Consumer demand for imported and craft beer is increasing. Almost all the malt used by craft beer companies is imported. This study sought to develop a malting technology to expand the use of domestic barley, the main raw material for beer, and to examine its influence on the quality of domestic malt. The Hopum cultivar of beer barley was purchased and used at the Jeollanam-do Seed Management Center. A pilot-scale malting facility built by the National Institute of Crop Science was used. One sack (40 kg) of barley was sieved through screening sieves, and the barley was classified according to size (3.1, 2.8, 2.5, 2.2, and 2.2 mm), with the size-related composition being 18.1, 48.9, 23.3, 6.4, and 1.0%, respectively. The malt yields were 89.0, 87.6, 86.6, 82.2, and 76.1%, respectively. The coleoptiles elongation decreased as the barley size decreased. The protein content of malt tended to be high at small particle sizes of 2.2 mm. The soluble solid content of wort prepared from malt revealed good values of 17.4-17.5oBx, except for 15.3oBx for particles <2.2 mm in size. According to barley size in the malting process, these findings should be valuable quality indicators of malt.
Korea depends almost entirely on imports for malt, the main ingredient in beer. However, the consumer market for domestic malt has not developed in Korea because of the prejudice that the quality of domestic malt is inferior to that of imported malt. This study aimed to analyze the quality of malt from Gwangmaeg (GM) and Hopum (HP), representative domestic beer barley varieties cultivated under varying nitrogen fertilizer application rates (standard fertilizer application, 50% increase in application, and 50% decrease in application), and use the findings as primary data to promote domestic malt consumption. GM’s crude protein and starch contents were significantly (Ρ<0.05) higher and lower, respectively, than those in HP. With decreased fertilizer application (GM: 14.0±0.8% and HP: 11.4±0.4%), the protein content was significantly lower than that with increased fertilizer application (GM: 15.5± 0.3% and HP: 13.1±1.3%). Although there was no difference in -glucan content, starch content tended to increase, indicating quality improvement. Acrospire length, yield, and enzyme titer, quality indicators of malt, increased with further fertilizer application, whereas friability and Kolbach index increased with decreased fertilizer application. For wort qualities, filtration time decreased from 36 to 34 minutes in GM and 55 to 42 minutes in HP, with the wort extraction rate increasing with decreased fertilizer application. These findings showed that decreased nitrogen fertilizer application improves the qualities of malt and wort.
우리나라에서 쌀(Rice, Orzya sativa L.)은 주식일 뿐만 아니라 다양한 가공식품원료로서 그의 가치가 높은 식품자원이다. 본 연구는 쌀맥주 제조 시 당화가 잘되는 쌀의 전 처리 방법에 대해 탐색하고자 수행되었다. 쌀을 미세분쇄, 수침처리, 볶음처리, 호화처리, 팽화처리 후 맥아와 함께 당화를 한 결과, 팽화미를 함유한 맥즙이 가장 높은 당도 (°Bx)를 나타내었다. 또한 액화 및 당화효소를 첨가하지 않고, 맥즙을 제조 시 쌀 30% 첨가했을 때 당도가 가장 높은 결과를 나타내었다. 볶은쌀과 팽화미를 이용하여 10, 20, 30% 첨가한 맥주를 제조한 결과 팽화미를 30% 첨가 한 맥즙의 가용성고형분이 15.4 °Bx로 가장 높고 당화도 잘되었으며, 맥주의 알코올함량이 5.0-5.4%로 볶은쌀 첨가 맥주에 비해 높았으며, 탁도가 없었고 쓴맛도 적은 결과를 보였다. 팽화처리는 쌀의 당화를 개선 할 수 있는 좋은 가공방법이라고 생각되며, 팽화미를 첨가한 쌀맥주 제조방법은 편리하고, 좋은 품질의 맥주를 생산 할 수 있는 방법 중의 하나라고 기대된다.
본 연구에서는 국내 육성 보리를 이용한 엿기름의 최적 품종 선정 및 품질 유지 기술 개발을 위한 기초기반연구로 시판 엿기름을 수집하여 제품에 사용된 원료 조성을 분석하고, 효소활성 및 품질 특성을 비교분석하였다. 본 연구에서 사용한 21개의 엿기름 제품 중 12개는 100% 보리로 만든 엿기름이었다. 특히 모든 엿기름의 원료에 대한 품종정보를 제시한 제품은 전무하였다. 엿기름 21종의 일반성분 분석 결과, 수분 4.91~11.99%, 지방 1.71~2.48%, 단백질 7.80~11.97%, 탄수화물 73.64~82.24%, 총 전분 5.50~8.22%, 환원당 3.64~14.44%로 제품 간의 성분 차이가 다르게 나타났다. 엿기름의 효소활성을 측정한 결과, 당화력은 36.80~94.30°, α-amylase 및 β- amylase 활성은 각각 18.17~186.50 및 6.53~25.05 unit/g의 범위를 보여 제품별로 활성의 차이가 큰 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구에서 도출된 시판 엿기름의 품질 분석 결과를 토대로 엿기름 제조에 적합한 최적 품종 선정 및 품질 유지 기술개발을 위한 기초자료로 유용할 것으로 판단된다.
