This paper defines the common features of synbiotics based on the definition of probiotics and prebiotics, and reviews the effectiveness of synbiotic food. The concept of synbiotics is defined as ‘a mixture of prebiotics and probiotics that have a beneficial effect on the host, as a dietary supplement that alters living organisms in the gastrointestinal tract and improves their survival.’ Synbiotic food contains ingredients with beneficial microbes that are expected to improve interactions between microbial and useful substances. Synbiotic foods may have anti-cancer and immune system-boosting effects. Improved digestion, healthier bowel movements, and overall increased intestinal health has been reported were reported after increasing the healthy microorganisms within the intestinal tract. In addition, depending on the type of food containing the symbiotic ingredients, more consistent weight control, improvement of cardiovascular health, and lower blood glucose levels may also be expected. Unlike previous studies, this review of synbiotics has shown that it is necessary for synergistic effects to take place among microorganisms and components to be further studied. Further research is needed on the safety and ingestion of microorganisms contained in synbiotics.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Maca water and/or ethanol extract on the nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells HUVAC and on erectile dysfunction in rats. Maca was extracted due to both solutions, which are water and ethanol. Each Maca extract was applied to HUVAC, and NO production was checked. Additionally, three different dosages (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg) of Maca ethanol extract was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and each sample was collected for analysis. The control rats received only the saline vehicle. The NO production of HUVAC was significantly increased by domestic and homemade Maca water extracted at 60℃ group. Both NO generation and testosterone release were not influenced due to the oral administration of Maca. In the EtOH group rats, the number of sperm was reduced compared to that of the control group. All Maca groups had a high number of sperm and each sperm count had increased as a result of the Maca extract dose. The results of this research suggest that Maca has a positive effect on male erectile dysfunction, which need to be examined further in future studies.
This study aimed to develop and evaluate a sugars intake reduction program (SIRP) that was designed to increase the knowledge, attitude, and skills of Korean children aged 5 years regarding sugars intake reduction. A total of 101 children aged 5~6 years from 6 preschools participated in SIRP. SIRP consisted of 4 sessions including 10 activities (e.g., story-telling, arts, experiment, checking nutrition facts, pledge), delivered to children at preschools by nutritionists over a one-month period. Three letters were sent to parents throughout the program to inform them of the children’s activities at the preschools and to provide additional information on reducing children’s sugars intake. A total of 90 children completed the program; 83 parents of these children completed the SIRP evaluation survey. The children’s sugars intake reduction score was significantly increased after attending SIRP. Teachers (n=6) who participated in this program agreed to improve their students’ attitudes on reducing sugars intake and to decrease students’ behaviors related to sugars intake. Parents agreed to improve their children’s attitude on reducing sugars intake and to decrease children’s behaviors related to sugars intake. The outcome showed SIRP improved participants’ attitudes towards sugars reduction and increased the skills to reduce the sugars intake of children aged 5~6 years. Future studies should examine whether SIRP reduces actual sugars intake among children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) on the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of pork patties. Patties were provided with different amounts (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) of black carrot. Notably, the cooking loss rate of the group added with 8% black carrot was lowest (p<0.001). As the content of black carrot increased, the L value decreased and the a, b value increased. The texture analysis results showed that the hardness and chewiness to decrease as the amount of black carrot increased (p<0.05). Evaluation of consumer acceptability revealed that the 4% black carrot groups had a higher score in respect to overall preference and taste to the other groups (p<0.05). For antioxidant activities, both total phenolic compounds content and DPPH were increased (p<0.001) as the amount of added black carrot was increased. As a result, it can be concluded that adding the black carrot to patties in processing can improve antioxidant activities and quality of the patties. Considering various aspects of quality, the suitable amount is 4% of total weight.
