중국 동북부지역 랴오닝성의 단둥(40°07'N 124°23'E)과 지린성의 궁주링(43°30'N 124°49') 및 룽징(42°46'N 129°26'E)에서 2020년과 2021년 벼 재배기간 중에 성페로몬트랩으로 이화명나방(Chilo suppressalis)(나비목: 포충나방과)의 성충 발생 시기를 조사하였다. 1화기 성충은 5월 중순부터 7월 하순 사이, 2화기 성충은 7월 중순부터 9월 중순 사이에 발생하여 세 지역 모두 연중 2회 성충 발생양상이 뚜렷하게 확인되었 다. 위도가 높은 지역에서 발생시기가 더 늦었다. 각 지역에서 관찰된 1화기 발생 시기를 기준으로 발생 시기 모델링을 통해 2화기 발생 시기를 추 정하고 관찰된 시기와 비교하였다. 네 개의 선행연구 자료로부터 성충, 알, 유충, 용 발육단계의 온도의존 생명현상(발육속도, 발육완성분포, 생존 율, 성충 노화율, 총산란수, 산란완성분포, 성충 생존완성분포) 모델들을 수집하거나 작성하였고, 이들을 선행 연구에 따라 단독으로 사용하거나 혼합하여 곤충 발생 시기 추정 소프트웨어인 PopModel에서 결합하였다. 모델링 결과에서 유충 발육기간이 짧게 관찰된 선행연구 자료를 기반으 로 하여 구성된 모형들이 2화기 성충 발생 시기를 더 근접하게 추정하였다. 2021년에는 단둥과 룽징에서 성충 조사 시기에 맞추어 이화명나방에 의 한 벼 피해주율의 변화를 조사하였다. 피해주율은 벼 재배기간 중 누적되어 2번의 증가시기가 뚜렷하게 나타났고, 이화명나방의 각 세대 유충에 의 해 발생한 것으로 추정되었다.
This study was conducted to investigate the growth characteristics of the shoot and roots and to analyse the morphological characteristics of roots of waterlogging resistant and susceptible maize inbred lines. Six maize inbred lines were treated with waterlogging for 10 days at V3, and the degree of leaf senescence was evaluated for waterlogging resistance. As a result of waterlogging resistance evaluation, KS85 was the most damaged inbred line with 3.33 senescence leaves and 5.54 degree, and KS141 was the least damaged inbred line with 1.33 senescence leaves and 3 degree. At 20 days after treatment, the effect of waterlogging stress on the shoot dry matter accumulation of KS85 and KS141 were decreased by 86.1% and 77.0%, respectively, compared to the control. Similarly, root dry matter accumulation of KS85 and KS141 were decreased by 77.6% and 65.0%. As a result of SEM photographs of the nodal roots of the two maize inbred lines, the thickness of cortex of KS141 was thicker than that of KS85, and the distortion of the cortex was observed in KS85 at 20 days after waterlogging. It was concluded that the thickness of cortex was related to maize waterlogging resistance.
PURPOSES : This study aimed to examine the relationship between discomfort glare and different types of lighting, including low-mounted lighting and conventional pole lighting. Although roadway lighting has been widely acknowledged as a countermeasure for nighttime traffic safety, discomfort glare, which is incidentally derived from lighting, is one of the key elements to overcome.
METHODS : We selected the Unified Glare Rating (UGR), defined as a globally accepted lighting standard, as a measure of the effect of discomfort glare. Artificial rain and fog conditions were reproduced at the Center of Road Weather Proving Ground (CRPG).
RESULTS : As a result, we found that the UGR of low-mounted lighting is reduced by 57.96% compared to pole lighting under rainy conditions, and by 39.12% in the case of fog conditions. CONCLUSIONS : It is proposed that discomfort glare was significantly reduced in the case of low-mounted lighting compared to pole lighting under both rain and fog conditions. Discomfort glare hinders the visual performance of drivers, so it may be related to delayed reaction time and inappropriate driving behavior. Therefore, low-mounted lighting is strongly recommended on road sections that have a high frequency of traffic accidents and adverse weather patterns.
