Functional foods are of great significance since our society is accelerating into aging. An aging society has many physiological metabolic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, dementia and geriatric diseases. Fundamental treatments for the elderly are almost impossible and the social burden is heavy. If these diseases can be prevented or alleviated by improving dietary habits using functional foods, the significance would be very large. Pomegranate has been found to have 124 different kinds of phytochemicals. Polyphenols have a wide range of protective effects including various physiological metabolic diseases and cancers. It is necessary to develop functional foods such as preservatives and food extenders which can contribute to food safety, required in the food industry, by using such bioactive substances. Pomegranates have been reported to decrease the impact of many serious illnesses. There is a considerable amount of bioactive substances in the peel of a pomegranate, which has potent anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-apoptotic properties. Unfortunately, the peel is typically discarded after processing. Despite knowledge regarding the bioactive substances in the pomegranate peel and peel extracts, including their functionality and diversity, the knowledge is not well known by consumers in general.
The aim of this study was to review up to date research trends for processing and developing new functional foods by utilizing nutritional functional substances, favourite food materials, and materials for processing food contained in pomegranate peels and pomegranate peel extracts. This study will summarize the data found in pomegranate peel and pomegranate peel extract literature mainly recently published in Science Direct. There are polyphenolic compounds (ellagitannins, punicalagin, proanthocyanidin, flavonoids, polysaccharides, etc.) in the fruit peel, making up about 50% of the pomegranate’s weight. The polyphenol content of a pomegranate fruit peel is 149.91 mg/g, which is about 100 times higher than the juice. Paying attention to the fact that the ellagitannin content (14.22 mg/g) in the fruit peel is also twice as high as that of the fruit juice and seeds, that confirms the possibility of utilizing the peel as a food ingredient capable of developing new, functional bioactive foods.
This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of major prebiotics and the related studies, and to provide basic data for future research. Prebiotics are defined as ‘nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improve host health’. Well-known prebiotics are inulin, oligofructose, and galacto-oligosaccharide. Prebiotics assist in the health activity of lactic acid bacteria by acting as a substrate for lactic acid bacteria, with their unique physical and chemical properties. Bifidobacteria are known to be beneficial bacteria that prevent intestinal inflammation, maintain intestinal microflora balance, inhibit carcinogenesis, reduce cholesterol, and enhance immunity. However, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, and Weissella are also found in animal-based fermented foods such as milk, cheese, yogurt, and salted fish. Prebiotics can act as a substrate for lactic acid bacteria, helping the activity of lactic acid bacteria and improving health. Therefore, the authors suggest that investigation into the category and effectiveness of prebiotics should be extended in the future through research.
The purpose of this study was to compare hand washing awareness and microorganism contamination on the hands for evaluating the difference between awareness and conditions of hand hygiene. The average number of total aerobic bacteria and coliform was 2.7 log CFU/hand and 1.8 log CFU/hand, respectively. Coliform bacteria were detected in all of the students tested in this study. The questionnaire survey data obtained via a direct interview were collected from 100 university students with microorganism analysis. A majority (90%) of the students recognized that good hand hygiene is important in order to prevent food poisoning. In the hand washing survey data, the responses suggesting “always washed” from “before eating food”, “after handling money”, “after finishing study” and “after visiting patients” were observed in 18, 13, 15 and 33 out of the 100 students, respectively. The questionnaire data of hand washing frequency and time duration showed that 14 students and 6 students answered “more than 8 times of hand washing per day” and “more than 30 seconds of hand washing time”, respectively. These results indicated that improper hand washing practices and poor hand hygiene were identified in the majority of the students. This emphasizes the difference between awareness and conditions of hand hygiene. Repeated hand washing education about the frequency, time duration and methods is constantly required to improve hand hygiene. Installation of hand washing equipment in the space of a restaurant and cafeteria is suggested for enhancing hand hygiene before eating food.
In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of various grain methanolic extracts against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts. Various grain methanolic extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant compounds and activities. 2,2-Ddiphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ABTS 2,2-azino-bris-(3-ethylbenzoth iazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation scavenging activities have been used to measure the relative antioxidant activities of extracts from grains. The content of total polyphenolics in the extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Human skin fibroblast (Hs68) cells were pretreated with various grain methanolic extracts (25 μg/mL). Skin toxicity was simulated by exposing the cells to UVB (30 mJ/cm2) irradiation. In response to the UVB-irradiation, an increased amount of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) release was observed, whereas pretreatment of various grain methanolic extracts significantly inhibited the production of MMP-1 in Hs68 cells. We also found that pretreatment of the extracts significantly decreased UVB-induced reactive oxygen species and significantly increased total collagen content in Hs68 cells. These results provide that grains could be regarded as a potential ingredient in natural cosmetics, used for UVB protection.