The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness and satisfaction level of school meal services by elementary school students and their parents. Approximately 97.2% of student-subjects have agreed on the necessity of a free meal service for school lunch; 44.3% of student-subjects voiced the need to provide free meal services in order to eliminate discrimination of low-income students. Over one-third of student-subjects (36.7%) cited nutrition as the main benefit of providing a free meal service. The majority of parent-subjects (95.1%) have recognized the need for a free meal service in school; approximately 37.3% of parent-subjects responded to need the free meal service in order to eliminate the discrimination of impoverished students. Both student- and parent-subjects expressed a high level of satisfaction with the quality of ingredients and the type of soup/nutrition provided. Student-subjects insisted on better food hygiene and a new menu, but cited the noisy cafeteria as a problem associated with school meal services. In addition, approximately 56.5% of student-subjects responded to the need for nutritional education in school. Parent-subjects were primarily concerned with hygiene regarding the preparation of school meal services, noting the temperature of foods as the biggest problem in school meal services. The majority of parent-subjects (88.1%) responded to the need for the nutritional education in school. Results of this survey indicate that school meal services can be improved by increasing menu options and increasing food hygiene.
In this study, baked rice donuts with added psyllium seed husk were manufactured and their quality and retrogradation characteristics were investigated. Control (Con) was made only with wheat flour; Psyllium seed husk in the amount of 8, 12, 16 and 20 grams was added to make rice donuts (P8, P12, P16 and P20). Higher amounts of psyllium seed husk reduced the moisture loss and baking loss, and increased the moisture content and water holding capacity of the donuts. The specific volume of Con was the highest of all the groups. As the amount of psyllium seed husk increased, the lightness and yellowness of the crumb decreased, and the redness of the crumb increased. Hardness also increased as the amount of psyllium seed husk increased. The hardness of P16 was the most similar to that of Con. The scanning electron microscopy images also identified that the structure of the donuts got denser as the amount of psyllium seed husk increased. Rate constant (k) of the rice donuts with psyllium seed husk were lower than that of Con. In conclusion, it is considered that P16 is the sample that is the most similar to Con in terms of texture, but the retrogradation was more retarded in P16 than Con.
This study investigated the volatile flavor composition of essential oils from Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura and Aster yomena Makino. The essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation extraction method from the aerial parts of the plants were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred (95.04%) volatile flavor compounds were identified in the essential oil from the C. zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura. The major compounds were valencene (10.82%), δ-cadinol (9.77%), hexadecanoic acid (8.70%), 2-methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl) but-2-en-1-ol (3.67%), and 2-(2,4-hexadiynylidene)-1,6-dioxaspiro[4,4]non-3-ene (3.57%). Ninety-eight (93.83%) volatile flavor compounds were identified in the essential oil from the Aster yomena Makino. The major compounds were and 3-eicosyne (13.61%), 9,10,12-octadecatrienoic acid (7.8%), α-caryophyllene alcohol (6.83%), 9-octadecynoic acid (6.03%), and α-caryophyllene (5.74%). Although the two plants are apparently very similar, the chemical composition of the essential oils was significantly different in quality and quantity. In the case of C. zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura, the sesquiterpene, valencene was found to be 10.82%, but it was not identified in A. yomena Makino. δ-Cadinol appeared higher in C. zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura than in A. yomena Makino. A clear characteristic of A. yomena Makino essential oil is that it has a high content of caryophyllene derivatives. The α-caryophyllene alcohol contained in A. yomena Makino was relatively high at 6.83%, although the compound was not identified in C. zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura. Also α-caryophyllene was shown to be higher in A. yomena Makino than in C. zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura.
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activity of Kochujang following the addition of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) by-product extract powder. This study specifically investigated the total levels of phenolics and flavonoids, the activities of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power). Our results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of unmodified Kochujang were 4.06 mg TAE/g and 2.87 mg TAE/g, respectively, and that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Kochujang with added Omija by-product extract powder were 3.89~5.19 mg TAE/g and 3.11~5.35 mg TAE/g, respectively. As more Omija by-product extract powder was added, the more the total levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids increased. This study found that DPPH radical scavenging activity in unmodified Kochujang was 25.8% and that in Kochujang with added Omija by-product extract powder was 27.1~39.7% each. These results indicate that Omija by-product extract powder has possibility not only in Kochujang products but also as a functional food with antioxidant activity characteristics. These results also indicate that adding Omija by-product extract powder to Kochujang had significant effects on overall acceptability. Thus, the addition of 5 or 10% of Omija by-product extract powder is desirable for making Kochujang.