PURPOSES : This study aimed to examine the effect of fog on the optical properties of taillights and the relationship between luminous intensity and the visibility distance of taillights on the road. METHODS : Changes in luminous intensity were measured using a light meter. Participants subjectively evaluated visibility distance. The artificial fog was reproduced using weather-generating facilities at the Center of Road Weather Proving Ground (CRPG).
RESULTS : As expected, the average luminous intensity under intermediate fog conditions was reduced to 72% compared to normal weather conditions and 44% under heavy fog conditions in the case of the tail lamp-only lit condition. In the case of the tail lamp and brake lamp lit condition, the average luminous intensity was reduced to 76% under heavy fog conditions and 55% under intermediate fog conditions compared to normal dry conditions. In addition, the average visibility distance was reduced by 41% when fog conditions changed from intermediate to heavy in the case of the tail lamp-only lit condition and 39% in the case of the tail lamp and brake lamp lit conditions. Changes in visibility distance corresponding to the gradual change in luminous change were evaluated by participants, and the linearly regressed equations for the relationship between the intensity levels and the visibility distance were derived and examined for their meaning in terms of road traffic safety concerning stopping sight distance.
CONCLUSIONS : Luminous intensities were suggested, given the design speeds, to satisfy the minimum stopping distances. In addition, the required speed reduction allowances were suggested given the design speeds if the luminous intensity remains unchanged.
PURPOSES : In this study, the relationship between the types of road pavement markings and the visibility distance under adverse weather conditions was evaluated.
METHODS : Rainy and foggy conditions at the weather proving ground were replicated in this study. The researchers recorded the visibility distance corresponding to each experiment scenario comprising the weather conditions and pavement marking types.
RESULTS : Visibility distances under adverse weather conditions decreased more than those of normal weather conditions. Under rainy conditions, the average visibility distance across all pavement markings decreased by 33%. However, the average visibility distance across all pavement markings foggy conditions decreased by 46.8%. Based on the test results of the visibility distance, the speed reduction rates corresponding to the adverse and normal weather conditions, i.e., 24% and 36% speed reduction under rainy and foggy conditions, respectively, were established.
CONCLUSIONS : This study validated the reduction in the visibility distance affected by weather conditions by applying actual road scale weather proving ground. In addition, speed reduction was recommended for safe driving under adverse weather conditions.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appearance, physicochemical, physical, and fermentation properties of the fermented soybean produced by manufacturing with inoculation the different types of microbial strains. The strains were inoculated by the NSI (natural strains inoculation), and the SSI (selective strain inoculation) were treatments. The appearance showed differences in color, viscous substance, and hardness depending on strains inoculation and fermentation duration. The pH, and total acidity were 6.40~7.26%, and 0.10~0.39% respectively with differences depending on the samples. The moisture content as the fermentation duration increased, the NSI (56.03~57.66%) decreased and the SSI (56.71~58.63%) increased. The physical characteristics of the hardness increased as the fermentation duration increased for the NSI and the SSI decreased. The color values for the L, a, and b values were 47.64~58.56, 7.15~9.08, and 12.41~17.30, respectively. The α-amylase and protease activities of the SSI were the highest among all treatments. The total viable cell counts of the fermented soybean products by strains were 5.02 to 9.77 log CFU/g, and SSI (fermentation, 48 hours) was the highest. The amino-type nitrogen contents of all samples were 301.62~746.97 mg% and the SSI showed the highest content. The amino acid had the highest glutamic acid content.
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the level of the light-environment and the driver's visual ability on the change in the driver's perception of a forward curved section at night. The study also aims to identify factors that should be considered to ensure safety while entering curved sections of a road at night.
METHODS : Data collected from a virtual driving experiment, conducted by the Korean Institute of Construction Technology (2017), were used. Logistic regression was applied to analyze the effects of changes in the light-environment factors (road surface luminance and glare) and the driver’s visual ability on a driver's perception of the road. Additionally, analysis of the moderated effect of visual ability on light-environment factors indicated that the difference in drivers’ visual abilities impact the influence of light-environment factors on their perception. A driver's ability to perceive, as a response variable, was categorized into 'failure' and 'success' by comparing the perceived distance and minimum reaction sight distance. Covariates were also defined. Road surface luminance levels were categorized into 'unlit road surface luminance' (luminance ≤ 0.1 nt) and 'lit road surface luminance' (luminance > 0.1 nt), based on 0.1 nt, which is the typical level observed on unlit roads. The glare level was categorized as 'with glare' and 'without glare' based on whether the glare was from a high-beam caused by an oncoming vehicle or not. The driver's visual ability level was categorized into 'low visual ability' (age ≥ 50) and 'high visual ability' (age ≤ 49), considering that after the age of 50, the drive’s visual ability sharply declines.