The properties of rice were studied on five rice cultivars (Ilpumbyeo, Samkwang, Goami-4, Dodamssal, and Thai rice), and employed two kinds of saccharification treatment methods (treatment : rice shape, treatment II: grinding rice shape). Thai rice showed differences in width and length when compared to other cultivars of rice, and the Goami 4 had the lowest thousand-grain weight. The Goami4 and Dodamssal each showed high contents of amylose and resistant starch, and the water absorption rate was close to maximum at 90 minutes as well as the highest level of Goami 4 at all times. The qualities of highest water-binding capacity, solubility and swelling power was most significant in Thai rice. The lowest hardness level of wet rice resulted in the lowest hydration-related characteristics. High amylose content rice, in particular, showed low sugar content and slightly increased sugar content as the saccharification process improved (treatment II). On the other hand, high amylose cultivars had the same high degree of hardness as boiled rice. From these results, the Dodamssal was found to have the lowest viscosity at all temperatures but highest viscosity during the saccharification process, suggesting it may be successfully implemented as a thickener in rice beverage processing. The purpose of this study was to attempt to provide basic data on the development of rice beverage manufacturing technology, based upon the quality characteristics related to beverage processing of rice cultivars.
Palatability and texture analysis of nine Korean rice cultivars were investigated to select the most appropriate rice variety for the cooked-rice processing. The rice cultivars studied consisted of Samkwang, Seonpum, Wolbaek, Andabyeo, Dasan-1, Ilpum, Haiami, Jungsanggold and Chindle. They revealed the moisture, protein, amylose and starch contents of 10~12, 5~6, 12~19, and approximately 90%, respectively. Among the evaluated rice varieties, WB exhibited the lowest amylose content (12.7%) and Jungsanggold the next (17.2%). In the rapid-visco analyzer test, Jungsanggold, Chindle, Wolbaek and Seonpum revealed a low value of final and setback viscosities than other varieties. Using a toyo meter analyzer, Chindle, Haiami, Samkwang were selected as having high toyo palatability values, while Dasan-1, Wolbaek and Andabyeo revealed low values. Toughness and adhesiveness of all nine cooked rice varieties were highest in Jungsanggold, Chindle and Ilpum. Also, palatability of cooked rice was highest in the following order: Chindle (80.03) > Samkwang (76.21) > Jungsanggold (74.08). The results of this study suggest that Chindle may be effectively used to produce processed cooked rice.
The properties of rice were studied, and 8 rice flour cultivars were used to study the effect of particle size on the physicochemical properties, color value, RVA viscosities, water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of rice flours. The mean particle size by the 3 particle size classification of 150 mesh, 200 mesh, and 250 mesh was, 90.75 μm, 60.73 μm, 39.94 μm, respectively. Thai rice had the highest amylose content and Samkwang rice had the lowest amylose content. Protein content of rice flours prepared was decreased as the particle size of rice flour decreased. In terms of color values, the L-value and the a-value of rice flour were increased as the particle size of rice flours decreased, while the b-value was decreased as the particle size of rice flours decreased. Using a rapid visco analyzer (RVA), the initial pasting temperature of Thai rice cultivar was found to be the highest; the peak viscosities of Sunpum cultivar and Misomi cultivar, and Samkwang rice were higher than those of other rice flours. The water absorption index and water solubility index were increased as the particle size of rice flour decreased. In order to use processed rice flour for the development of processed foods, proper characteristics of the cultivars and particle size should be considered.