The objective of this study is to analyze characteristics of high sodium intaker and factors affecting sodium intake using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For this study we used two statistical methods, the cluster analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Cluster analysis was used to classify groups of sodium intake. For the analysis of the factors affecting sodium intake, we applied the ANOVA. The average daily intake for Korean is about 3,783 mg sodium per day; this amount is high than recommendation of the WTO. The demographic characteristics of people with higher sodium intake were found to be men more so women, and younger men with a higher education. Height, weight and size of a person’s waistline were also characteristics of those with higher sodium intake. Also worker, smoker, those without a hypertension diagnosis, as well as those with a higher the drinking rate and higher eating out frequency tended to have a higher intake of sodium. The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) had established a plan to reduce sodium intake to 3,500 mg per day to 2020. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to educate people about high sodium intake, particularly those at higher risk, according to the results of this study. Through these efforts, the social costs of high sodium intake could be reduced, improving national health.
This study was performed in order to examine the functional and quality characteristics of raw noodles with added kale powder. The raw noodles were prepared at a concentration of 4, 8, and 12% (w/w) of the kale, based on flour weight. The antioxidant activity of kale powder, specifically DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing activity, and total phenolic content were found to be 75.16%, 1.24 (O.D.) and 44.47 mg GAE/g, respectively. Using Hunter Lab color values for raw noodle with added kale powder, L (lightness) values decreased with an increased concentration of kale powder, whereas a (redness) values decreased (p<0.001). In a texture analysis, chewiness (p<0.01), gumminess (p<0.001), and cohesiveness (p<0.001) increased significantly as the amount of added kale powder increased. According to sensory evaluations: color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall palatability had the highest score in noodle with 8% kale powder (p<0.001). During periods of storage, moisture contents were decreased when kale powder concentrations increased, but pH did not differ in any of the groups and bacteria cell counts were between 0% and 8%. Kale noodles were observed at 8% then 0%, decreased by 102 log CFU/g. The antioxidant activities of raw noodles with added kale powder were increased by 8%, a 30~50% increase over the control group. These results suggest that kale powder is useful as a functional food resource with antioxidant activities.
This study aimed to investigate the changes in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) cultivated from different regions, with different harvest times and at various maturation stages. Methods for observing the changes in GABA content were validated by determining the specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and precision and accuracy using the HPLC-FLD system. Results showed high linearity in the calibration curve with a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.9999. The LOD and LOQ values for GABA were 0.29 and 0.87 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision of GABA were less than 5%. The recovery rate of GABA was in the range of 98.77% to 100.50%. The average content of GABA was 0.93 mg/g and Cheongju showed highest GABA content of 1.88 mg/g. As the time of harvest increased from May to September, the GABA content decreased from 1.56 to 0.86 mg/g. Also, maturation of the bitter melon fruit was associated with a decreased in GABA content.
The physiologically advantageous aspects of green tea have been identified recently and green tea has been a favorite drink of many people. Due to the increased awareness of green tea’s positive effects on human health, the demand for foods containing green tea has increased. This has led to the development of diverse green tea-related beverages; thereby many companies in Korea have put a wide variety of manufactured green tea beverages on the market. However, the components within green tea beverages have not been examined in Korea yet. In this study, we investigated the contents of the physiologically functional materials found in green tea, such as catechin, catechin gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatecin gallate, gallocatechin gallate and caffeine. Fifty-six green tea products purchased from the local grocery stores and cafes were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. As a result, all tested products contained catechin and caffeine, although the amount of each component was largely different. The total amount of catechin derivatives in the manufactured green tea beverages purchased from cafes was 263.17 mg/L, while they were 61.99 mg/L in the beverages purchased from the local grocery stores. And, to the almost samples the amount of caffeine was proportional to the amount of catechin.