RESULTS : The level of road surface luminance, glare, and driver's visual ability were analyzed to be significant factors that impact the driver's ability to perceive curved road sections at night. A driver's perception was found to reduce when the road surface luminance is very low, owing to the lack of road lighting ('unlit road luminance'), when glare is caused by oncoming vehicles ('with glare'), and if the driver's visual ability level is low owing to an older age ('low visual ability'). The driver's ability to perceive a curved section is most affected by the road surface luminance level. The effect is reduced in the order of glare occurrence and the driver's visual ability level. The visual ability was analyzed as a factor that impacts the intensity of the effect of change of the light-environment on the change of the driver's ability to perceive the road. The ability to perceive a curved section deteriorates significantly in 'low visual ability' drivers, aged 50 and above, compared to drivers with 'high visual ability,' under the age of 49, when the light-environment conditions are adverse with regard to the driver’s perception (road surface luminance: 'lit road surface luminance'→'unlit road surface luminance,' glare: 'without glare'→'with glare').
CONCLUSIONS : Supplementation, in terms of road lighting standards that can lead to improvements in the level of light-environment, should be considered first, rather than the implementation of restrictions on the right of movement, such as restricting the passage of low visual ability or aging drivers who are disadvantageous in terms of gaining good perception of the road at night. When establishing alternatives so that safety on roads at night is improved, it is necessary to consider improving drivers' perception by expanding road lighting installation. The road lighting criteria should be modified such that the glare caused by oncoming traffic, which is an influential factor in the linear change in perception, and the level of light-environment thereof are improved.
In this study, the properties of the substances fermented soybean producted by manufacturing with several Aspergillus strains were investigated. The five soybean cultivar that includes miso, jinpung, pyeongwon, cheonga and chamol were used in this experiment. The pH and total acidity were 6.30~6.66%, and 0.27~0.48%, respectively with differences depending on the samples. The color values for L value, a, and b value were 60.28~69.80, 0.64~3.68, and 11.48~31.21, respectively. The amylase activities, protease activities, and amino-type nitrogen of the jinpung samples were the highest among all cultivars. The mold counts the fermented soybean products by cultivars were 6.18~9.14 log CFU/g, and miso was the highest. Free amino acid and organic acid contents were highest in the jinpung and showed different composition depending on each sample. A total of 18 volatile aroma-compounds, including two acids, four alcohols, four ketones, three phenols, one furan, three pyrazines, and one miscellaneous compounds. In conclusion, it is expected that manufacturing A. oligze inoculation fermented soybean products using jinpung cultivar will improve quality.
PURPOSES : This study evaluated the effects of dynamic road marking (DRM) on the reduction in drivers’ workload under rainy conditions. Changes in workload in two cases were evaluated: only-lane marking and a combination of lane marking and DRM.
METHODS : Rainy conditions were simulated by utilizing the full-scale road weather proving ground. Moreover, participants’ eye movements were used as the indicators for workload.
RESULTS : Workload in case of the combination of lane marking and DRM was found to decrease by 44.6% compared to the case of onlylane marking, under the rain intensity of 15 mm/h. Moreover, workload decreased by 50.7% in case of the combination of lane marking and DRM compared to the only-lane marking case, under 30 mm/h rain intensity.
CONCLUSIONS : This study validated the positive effects of the DRM in workload reduction under rainy conditions.
In this study, the physicochemical traits of soybean (100-seed weight, seed coat rate, protein content, composition, and amino acid content) and the quality of tofu (texture and sensory characteristics) were evaluated in order to determine the features of six varieties (Saedanbaek, Daechan, Daepung2, Seonpung, Miso, Saegeum) in terms of textural and sensory characteristics of tofu. Regardless of cultivar, the order of amino acid composition rate was as follows: Glutamic acid > Aspartic acid > Arginine > Leucine > Lysine. Approximately 50-60% of tofu (dry weight) consisted of protein, and among the cultivars, Tofu made from Saedanbaek showed the highest amount of protein at 59%. It was followed by tofu made from Miso at 54%. The rest contained about 50% protein. According to the result of correlation, crude lipid (-0.933**), crude protein (0.961**), and total phosphorus (0.924**) were strongly correlated with tofu hardness, and such factors could be utilized as an indicator of tofu quality.