This study was carried out to analyze the pasting and antioxidant characteristics of cooked mixed grains consisting of germinated millet and rice with varying addition rates and cooking methods. In this study, we chose two foxtail millets: glutinous (‘Samdachal’) and non-glutinous (‘Samdame’), along with a glutinous proso millet (‘Ibaekchal’). Cooked mixed grain rice-added germinated millet was cooked by general and high pressure cooking methods, with and without fermented alcohol. The peak and trough viscosity of germinated millet were decreased significantly with increasing amounts of germinated millet. The phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of cooked rice-added germinated millet increased significantly with the addition of germinated millet (p<0.05). The total polyphenol contents of cooked rice-added germinated Samdachal, Samdame, and Ibaekchal were 127.74~194.11, 128.20~192.56, and 128.88~171.28 μg GAE/g, respectively. The total flavonoid contents were 13.79~30.23, 14.77~25.99, and 15.28~29.56 μg CE/g, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 3.31~5.73 and 6.31~9.69 mg TE/100 g for cooked rice-added germinated Samdachal; 3.14~8.58 and 6.05~10.19 mg TE/100 g for Samdame; and 3.37~7.45 and 6.27~9.27 mg TE/100 g for Ibaekchal, respectively. In this study, phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of cooked mixed grain rice-added germinated millet with different addition rates and cooking methods can be used as basic data for manufacturing processed products.
This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of mixed Makgeolli with barley and wheats under, fermentation at different temperatures (20, 25, and 30℃) and time (3, 6, and 9 days). The pH and sugar of mixed Makgeolli were 3.68~4.26 and 12.30~17.31 ∘Brix, respectively. The total acidity showed proportionate increase with fermentation temperature and time; whereas, reducing sugar contents decreased with increasing fermentation temperature and time. The alcohol contents of mixed Makgeolli varied significantly by fermentation temperature and time (p<0.05). In terms of color values, the L value decreased with increasing fermentation temperatures, and a value increased significantly with increasing fermentation time. The number of microorganisms (yeast, total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria) in mixed Makgeolli decreased progressively with increasing fermentation temperature and time. Among the organic acids (citric, lactic, malic, and pyruvic acids) in mixed Makgeolli, citric and lactic acid was present at the highest concentrations. From these results, the optimum fermentation conditions of mixed Makgeolli with barley and wheat were 20~25℃ for 6 days.
This study undertook to evaluate the quality characteristics of rice, to select a variety suitable for porridge. Seven varieties of rice were studied: Dabo, Daebo, Samkwang, Sindongjin, Sukwang, Jinsumi and Haiami were investigated for proximate contents and physicochemical characteristics. The moisture and crude protein contents of the rice cultivars were in the range 11.26-12.66% and 5.34-6.47%, respectively. The amylose content was the highest in the Samkwang (20.83%), and lowest in Haiami (18.32%). The water binding capacity and solubility of Samkwang and Jinsumi cultivars were greater than those of the other samples. Hardness of rice and viscosity of porridge was the least in Samkwang and Sukwang. The pH of porridge in Samkwang and Jinsumi (7.04) was higher than the other varieties (6.80-7.03). The results of this study indicate that Samkwang and Jinsumi are suitable varieties for porridge. We expect this data will be useful in the manufacturing of porridge.
This study was carried out to compare the cooked and antioxidant characteristics with of cooked mixed grain rice with an addition rate (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of proso millet and various cooking methods. Mixed grain rice with added proso millet was cooked by general and high pressure cooking methods with and without fermented alcohol. All pasting characteristics, except for breakdown viscosity, decreased with increasing the amounts of proso millet. Water binding capacity and swelling power significantly decreased when increasing the amounts of proso millet, however the water solubility index significantly increased. The palatability characteristics of rice with added proso millet showed similar results to rice without proso millet. Total polyphenol contents of rice with 20% proso millet and fermented alcohol added, cooked by general and high pressure cooking methods, were 184.33±2.69 and 179.80±5.22 μg GAE/g, respectively. Total flavonoid contents increased as amounts of proso millet increased. DPPH radical scavenging activities with and without proso millet added were 4.20~7.50 and 2.97~5.19 mg TE/100 g, respectively. ABTS radical scavenging activities with and without proso millet added were 14.36~27.92 and 14.07~15.83 mg TE/100 g, respectively. In this study, cooked and antioxidant characteristics of cooked mixed grain rice with added proso millet were expected to be used as basic data for manufactured processed products.