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to examine the relevance between nutrition intake, meal quality, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Koreans with metabolic syndrome. The 2,536 subjects, aged 19~64, who participated in 2015 National Nutrition Survey were included in this study. The 24-hour recall method was employed to analyze nutrition intake and dietary quality. Subjects were grouped into either the non-metabolic syndrome group (n=1,938) or the metabolic syndrome group (n=598). Total males and females were divided into 3 groups according to the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level to study its relationship to metabolic syndrome and its components, including odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). Results showed the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was higher in the metabolic syndrome group (3.37) than non-metabolic syndrome group (1.57) (p<0.001). In the Index of Nutrition Quality, males in the non-metabolic syndrome group showed higher niacin (p<0.05) than males in metabolic syndrome group. Females in the non-metabolic syndrome group had higher vitamin B1 (p<0.01), vitamin B2 (p<0.001), niacin (p<0.05), calcium (p<0.001), and phosphate (p<0.01). Female in the high hs-CRP group showed high OR in blood glucose component (OR 2.488, 95% CI: 1.269~4.879) and metabolic syndrome risk (OR 2.856, 95% CI: 1.292~6.314). Females in the middle hs-CRP group had high triglycerides component (OR 2.956, 95% CI: 1.920~4.551), compared to the low hs-CRP group. The study showed females with higher hs-CRP had a higher risk of metabolic syndrome.
This study analyzed the general components of rice bread with 75% rice content such as water, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrate, and its nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E content, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids. The contents of crude protein were high and those of crude fat were low with the contents of crude ash, crude protein, and crude fat being 1.61, 18.50, 0.04 g/100 g respectively. Vitamin A was not detected and the contents of vitamin C and vitamin E were 3.85 and 3.04 mg/100 g, respectively. The calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and sodium contents were 222.0, 117.90, 24.12, 2.30, 555.90 mg/100 g respectively. Rice bread contains 9 essential amino acids such as valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine. The analysis of rice bread fatty acid showed 58.04 mg/100 g of saturated fatty acid, 26.31mg/100 g of monounsaturated fatty acid and 15.64 mg/100 g of polyunsaturated fatty acid. The total essential fatty acid content was 15.49 mg/100 g. With the rising interest in processed rice products, well-being, and diet, it is necessary to develop processed rice foods that are nutritional and low in calories using rice powder that is nutritionally better than flour.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the proximate components (water, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, and carbohydrates) and nutritive components (vitamin A, C, E, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids) of rice flour and develop several rice bread recipes using rice flour. The water, crude ash, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate contents of rice flour were measured to be 8.53%, 0.10 g, 6.80 g, 0.14 g and 84.43 g, respectively. No vitamin A was detected in the rice flour, and vitamin C and E contents were found to be 8.30 and 0.3467 mg/100 g, respectively. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and sodium contents were measured as 6.23, 65.05, 9.78, 0.17 and 2.84 mg/100 g; the large amount of potassium helps to discharge the sodium. Rice flour has nine kinds of essential amino acids in it; essential amino acids form 45.15% of rice flour’s content. which is higher than 32.3%. Fatty acids were barely detected in the rice powder; saturated fatty acids were measured as 31.25 mg/100 g, and unsaturated fatty acids as 25.54 mg/100 g. Regarding essential fatty acids, linoleic acids were measured as 41.01 mg/100 g, and linolenic acids as 2.20 mg/100 g. The researcher used rice loaf bread as the base and developed rice bread recipes using rice flour to make a total of 11 items: 8 items with 75% rice flour (rice bagel, rice sweet red-bean bread, rice butter roll bread, rice mocha bread, rice buttertop bread, rice custard cream bread, and rice streusel), 2 items with 80% rice flour (stollen and rice hobbang), and 1 item with 85% rice flour (rice donut).