PURPOSES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the shear and tensile strength properties of adhesive road studs in asphalt and concrete pavements.
METHODS: The 300 mm×300 mm×50 mm rectangular specimens were fabricated using asphalt and concrete mixture for installation of road studs. Four 140-mm-radius circular areas were milled on each specimen with depth of 5 mm to install the adhesive road studs. About 100 g of thermal melting adhesive was applied on the milled area, and then the road stud was bonded onto the surface of the asphalt and concrete mixture. Direct shear testing was conducted at a speed of 5 mm/min on the interface between road stud and asphalt and concrete materials. Tensile strength testing was also conducted on the prepared specimens by applying load with increase of 50 kPa per second. These tests were performed not only in dry condition but also in wet condition to determine the effect of moisture on the shear and tensile strengths.
RESULTS : According to the shear testing results, the average shear strength of asphalt samples in dry and wet conditions are 0.509 and 0.234 MPa, respectively. From this testing, the shear strength of wet sample was found to be decreased by 50% with respect to that of the dry sample. Similar trends can be observed on the concrete samples. The average tensile strength of asphalt samples was 0.187 MPa at 1.5 mm of displacement in dry condition. The concrete sample has a 0.222 MPa average tensile strength, which is slightly higher than that of the asphalt sample because of the rough surface characteristics of the concrete sample.
CONCLUSIONS: It is determined from this study that the shear and tensile strengths of road stud bonded on the surface of asphalt mixture are slightly lower than those on concrete samples. Regardless of the pavement type, the wet conditioning of the sample can decrease the shear and tensile strength by 50% those of the dry sample. In the future, the quality improvement of adhesive and increase of specific surface area should be considered to improve the bonding property between road stud and pavement surface.
우리나라에서 쌀(Rice, Orzya sativa L.)은 주식일 뿐만 아니라 다양한 가공식품원료로서 그의 가치가 높은 식품자원이다. 본 연구는 쌀맥주 제조 시 당화가 잘되는 쌀의 전 처리 방법에 대해 탐색하고자 수행되었다. 쌀을 미세분쇄, 수침처리, 볶음처리, 호화처리, 팽화처리 후 맥아와 함께 당화를 한 결과, 팽화미를 함유한 맥즙이 가장 높은 당도 (°Bx)를 나타내었다. 또한 액화 및 당화효소를 첨가하지 않고, 맥즙을 제조 시 쌀 30% 첨가했을 때 당도가 가장 높은 결과를 나타내었다. 볶은쌀과 팽화미를 이용하여 10, 20, 30% 첨가한 맥주를 제조한 결과 팽화미를 30% 첨가 한 맥즙의 가용성고형분이 15.4 °Bx로 가장 높고 당화도 잘되었으며, 맥주의 알코올함량이 5.0-5.4%로 볶은쌀 첨가 맥주에 비해 높았으며, 탁도가 없었고 쓴맛도 적은 결과를 보였다. 팽화처리는 쌀의 당화를 개선 할 수 있는 좋은 가공방법이라고 생각되며, 팽화미를 첨가한 쌀맥주 제조방법은 편리하고, 좋은 품질의 맥주를 생산 할 수 있는 방법 중의 하나라고 기대된다.
This study evaluates the quality properties of soybean cultivar for fermented soybean products with several Aspergillus spp., which were selected based on their high antimicrobial activities. The six soybean varieties Daewonkong, Taekwangkong, Jinpung, Daechan, Daepung-2, and Seonpung were used in the experiment. Physicochemical analysis of soybeans showed that the cured fat and protein contents were 18.28-19.15 and 36.49-38.72%, respectively. The pH and total acidity (TA) were 6.31-6.60 and 0.36-0.48%, respectively. The amino nitrogen contents of all samples were in the range of 641.23 to 791.12 mg%, while Daechan showed the highest content (791.12 mg%). Mold counts of fermented soybean products were 7.63-9.20 log CFU/g. Hunter color values for L value, a value, and b value ranged from 59.52-71.28, 0.11-3.03, and 14.61-31.70, respectively. The amylase and protease activities of the Daepung-2 and Daechan were the highest among all the cultivars. The rank order of major free amino acids was glutamic acid > lysine > alanine > aspartic acid, with Daepung-2 and Daechan being the highest. As a result, Daepung-2 was suitable as a soybean cultivar, exhibiting high quality standards for the fermentation process of the fermented soybean products.