This study was carried out to compare the cooked and antioxidant characteristics with of cooked mixed grain rice with an addition rate (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of proso millet and various cooking methods. Mixed grain rice with added proso millet was cooked by general and high pressure cooking methods with and without fermented alcohol. All pasting characteristics, except for breakdown viscosity, decreased with increasing the amounts of proso millet. Water binding capacity and swelling power significantly decreased when increasing the amounts of proso millet, however the water solubility index significantly increased. The palatability characteristics of rice with added proso millet showed similar results to rice without proso millet. Total polyphenol contents of rice with 20% proso millet and fermented alcohol added, cooked by general and high pressure cooking methods, were 184.33±2.69 and 179.80±5.22 μg GAE/g, respectively. Total flavonoid contents increased as amounts of proso millet increased. DPPH radical scavenging activities with and without proso millet added were 4.20~7.50 and 2.97~5.19 mg TE/100 g, respectively. ABTS radical scavenging activities with and without proso millet added were 14.36~27.92 and 14.07~15.83 mg TE/100 g, respectively. In this study, cooked and antioxidant characteristics of cooked mixed grain rice with added proso millet were expected to be used as basic data for manufactured processed products.
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a shrub which grows well in a tropical climate. There are large amounts of anthocyanins, organic acids and other compounds in roselle. Mostly, roselle is cultivated to use its red calyx. Its calyx is used as a natural food colorant and commonly consumed as a tea. This quality study was conducted to investigate the characteristics and antioxidant activities of Sulgidduck with roselle calyx powder. Four samples and a control were made with different ratios of added roselle calyx powder (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%). The moisture content of the 0.5%-sample was the highest as 40.60%, and that of the 2%-sample was the lowest as 37.37%. The pH of samples significantly decreased from 6.26 to 3.65 as the amount of roselle calyx powder increased (p<0.05). The L-value of samples also significantly decreased (p<0.05). In contrast, a-value and △E of samples significantly increased with elevated amounts of roselle calyx powder (p<0.05). The b-value of roselle calyx added Sulgidduck samples significantly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). Hardness and chewiness of Sulgidduck samples with added roselle calyx also significantly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). Cohesiveness of Sulgidduck samples with roselle calyx significantly decreased compared to control (p<0.05), with the exception of the 1% sample. There were no significant differences in springiness among samples. Total phenolic contents significantly increased when roselle calyx powder was added above a level of 1.5% (p<0.05). The flavonoid content of the control was the lowest as 0.73. ABTS radical scavenging activity significantly increased with increasing amounts roselle calyx powder (p<0.05). The 2%-sample got the lowest sensory preference scores in sweetness and overall acceptability. In contrast, the control and 1%-sample got the highest sensory preference scores. Based on these study findings, addition of 1% roselle calyx powder optimized the preparation of Sulgidduck and roselle calyx is therefore a useful natural colorant and antioxidant.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed, originated from Central America, is a nutritious food especially rich in dietary fiber and protein. In this study, we investigated the quality and sensory characteristics of Yanggang with chia seed powder (CSP). Red bean paste was replaced with CSP at 0% (Control), 1% (CSP1), 2% (CSP2), 3% (CSP3) and 4% (CSP4). The pH values of chia seed Yanggang tended to decrease from Control (6.84) to CSP4 (6.67); whereas, the moisture contents of Yanggang samples tended to increase. The soluble solid contents of CSP4 were the highest (3.33 ˚Bx), as compared to the Control which showed the lowest values (2.77 ˚Bx). In the CSP-added groups, the L-value (lightness), a-value (redness) and b-value (yellowness) were increased, while the ΔE (total color difference) was decreased, as compared to the control group. Hardness and springiness were both increased from control (49.77 g/cm2 and 464.80%, respectively) to CSP4 (72.21 g/cm2 and 532.43%, respectively). However, cohesiveness decreased from control (47.41%) to CSP4 (37.34%). Chewiness and adhesiveness showed no significant group-wise difference (p<0.05). Total polyphenol content ranged from 7.23 to 10.73 mg GAE/100 g, with a lower ABTS IC50 of the CSP-added groups than that of the control group. Samples from the CSP-added as well as Control groups showed no significant differences among all items on the sensory evaluation test, except flavor. The results indicated that CSP had significant effects on the soluble solid contents and texture of Yanggang. Thus, the addition of 2% of CSP is desirable for making Yanggang.
