구조물 내 유체 유동 중 국부적으로 정체된 흐름을 평가하는 지표로 사용하기 부적합하다. 본 논문에서는 구조물에서 국부적으로 정체된 흐름을 정량적으로 나타내기 위해 역류량을 이용하여 새로운 지표 (κ: 역류량 지수)를 제안 하고, 구조형상 변수에 의해 국부적으로 정체된 유체 흐름을 평가한다. 유체 흐름 영향인자로 구조형상 변수는 공극비 (ρ), 공극 개수 (N)로 선정한다. 전산 유체 역학 (CFD)에 의한 해석 결과, 구조형상 변수에 의한 자연 환기 성능은 유사하지만, 공극의 유무에 의한 국부 정체 기류의 크기에는 차이가 발생함이 나타난다. 또한, 역류량 지수는 구조형상 변수 각각 감소함에 따라 값이 증가하는 경향이 나타난다. 본 결과를 바탕으로 회귀분석을 통해 공극비과 공극 개수 변수에 의한 역류량과 역류량 지수의 근사값이 제시된다.
PURPOSES : This study aimed to examine the effect of fog on the optical properties of taillights and the relationship between luminous intensity and the visibility distance of taillights on the road. METHODS : Changes in luminous intensity were measured using a light meter. Participants subjectively evaluated visibility distance. The artificial fog was reproduced using weather-generating facilities at the Center of Road Weather Proving Ground (CRPG).
RESULTS : As expected, the average luminous intensity under intermediate fog conditions was reduced to 72% compared to normal weather conditions and 44% under heavy fog conditions in the case of the tail lamp-only lit condition. In the case of the tail lamp and brake lamp lit condition, the average luminous intensity was reduced to 76% under heavy fog conditions and 55% under intermediate fog conditions compared to normal dry conditions. In addition, the average visibility distance was reduced by 41% when fog conditions changed from intermediate to heavy in the case of the tail lamp-only lit condition and 39% in the case of the tail lamp and brake lamp lit conditions. Changes in visibility distance corresponding to the gradual change in luminous change were evaluated by participants, and the linearly regressed equations for the relationship between the intensity levels and the visibility distance were derived and examined for their meaning in terms of road traffic safety concerning stopping sight distance.
CONCLUSIONS : Luminous intensities were suggested, given the design speeds, to satisfy the minimum stopping distances. In addition, the required speed reduction allowances were suggested given the design speeds if the luminous intensity remains unchanged.
The paper aims to explore existence and degree of remaining fisheries damages after the completion of undertaking the Four Major Rivers Project focusing on the case of Yeongsan river. The paper seeks to show the necessity of consideration of periods of fishery resources recovery in the estimation of ex-post fisheries damages of the project by inferring the analysis of the annual variation of environmental indicators in the river. Therefore, the paper suggests three years of remaining periods of fisheries damages of the project utilizing the variation trend of ex-ante and ex-post annual output data of inland fisheries in Jeonnam province and individual catch of fisheries. In the measurement of the annual degree of fisheries damages during periods of fishery resources recovery, the paper attempts to suggest the method of comparision of day catch data per vessel between ex-ante and ex-post periods of the project, which were investigated by the same institute. Here the paper tries to make correction of ex-post catch data for holding the same catching condition as ex-ante situation by adopting the concept of competitive intensity of catching which was derived from the decreasing rate of number of fishing households in the area of Yeongsan river.
This study was conducted to develop a technique for the stable production of Italian ryegrass(IRG) seeds in reclamation sites. Harvesting 35 days after heading in Autumn resulted in the highest production, an average of 2,232kg/ha. The production yield decreased due to seed loss as harvesting was delayed to 45 and 55 days post-heading. For the harvested 35 days post-heading, under growing rice sowing resulted in 80% seed yield of after rice sowing's; spring sowing resulted in 40%. After rice sowing using the domestic IRG seeds of 30kg/ha produced the highest seed yield of 2,507kg/ha. The highest straw yield has resulted when using the imported IRG seeds of 20kg/ha for after rice sowing 35 days post-heading fresh weight 36,667kg/ha, dry weight 14,500kg/ha, and TDN weight 7,895kg/ha.
