In this study, baked rice donuts with added psyllium seed husk were manufactured and their quality and retrogradation characteristics were investigated. Control (Con) was made only with wheat flour; Psyllium seed husk in the amount of 8, 12, 16 and 20 grams was added to make rice donuts (P8, P12, P16 and P20). Higher amounts of psyllium seed husk reduced the moisture loss and baking loss, and increased the moisture content and water holding capacity of the donuts. The specific volume of Con was the highest of all the groups. As the amount of psyllium seed husk increased, the lightness and yellowness of the crumb decreased, and the redness of the crumb increased. Hardness also increased as the amount of psyllium seed husk increased. The hardness of P16 was the most similar to that of Con. The scanning electron microscopy images also identified that the structure of the donuts got denser as the amount of psyllium seed husk increased. Rate constant (k) of the rice donuts with psyllium seed husk were lower than that of Con. In conclusion, it is considered that P16 is the sample that is the most similar to Con in terms of texture, but the retrogradation was more retarded in P16 than Con.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) seed is rich in protein and sulfur-containing amino acids. Tofu is a protein gel made from soybean, which is rich in lysine but lacking in sulfur-containing amino acids. This study was conducted to investigate the use of pumpkin seeds in tofu manufacture and to determine its quality and texture characteristics. Soybean was substituted with pumpkin seed to obtain pumpkin seed tofu at the following ratios: 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% (P10, P30, P50 and P70). Tofu manufactured only with soybean was used as a control (Con). The higher rate of pumpkin seed substitution significantly decreased the moisture content and yield rate (p<0.05). In contrast, pH value and turbidity were significantly increased with the increase in the amount of pumpkin seed (p<0.05). The L-value (81.74~79.04), a-value (－0.19~－3.89) and b-value (12.40~9.84) of samples significantly decreased with the amount of pumpkin seed (p<0.05). No significant difference in syneresis was found among the samples (p<0.05). The hardness tended to decrease with the increase in the amount of pumpkin seed. The microstructure analysis revealed that the pore size of pumpkin seed tofu was smaller than that of Con. These results suggest that the pumpkin seed protein is a useful ingredient in the manufacture of tofu. Increasing the pumpkin seed substitution levels improves the texture of tofu.
As the consumption of wheat has increased recently, the number of people who have digestive problems resulting from gluten in wheat has also increased. Teff has an attractive nutritional profile, as it not only gluten-free but also high in dietary fiber, protein, iron, and calcium. Seven samples were prepared for this study. The quality characteristics of gluten-free noodles were evaluated based on pH, salinity, water absorption, turbidity, color, texture properties, tensile strength, and SEM. The pH value was the highest in TF100 with a pH of 6.66 and the lowest in the control with a pH of 6.42. Salinity showed no significant difference among all samples, and it ranged from 0.02~0.04% (p<0.05). Water absorption was the highest in TFX with a value of 66.11%, and the lowest in the control with a value of 44.81%. Turbidity showed no significant difference among all samples, and it ranged from 0.14~0.21 O.D. (p<0.05). While the lightness and yellowness values decreased with an increase in teff flour content, the redness value tended to decrease. The color difference value was the highest in the sample group without gluten. Based on the texture profile analysis, the hardness was highest in the control with a value of 46.74 N and lowest in TF100 with a value of 18.34 N. The springiness showed no significant difference among all samples. The cohesiveness was highest in the control with a value of 0.92 N. The chewiness decreased with an increase in teff flour content. Although the control with gluten had the highest tensile strength at 3.42 kg/cm2, TFX had considerable tensile strength at 2.30 kg/cm2. This study demonstrated the processability of gluten-free noodles using teff flour.