This study undertook to evaluate the quality characteristics of rice, to select a variety suitable for porridge. Seven varieties of rice were studied: Dabo, Daebo, Samkwang, Sindongjin, Sukwang, Jinsumi and Haiami were investigated for proximate contents and physicochemical characteristics. The moisture and crude protein contents of the rice cultivars were in the range 11.26-12.66% and 5.34-6.47%, respectively. The amylose content was the highest in the Samkwang (20.83%), and lowest in Haiami (18.32%). The water binding capacity and solubility of Samkwang and Jinsumi cultivars were greater than those of the other samples. Hardness of rice and viscosity of porridge was the least in Samkwang and Sukwang. The pH of porridge in Samkwang and Jinsumi (7.04) was higher than the other varieties (6.80-7.03). The results of this study indicate that Samkwang and Jinsumi are suitable varieties for porridge. We expect this data will be useful in the manufacturing of porridge.
This study aimed to assess fatty acid composition and anti-inflammatory effects, such as nitric oxide(NO) production, expression of TNF-α and interleukin-6(IL-6), of Tenebrio molitor larva using RAW 264.7 cells. The content of total fatty acid in Tenebrio molitor larva was 76.14%, which was composed of oleic acid(42.12%), linoleic acid(32.67%) etc. There was no cytotoxicity at a dose level of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 μg/mL of freeze dried Tenebrio molitor larva ethanol extract(FDTEtOH) on RAW 264.7 cells. FDTEtOH significantly decreased NO production in LPS(lipopolysaccharide)- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also, FDTEtOH dose-dependently suppressed the expression of TNF- α and IL-6. Thus, these results showed that Tenebrio molitor larva has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory food to improve immunity.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the correlation between obesity, threshold of salty taste, optimal saltiness and blood pressure in middle school students in a fishing village. The subjects were 115 boys and 103 girls in middle school in a fishing village. The BMI index and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of subjects were measured, and the subjects were divided into a normal and obese group according to their BMI. The threshold of salty taste and salt preference for a semisolid dish (steamed egg dish), liquid dish (bean sprout soup), and a solid dish (raw radish salad), were estimated by sensory evaluation. Calorie intake was measured using the weighing plate method. The boys in the obese group showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those in the normal, but girls did not. Furthermore, calorie intakes of the boys in the obese group were significantly higher than those in the normal group, but this was not shown in girls. On the threshold of salty taste, both boys and girls in the obese group needed higher concentration of salt than those in the normal group. The threshold of salty taste were significantly positively correlated with systolic pressure and diastolic pressure in boys. Regarding the salt preference in the steamed egg dish, bean-sprout soup, and raw radish salad, both boys and girls in the obese group preferred higher concentrations. The higher concentration they preferred, the higher the systolic and diastolic pressures were in boys, but only systolic blood pressure was higher in girls. From these results, it is evident that a nutritional education program is needed in school to help restricting middle school students salt consumption and decreasing obesity to prevent hypertension.
In this study, quality characteristics and antioxidative activities were comparatively evaluated between the macaron with egg white powder added at the ratios of 2, 4, 6 and 8% and the macaron with added liquid egg white, in order to determine the applicability of the macaron with added egg white powder. The analysis of amino acids indicated that the group with 8% of egg white powder added showed the highest total amino acid content of 7,584.20 mg/100 g. The group with 4% of egg white powder added showed the highest sweetness (p<0.01); whereas, and the group with 2% of egg white powder added showed the highest pH (p<0.001). In terms of the chromaticity, L (p<0.01) and a values (p<0.05) were increased with the increasing percentage of added egg white powder. With the increasing percentage of added egg white powder, textures such as hardness (p<0.01), chewiness (p<0.05), gumminess (p<0.001), and cohesiveness (p<0.001) decreased; whereas, adhesiveness (p<0.001) and springiness (p<0.01) increased. The results of the sensory evaluation indicated the highest preference for the macaron containing 6% white egg powder, in all items. DPPH free radical scavenging activity, SOD-like activity, and reducing power were increased with increasing amounts of added egg white powder (p<0.001). Collectively, the results indicated that the production of macaron with the addition of 6% of egg white powder is the most suitable mixing ratio for enhancing the preference and quality level.