This study was conducted to establish spring sowing techniques in preparation for the impacts of climate change on sowing time and wintering rates of winter forage crops such as barley, oat and IRG. Oat showed the highest yield in 2017 which had relatively dry climate condition. And when sowing in late Febrnary 2017 yielding 9,408kg/ha were obtained, yielding 4,011kg/ha more than IRG's sown in the same period. In 2018 which had relatively wet climate condition, four barley species decreased in the production from the previous year. Oat also had decreased by 70% from 9,408kg/ha to 2,851kg/ha. On the other hand, IRG maintained the production in the mid-5,000kg/ha range. It was also found that IRG had the least variability due to external influences regardless of seeding period for 2 years. Mixed sowing with IRG and oat in 50:50 ratio was the highest dry matter, 6,584kg/ha, and IRG was 18.5% and Oat was 2.3 times higher than single planting.
This study was conducted in 2014 in the Gangjin area of Jeonnam province for the purpose of confirming the potential of Kenaf as an alternative feed crop of rice. The weather and soil conditions were favorable and there was no adverse effect on the growth of Kenaf. The amount of seeding was given at 10 kg, 15 kg and 20 kg. As the seeding volume increased, plant height and dry matter yield increased, and stem diameter and number of nodes decreased. The highest growth rate was observed between 75 and 90 days from the date of planting(p<0.05). As the growth progressed, stem rate increased and leaf rate decreased(p<0.05). Increased amount of seeding and growth resulted in decreased CP and TDN and increased ADF and NDF, which resulted in the decreased economic value of Kenaf as a feed crop. The result of increasing the use of organic fertilizer to 20 kg and 30 kg was similar to increasing the amount of seeding. As organic fertilizer usage increased, dry matter yield and growth rate improved(p<0.05).
This study was carried out to introduce of agronomic characteristics, forage yields and quality of Sorghum × Sudangrass hybrids ‘Cadan 99B’ and ‘Sweet Sioux WMR’ from 2015 to 2016 in middle and southern regions of Korea. The field experiment design was complete in seven varieties with three repetitions. Sorghum × Sudangrass hybrids were sown on mid-May in middle region, and end-May in southern region of Korea, in 2015 and 2016. The observed average heading date of Cadan 99B and Sweet Sioux WMR were July 22. The heading dates of Cadan 99B and Sweet Sioux WMR were 8 days earlier than SX-17 and 5 days earlier than brown mid-rid (BMR) Revolution. The sugar contents of Cadan 99B and Sweet Sioux WMR were 6.5 and 6.9 Brix°, respectively. Comparison with BMR variety, the sugar contents of Candan 99B and Sweet Sioux WMR were 0.2 and 0.6 Brix° higher than Revolution, respectively. The average of dry matter (DM) yield for 2 years and 2 regions of Cadan 99B (24,587kg/ha) were the highest among the seven varieties, but there was no significant difference among other varieties except headless control variety Jumbo (19,119kg/ha) and LATTE (20,778kg/ha) (p>0.05). The crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Cadan 99B were 7.5% and 60.2%, and Sweet Sioux WMR were 6.9% and 60.7%, respectively. The results of this study indicated that Sorghum × Sudangrass hybrids Cadan 99B and Sweet Sioux WMR are earlier heading dates and higher than SX-17, and high yields of DM in middle and southern regions of Korea.
Although the main objective of Free Trade Agreements (FTA) is market integration among member countries, there are limited studies supporting this impact. Our study explores whether FTA has enhanced market integration between South Korea and its FTA partners, focusing on South Korea’s fishery product import market. We investigate two research questions concerning FTA impacts: first, whether trade costs declined when South Korea imported fishery products from its FTA partners after the FTA; second, if the speed of the convergence of South Korea-its FTA partners’price differential of imported fishery products on trade costs result to occur more quickly after the FTA. To determine these outcomes, we utilize a Threshold Autoregressive Model covering the sample periods from January 2002 to April 2017. Our findings demonstrate the effects of FTA on market integration are different among FTA partners. FTA has enhanced the market integration between South Korea and Norway, Vietnam, and Spain, respectively, but not for others. Therefore, we find positive evidence of FTA on fishery import market integration between South Korea and Norway, Vietnam and Spain, respectively.