An agricultural waste, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel is known to be rich in total phenolics, which are flavonoids having strong antioxidant effects. In this study, pomegranate peel sponge cakes were prepared with varying ratios of freeze dried pomegranate peel powder (0, 1, 3, 5, 7% (w/w)) to examine their effect on quality characteristics, retrogradation and antioxidant activities. The specific gravity and moisture contents of 3, 5, and 7% pomegranate peel powder showed higher values than the control and 1% group. Addition of pomegranate peel powder increased the batter yield, while there was a significant decrease in baking loss. Increasing pomegranate peel powder content significantly decreased the lightness (L) (from 75.03 to 57.04) and pH values, whereas redness (a), yellowness (b) and ΔE were increased. Increasing concentration of the peel powder also increased the hardness and chewiness, while the springiness and cohesiveness decreased. Considering the Avrami equation, Avrami exponene (n) decreased from 1.8055 (control) to 0.9199 (7% pomegranate peel powder). Time constant (1/k) was lowest in control (at 17.64) and highest in the 7% group (39.84). Total polyphenol, flavonoid content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities significantly increased with increments in the content of pomegranate peel powder. A sensory evaluation by the 7-point scaling method showed that the sponge cake containing 7% pomegranate peel powder had the highest scores in color, flavor, sweetness, chewiness and overall acceptability. Hence, it is considered that sponge cake supplemented with 7% pomegranate peel powder is the most appropriate for quality characteristics, retrogradation and antioxidant activities.
This study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of gluten-free cookies containing teff flour. By substituting 0% (control), 25% (TF25), 50% (TF50), 75% (TF75), and 100% (TF100) of wheat flour with teff flour, five samples were produced. Baking loss rate was the highest in TF25 at 13.76% and the lowest in TF75 at 4.03%. Spread factor was significantly higher in cookies made with teff flour (83.00~85.00) than in the control (81.33) (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in density among the samples at 1.17~1.25 g/mL (p<0.05); however, pH significantly decreased at 6.42~6.04 (p<0.05). While the L-value and b-value significantly decreased with the amount of teff flour, the a-value significantly increased (p<0.05). The ΔE value was the highest in the control at 31.31 and the lowest in TF100 at 58.69. Hardness was the highest in the control at 42.04 N than in cookies containing teff flour. The content of polyphenols was the highest in TF100 at 3.37 μg GAE/mg and the lowest in the control at 1.32 μg GAE/mg. The content of flavonoids was the highest in TF100 at 3.66 μg QE/mg and the lowest in controls at 0.45 μg QE/mg. The value of DPPH IC50 was the highest in the control at 3,723.00 μg/mL and the lowest in TF 100 at 405.27 μg/mL. The value of ABTS IC50 was the highest in the control at 1,822.32 μg/mL and the lowest in TF100 at 529.30 μg/mL. In sensory evaluation, while control, TF75, and TF100 had a higher score in appearance at 5.52~5.60, all samples had no significant differences in flavor, sweetness, savory taste, chewiness, and overall acceptability (p<0.05). These results showed that the gluten-free cookies containing teff flour can improve the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of a cookie. We concluded that gluten-free cookies containing 100% teff flour are desirable.
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a shrub which grows well in a tropical climate. There are large amounts of anthocyanins, organic acids and other compounds in roselle. Mostly, roselle is cultivated to use its red calyx. Its calyx is used as a natural food colorant and commonly consumed as a tea. This quality study was conducted to investigate the characteristics and antioxidant activities of Sulgidduck with roselle calyx powder. Four samples and a control were made with different ratios of added roselle calyx powder (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%). The moisture content of the 0.5%-sample was the highest as 40.60%, and that of the 2%-sample was the lowest as 37.37%. The pH of samples significantly decreased from 6.26 to 3.65 as the amount of roselle calyx powder increased (p<0.05). The L-value of samples also significantly decreased (p<0.05). In contrast, a-value and △E of samples significantly increased with elevated amounts of roselle calyx powder (p<0.05). The b-value of roselle calyx added Sulgidduck samples significantly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). Hardness and chewiness of Sulgidduck samples with added roselle calyx also significantly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). Cohesiveness of Sulgidduck samples with roselle calyx significantly decreased compared to control (p<0.05), with the exception of the 1% sample. There were no significant differences in springiness among samples. Total phenolic contents significantly increased when roselle calyx powder was added above a level of 1.5% (p<0.05). The flavonoid content of the control was the lowest as 0.73. ABTS radical scavenging activity significantly increased with increasing amounts roselle calyx powder (p<0.05). The 2%-sample got the lowest sensory preference scores in sweetness and overall acceptability. In contrast, the control and 1%-sample got the highest sensory preference scores. Based on these study findings, addition of 1% roselle calyx powder optimized the preparation of Sulgidduck and roselle calyx is therefore a useful natural colorant and antioxidant.