This study was conducted to investigate the noodle-making characteristics of a noodle dough with konjac powder added. The water-binding capacity was significantly increased by increasing amounts of the konjac powder. When the weight and volume of the noodles were measured after cooking, there was no difference between the control and konjac powder groups. Turbidity was significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Chromaticity, in the case of raw noodle lightness (L), decreased significantly, while redness (a) and yellowness (b) significantly increased. Cooked noodles also showed the same pattern of results, however, as a whole, the results were lower when compared to wet noodles. The texture characteristics of hardness and chewiness significantly increased by increasing concentrations of the konjac powder. Cohesiveness was determined to not be significantly different by observing the surface of the noodle with a scanning electron microscope. In a sensory evaluation of the cooked noodle, no significant differences in gloss, taste, hardness, springiness or overall acceptability were observed between the control and konjac powder groups. This study indicates the that addition of 1.5% konjac powder to noodle dough may improve the functionality and preference of noodles
In this study, using the surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) produced at atmospheric pressure to improve the physiological activities of quercetin was investigated. Quercetin (at 200 ppm) was treated using air DBD with an input power of 250 W. The tyrosinase inhibition effect and total phenolic content of quercetin increased from 38.96 to 91.58% and from 134.53 to 152.93 ppm, respectively, after 20 min of plasma treatment. The antioxidant activity of quercetin treated for 20 min in the lipid models was higher than that of quercetin treated for 0, 5, and 10 min. Furthermore, plasma-treated quercetin exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas activity was not shown in the control. Structural modifications of the quercetin molecule induced by plasma might be responsible for the improvements in its physiological activity. These results indicate that DBD plasma could be used to enhance the physiological activity of quercetin for various applications in food.
Although adolescents’ obesity prevalence increases recently in Korea due to Westernized dietary life, according to social and economic development, and physical activity decline, distorted body image and improper dietary habits are prevalent, because of excessive obsession with weight control, deriving from psychological impacts including appearance supremacy. This study conducted a survey on health oriented awareness and attitude related with dietary habits targeting adolescents, such as high school students and college students, younger than 24, from May 11 to May 29, 2015. In this study, 280 questionnaire copies were collected out of 300 distributed questionnaire copies, and used 269 copies as analysis data, except 11 copies of which responses were inadequate. The results of this study are as follows: First, the high school students showed higher dietary regularity than the college students. Especially, 95.5% of the college students showed very high irregularity of lunch, compared with just 4.5% of the high school students. Second, the adolescents showed distorted perceived body image in comparison with body mass index (BMI). As a result of examining BMI relationship, according to one’s own perception on body type, 28.6% of the respondents perceived themselves fat, despite normal BMI, and 40.4% of the respondents perceived themselves normal, despite low BMI. Third, health behavior activities level was higher, as the regularity of breakfast (B=1.093), lunch, (B=0.650), and dinner (B=0.765) was higher. The variable affecting the most (β =0.372) was the regularity of breakfast. As interest in weight control was higher, health behavior activities was lower. Because over-interest in weight control may be linked with improper dietary habits or weight control, a caution is needed. The results of this study are expected to be utilized as the basic data for the policy and health-oriented program development to improve adolescents’ health behavior practice.
This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of mixed Makgeolli with barley and wheats under, fermentation at different temperatures (20, 25, and 30℃) and time (3, 6, and 9 days). The pH and sugar of mixed Makgeolli were 3.68~4.26 and 12.30~17.31 ∘Brix, respectively. The total acidity showed proportionate increase with fermentation temperature and time; whereas, reducing sugar contents decreased with increasing fermentation temperature and time. The alcohol contents of mixed Makgeolli varied significantly by fermentation temperature and time (p<0.05). In terms of color values, the L value decreased with increasing fermentation temperatures, and a value increased significantly with increasing fermentation time. The number of microorganisms (yeast, total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria) in mixed Makgeolli decreased progressively with increasing fermentation temperature and time. Among the organic acids (citric, lactic, malic, and pyruvic acids) in mixed Makgeolli, citric and lactic acid was present at the highest concentrations. From these results, the optimum fermentation conditions of mixed Makgeolli with barley and wheat were 20~25℃ for 6 days.