본 연구는 간편식 죽 가공을 위한 기초기반 연구로 밥쌀용으로 개발된 고품질 쌀 7품종(다보, 대보, 삼광, 수광, 신동진, 진수미, 하이아미)의 품질을 평가하고 죽을 제조한 후 품질 평가를 진행하였다. 품종별 쌀의 일반성분 분석결과 삼광이 수분 12.66%, 단백질 6.43%, 아밀로스 20.83%로 가장 높은 함량을 나타내었다. 수분결합력은 176.18~199.59%, 용해도는 5.34~7.51%의 범위로 나타났으며 두 실험결과 모두 다른 품종에 비해 삼광과 진수미가 수분결합력에서는 199.59, 195.85%로 용해도에서는 삼광과 신동진에서 6.39, 7.51%로 높은 결과를 나타났다. 품종별 쌀 원료곡의 경도를 측정한 결과 다른 품종에 비해 삼광 및 수광이 각각 7,293 및 7,110 ×g으로 나타나 다른 품종에 비해 낮은 결과를 나타내었다. 죽의 저장 시 품질 변화에 영향을 미치는 요소인 죽의 pH는 6.80~7.04의 범위로 나타났으며 삼광 및 진수미 모두 pH 7.04로 다른 품종에 비해 높은 경향을 보였다. 품종별 쌀을 이용하여 제조한 죽의 점성을 측정한 결과 삼광, 신동진, 진수미 및 하이아미로 제조한 죽이 다른 품종에 비해 점성이 낮게 측정되었다. 따라서 본 연구결과 간편식 죽제조 가공품에 적합한 품종으로는 삼광과 진수미가 적합할 것이라고 판단되며 이는 제조조건에 따른 죽의 품질특성 연구에 기초자료가 될 것으로 기대된다.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant characteristics of commercially available mixed grains in Korea. The quality characteristics of mixed grain products studied were the mixing ratio, water binding capacity, water solubility, swelling power, and pasting characteristics. The antioxidant characteristics assessed the total polyphenol, flavonoid contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The mixing ratio of commercially available mixed grain products consisted of 5~25 kinds of grains, with maximum products containing 15-grain products. The water binding capacity, water solubility, and swelling power in commercially available mixed grain products were 99.83~122.83%, 6.91~39.26% and 7.76~86.92%, respectively. The peak, trough, breakdown, final and setback viscosity were 31.53±20.17 RVU, 25.24±13.22 RVU, 6.29±7.43 RVU, 50.27±25.84 RVU and 18.74±8.68 RVU, respectively. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were 817.14~2,524.29 μg GAE/g and 06.36~1,099.09 μg CE/g, respectively. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 31.91~151.70 mg TE/100 g and 28.09~119.92 mg TE/100 g, respectively. Products with high phenol content and radical scavenging activity were found to contain greater proportion of brown rice, colored rice, barley and soybean.
본 연구는 생물전환된 대두의 isoflavone 함량, 총 페놀함량, 항산화능(DPP radical 소거능, ORAC 지수) 및 β-Glucan 함량을 측정하였다. Isoflavone의 경우 추출용매에 상관없이 배당체가 모두 비배당체로 전환되는 것을 확인하였다. Total isoflavone 함량의 경우 hexane 탈지 대두박발효물에서 2577.96 μg/mL으로 가장 높은 값을 나타냈으며, ethanol 탈지 대두박 비발효물에서 428.27 μg/mL으로 가장 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 총 페놀 함량은 대두 원물에서 39.44 mg GAE/g으로 나타났으며, ethanol 탈지 대두박비발효물 및 hexane 탈지 대두박 비발효물은 27.07, 27.75 mg GAE/g으로 대두 원물보다 다소 낮은 값을 나타냈다. 생물전환된 대두의 총 페놀 함량은 hexane 탈지 대두박발효물 41.61 mg GAE/g, ethanol 탈지 대두박 발효물42.34 mg GAE/g으로 비발효물에 비해 약 1.5배 가량 증가된 함량을 보였다. DPPH radical 소거능의 경우 대두 원물에서 51.10%의 소거능을 나타내었고 hexane 탈지 대두박 비발효물에서 50.51%, ethanol 탈지 대두박 비발효물은 43.27%의 소거능을 나타냈다. 생물전환된 ethanol 탈지 대두박 발효물에서 59.92%로 radical 소거능이 증가되었지만 hexane 탈지 대두박 발효물은 31.30%로 비발효물에 비해 낮은 radical 소거활성을 보였다. ORAC 지수는 대두 원물이 384.47 μM TE/g을 보였으며, hexane 탈지 대두박 비발효물 및 ethanol 탈지 대두박 비발효물은 318.52, 247.48 μM TE/g으로 나타났다. 생물전환된 hexane 탈지 대두박 발효물은 786.36 μM TE/g, ethanol 탈지 대두박 발효물에서 721.96 μM TE/g으로 비발효물에 비해 ORAC 지수가 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. β-Glucan 함량은 0.09~0.11%의 범위로 나타났으며 대두 원물과 ethanol 탈지 대두박 발효물에서 가장 높은 0.11%를 보였고 hexane 탈지 대두박 비발효물과 hexane 탈지 대두박 발효물에서 0.09%로 가장 낮은 β-glucan 함량을 보였지만, 추출용매 및 생물전환에 따른 β-glucan 함량의 큰 차이는 나타나지 않았다.