In this study, we analyzed the nutritional composition properties of soybeans and the organic acids, amino acids and volatile flavor compounds of fermented soybean products. We used five soybean cultivars including Pyeongwon, Jinpung, Saedanbaek, Saeolkong and Cheonga for this experiment. Physicochemical analysis of soybeans, showed that the cured protein and fat contents were 35.12∼45.12 and 14.26∼20.14%, respectively. The rank order of major organic acids was lactic acid > acetic acid > fumaric acid, with Saedanbaek being the highest. Total amino acid content of the samples was 358.12∼657.28 mg/100 g, and glutamic acid, alanine, cysteine, valine, leucine, histidine and arginine were the major amino acids. We identified a total of 34 volatile aroma-compounds, including 7 alcohols, 7 acids, 7 ketones, 5 phenols, 2 esters, 1 furan, 4 pyrazines, and 1 miscellaneous compounds. As a result of this, could be applied to determine the suitability of cultivars and the quality for the process of the fermented soybean products.
Sikhye is a traditional rice beverage, produced from steamed rice, barley or wheat malt and water. Nine varieties of barley and seven varieties of wheat cultivars were investigated and compared quality characteristics, diastatic power, and activities of α- and β-Amylase. For barley malt, the crude lipid and protein content of malt 1.74~2.42% and 10.71~14.36%, respectively. Also, the crude lipid and protein content for wheat malt 1.57~1.71% and 10.07~13.59%, respectively. The ‘Dahyang’ barley showed the highest diastatic power with 117.61 °L, while for wheat, ‘Baegjoong’ produced the highest diastatic power with 85.25 °L. The enzymatic activities, α- and β-Amylase for barley cultivar was 110.17~214.70 μnit/g and 869.73~1,638.43 μnit/g, respectively. Likewise, α- and β-Amylase for wheat cultivar was 73.19~132.23 μnit/g and 726.70~ 889.30 μnit/g, respectively. The highest sugar content of Sikhye from barley was 11.10 °Bx (‘Hyeda’), while from wheat, was 10.20 °Bx (‘Baegjoong’). Among the four free sugar components analyzed from Sikhye, maltose was the highest in all cultivars. The highest maltose content was produced in ‘Dahyang’ Sikhye at 6.91%. There was significant positivecorrelation among the diastatic power and enzymatic activities of malt and free sugar components in Sikhye.
This study evaluates the quality properties of soy-paste soybean cultivar for fermented soybean products. The six soybean varieties that include Jinpung, Saedanbaek, Daepung 2, Pyeongwon, Cheonga and Saeolkong were used in the experiment. The range of water uptake ratio, hardness after soaking and hardness after steaming were 117.00~131.33%, 1.65~3.30 kg and 0.05~0.14 kg, respectively. The physicochemical analysis indicated the following: Moisture content, 63.27~68.72%; pH, 6.43~6.60; total acidity, 0.27~0.45%. Color values for L value (lightness), a value (redness), and b value (yellowness) ranged from 39.07~67.92, 7.64~11.79, and 7.48~20.67, respectively. The amylase and protease activities of the Saedanbaek samples were the highest among all cultivars. The amount of viscous substance in the fermented soybean products by cultivars ranged from 5.93 to 8.37%, and Saedanbaek was the highest. The total viable cells counts for soybean fermented products were 9.11~9.42 log CFU/g. The amino-type nitrogen contents of all samples were in the range of 401.07 to 524.47 mg% and Saedanbaek cultivars showed the highest content (524.47 mg%). Based on the results, Saedanbaek will be suitable as a soy-paste soybean cultivar and the quality standards for the fermentation process of the fermented soybean products.