Aloe-emodin (AE) is the major bioactive component in aloe and known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. However, it has not been elucidated whether its anti-inflammatory potency can contribute to the elimination of obesity. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of AE on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with AE (0-20 μM) for one hour, followed by LPS treatment for 30 min and then, adipokine mRNA expression levels were measured. Next, TLR4-related molecules were measured in LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. AE significantly decreased the mRNA expression of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, AE suppressed TLR4 mRNA expression. Further study showed that AE could suppress the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of extracellular receptor-activated kinase (pERK). The results of this study suggest that AE directly inhibits TLR4/NF-κB/ERK signaling pathways and decreases the inflammatory response in adipocytes.
In this study, we optimized the coffee extraction conditions for instant coffee production in two stage percolators, which is the most common coffee extractor for instant coffee production. A central composite design was used to build mathematical model equations for response surface methodology (RSM). In these equations, the yield and overall acceptability of the coffee extracts were expressed as second-order functions of three factors, the feed water temperature, draw-off factor (DOF), and extraction time (cycle time). Based on the result of RSM, the optimum conditions were obtained with the use of desirability function approach (DFA) which find the best compromise area among multiple options. The optimum extraction conditions to maximize the yield and overall acceptability over 40% of yield were found with 163℃ of feed water temperature, 4.3 of DOF and 27 minutes of extraction time (cycle time). These results provide a basic data for the coffee extraction conditions for the competitive instant coffee in the industry.
This study investigates what consumption values affect attitude and behavioral intentions toward a premium lunch box at a convenience store using VAB(Value-Attitude-Behavior) model. The main survey was conducted by a research company by means of an online survey in the form of a self-administered questionnaire. The samples were limited to customers who had tried the premium lunch box before. The survey was conducted in October 2016. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 for Windows and AMOS 21.0. A structural equation model(SEM) was used to verify the proposed relationships among the study variables. Three factors representing the value of the premium lunch box were identified: social & functional value, economic value, and epistemic value. The finding showed that these values had a positive effect on attitude toward the premium lunch box and that attitude had a positive effect on behavioral intentions.
The physical characteristics of gluten-free rice bread, commercial rice as well as wheat bread marketed in Korea were delineated, a sensory descriptive analysis performed, and a consumer acceptability study conducted. Both the specific gravity and color of gluten-free rice bread were higher than those of commercial rice and wheat bread. The sensory descriptive analysis revealed that the adhesiveness, fracturability, fermentation odor, and the powdery mouthfeel of gluten-free rice bread were higher than those of commercial rice and wheat bread. In contrast, the sweet odor, sweetness, egg taste, butter taste, and milk taste of gluten-free rice bread were lower than those of commercial rice and wheat bread. The consumer acceptability results revealed differences regarding odor, appearance, taste, texture, and overall acceptance between a blind test and an informed test of gluten-free rice bread, commercial rice, and wheat bread. The consumer acceptability findings were associated with those of the sensory descriptive analysis. In overall, the results indicated that the quality of gluten-free rice bread can be improved by controlling the decrease of adhesiveness, fracturability, and powdery mouthfeel.
The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for the development direction and strategy for medicines through analysis of differences in choice attributes according to customers awareness of medicines and experience. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on dietary education among national network trainees and lecturers by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock in Daegu, Gyeongsan, and Ulsan, Seoul from December 5, 2016, respectively. First, factor analysis results showed that six factors were extracted with respect to the choice of the restaurant. Second, the difference in each factor according to the recognition and experience of medicinal herbs was the health related factor as sex, females, age 50~59 years, companion others, and publicity and advertising' factors were more important for publicity and advertisement when the gender was female, the customer's age was 40~49 years, the companion was other, and the time of use was during the weekend. Among the factors related to 'getting dressed', the more important gender was female, age 40~49 years, and the other partner, The factors related to 'time' were as follows: sex, age, age 20~29 years, no accompanying companions, no time of use, and time importance. The 'menu' factors were more important for men, gender, women, age 40~49 years, companion for guitar, and usage time for weekend dinner. The 'service' factors were more important in 'service' as sex, male age, age 20~29, companion family, usage time, and weekend dinner.